Obrazy na stronie

plainly alludes to the commemoration of the deeds of the elder Scipio
by his friend Ennius, who was born at Rudae, in Calabria. But incen-
dia Carthaginis can only refer to the younger Scipio, who destroyed
Carthage by fire B. C. 146. Hence some suppose these words in l. 17 to
refer to the burning of the camps and of the fleets of the Carthaginians
in the Second Punic War, related by Livy, B. 30, 5, 6, 43. Others resort
to conjectural readings, as impendia, stipendia; which Dillenburger well
calls a desperate remedy, as the MSS. all agree upon incendia. Bentley
rejected the line as spurious. On the whole, the conclusion of Orelli
(in his Excursus) seems most probable, that several lines, he thinks
two, have in some way been lost after 1. 17, which if present would re-
lieve the passage of all difficulty. This conclusion gathers strength
from the view of Meinecke, that Horace always wrote odes of this
measure in stanzas of four lines. By the addition of two lines, the ode
would have nine such stanzas. 23. Puer. Romulus, whose deeds
were sung by Ennius in his Annales. Dillenburger quotes a passage of
Ennius, which occurs in Cic. de Republ. 1, 41. Ennius lived about B. C.
230, and was the contemporary and friend of Scipio and Laelius.
25. Aeacum. Often celebrated by Pindar. 27. Divitibus-insulis.
The μakáρwv voo, the Fortunate Isles of Hesiod and Pindar, like the
Elysian Fields of Homer and of Virgil. Comp. Epod. 16, 41, seqq.—
Divitibus-beatis. Two adjectives often interchanged in poetry.
29. Sic; i. e. by the agency of poetry.―31. Tyndaridae. Castor
and Pollux. Comp. O. i., 3, 2; 12, 25. 33. Ornatus-pampino. A
similar expression in O. iii., 25, 20.



Wishing to consecrate in verse the name and virtues of Lollius (see n. 1. 32), Horace first asserts the destiny of his own Muse, and illustrates the high office of poetry, by the fate of forgotten, because unsung, heroes. The train of thought seems to be as follows:

My poetry will never perish; for though Homer be the prince of poets, the masters of Grecian lyric song yet live in the memory of men (1-12): Not the only nor the first heroes the world has known were the heroes of Homer; many a one had lived before them. but they share the oblivion of the vulgar, because they found no poet to immortalize their name (13-30). Not such, Lollius, shall be thy fate. In my poetry, thy deeds and

virtues shall live for ever.

2. Aufidum. See note, O. iii., 30, 10.

3. Non ante; i. e. among

the Romans. The idea is the same as in O. i., 30, 13. 5. Maconius. 7. Ceae. In allusion to Simonides of Ceos. - Minaces. In explanation of this epithet, seu Stesichori. A lyric poet, of Himera, in Sicily, who

See note, O. i., 6, 2. See note, O. ii., 1, 38. n. O. i., 32, 6.


died B. C. 566. His poetry approached the gravity and dignity of the epic muse. Quintilian describes him as epici carminis onera lyra sustinentem. Hence the epithet here graves, majestic.- -9. Anacreon. Comp. n. O. i., 17, 18. - - 11. Calores. Poetic for amores, the passions, or the impassioned lyrics; the fervors. In translation, preserve the Latin order: yet breathes the love, etc. -12. Puellae. Genitive. The allusion is to Sappho, of Mitylene, on the island of Lesbos. 13. Non sola-arsit. Arsit governs crines; as the word has a kind of active signification, ardently love, burn with love for; as in Virg. Ecl. 2, 1, Corydon ardebat Alexin. The verb also occurs with the abl., O. ii., 4, 8: iii., 9, 5; and Epod. 14, 9. Here too the translation becomes more forcible, by imitating the Latin order: not Helen of Lacedaemon alone, etc. 15. Mirata; sc. est, in same construction with arsit. 17. Primusve. Nor was Teucer the first who, etc.—On Cydonio, comp. n. O. i., 15, 17. Cydon was a Cretan city. 18. Ilios; a Troy; i. e. a great city like Troy. Horace does not refer to any earlier sieges of Troy. Ilios is here in feminine gender; so in Epode 14, 14.- -20. Idomeneus was king of Crete, and a celebrated chief in the Trojan war. Sthenelus was Diomed's charioteer. - - 29. Inertiae. Dative for abl. with preposition. See Harkness, 385, 4.. 32. Tuos-labores-Lolli. Lollius had administered the government of Galatia with vigor, and with great credit to himself; and had been consul B. C. 21. Up to the time when this ode was written, and indeed for many years after, he sustained an unblemished reputation, and stood high in the favor and confidence of Augustus. But at a later period, after the death of Horace, he made himself odious by his avarice and other bad qualities of character. -39. Consul. In apposition with animus. By a bold metaphor the poet describes the lasting influence of an upright character The consul was the highest Roman magistrate, and held his office for a single year. The upright mind perpetuates its influence through all succeeding years, and thus wears, as it were, the honors of a perpetual consulship. -41. Honestum-utili. Honor to expediency. Horace uses so strong and emphatic language, in describing the character of Lollius, that there seems some ground for Dillenburger's conjecture, that he had heard somewhat against him, and convinced of his innocence, unconsciously adopted the tone of a defender.- -44. Explicuit-arma. The image seems to be that of a soldier, doing valiant and victorious battle against fearful odds. So the good man by the arms of virtue triumphs over the hosts of evil and of evil men.-With the sentiment of this passage, comp. O. iii., 2, 19; and on the use of the perfects in the stanza, see n. O i, 28, 20. -50. Pejus; used instead of magis, and it is more forcible. So Epist. i., 17, 30; Cic. ad Fam. 7, 2. Dillenb. Flagitium is any thing that brings with it infamy; disgrace. Such a man fears dis grace, but shrinks not from death itself, for his friends or his country.


Addressed to a beautiful boy; the poet's advice to whom is like Virgil's to Alexis, in Ecl. 2, 17:

"O formose puer! nimium e crede colori!

2. Insperata. Adverbial. Unexpectedly. Pluma, down, for the early beard. Superbiae is dat. depending upon veniet.· 4. Puniceae; purple; as Virg. Aen. 12, 77.- -5. Hispidam. Rough; not from old age, but from the beard. 6. Speculo. Ablative of instrument.

With the glass.

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An mvitation to Phillis, to celebrate with the poet at his Sabine farm the birth-day of Maecenas, which was on the ides of April.

2. Albani. The Alban belonged to the third class of Italian wines. See Dict. Antiqq. under Vinum. The opening of this ode is like that of the 29th, Book I. 3. Apium. See note, O. i., 36, 15.-5. Crines. Join with religata; in the same construction as in O. ii., 11, 24, where see note.. -7. Verbenis. Compare note, O. i., 19, 14.- -8. Spargier. An old form for pres. infin. passive, found in Horace only here. See Hark. 239, 6; Z. 162. 12. Vertice. This word is by some translated the house-top; but Orelli and Dillenburger understand it, and I think correctly, of the smoke and flame; Rolling up in a whirl, that is, whirling up. Trepidare is often used of the tremulous motion of flames. Comp. Virg. Ecl. 8, 105. - -16. Findit; i. e. dividit. Idus, from iduare, dividere. 25. Terret. Is a terror to. -27. Pegasus; who threw his rider, Bellerophon, when he, exulting in his victory over the Chimaera, sought to fly to heaven. Comp. note, O. i., 27, 23. 35. Quos reddas. To sing (to me). Comp. note, O. iv., 5, 43.


An inviation in Spring-time, to Virgil, to a festive entertainment.

It is not known to what Virgil the ode was addressed. That it could not have been the poet, seems evident from the expressions in lines 21, 22, cum tua merce, and in 1. 25, studium lucri.

2. Animae Thraciae. The winds from the north, which blew in early spring. 6. Infelix avis. The swallow. The story was that Progne, the wife of Tereus, king of Thrace, to avenge her sister Philomela, killed her son Itys, and served him up to his father; and that she was changed by the gods into a swallow, and her sister into a nightingale. Other poets, however, make Progne the nightingale, and Philomela the swallow. -11. Deum. Pan, the Latin Faunus. See note, O. i., 17, 1.

-14. Pressum Calibus. The wine of Cales in Campania; mentioned also in O. i., 20, 9, where see note. -15. Cliens. Used here in the sense of protegé, one who enjoys the favor of a superior. They who suppose the ode to be addressed to the poet Virgil, naturally refer nobilium juvenum to Marcellus, Agrippa, and others, who honored Virgil with their friendship. 16. Merebere. Mereri here means to receive in exchange. The poet humorously proposes to find the wine, if Virgil will find the perfumes. 17. Onyx; i. e. a perfume vessel made of onyx. -18. Sulpiciis. Sulpicius was probably a wine-merchant. On horreis, see notes, O. iii., 8, 11; 28, 7.-22. Merce; i. e. the nardus above mentioned. · -23. Immunem. - 26. "At free cost." Nuttall.. Nigrorum-ignium; in allusion to the rogus. Of the dark fires of the funeral pile. -28. In loco; i. e. opportuno tempore, èv kaip?; at the right time.

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Addressed to Lyce, now grown old. See O. iii., 10.

The poet dwells, with a hearty and not very amiable satisfaction, upon the wrinkles and ugliness of the once proud, disdainful beauty.

6. Lentum. Unyielding. 13. Coae-purpurae. The silks of Cos, an island in the Aegean, were of a fine quality, and in great esteem. The Coan purple dye was also celebrated. 14. Tempora; for annos, Quae semcl, etc. Which once for all fleeting time has entered in the public register. Condita agrees with quae; literally, which—put away. The Fasti Consulares are meant; see n. O. iii., 17, 4. The poet ungra


ciously alludes to the age of Lyce, which cannot be falsified by silken dresses, or costly jewels. 20. Surpuerat. By syncope for surripuerat. -21. Artium. Genitive, depending upon nota, as in O. ii., 2, 6, where see note. -25. Cornicis vetulae. Vetulae is chosen as a con-temptuous word; otherwise in O. iii., 17, 23, annosa cornix.


See the introduction to the Fourth Ode of this Book.

After doing honor to the courage and the exploits of the young Tiberius, the peet dwells upon the praises of Augustus, whom he extols as the glory of the war, the defence of Rome and of Italy, and as the undisputed ruler of the whole world.

2. Plenis honorum muneribus. Plenis is used in the sense of justis, adequate; literally, with adequate gifts of honors, with adequate honors. On


4. Titulos. Inscriptions upon statues and public monuments. the word fastos, see n. O. iii., 17, 4. -7. Quem-didicere-quid, etc. By an attraction more common in Greek than in Latin, the subject of posses is made the object of didicere. Orelli compares Terence, Eun. 3, 6, 18: Me noris, quam―siem; ibid, 4, 3, 15: ego illum nescio, qui fuerit. 10. Genaunos-Breunos. Vindelician tribes, who lived among the Rhaetian Alps, near the sources of the river Oenus, the Inn. Plus vice simplici. Not plus quam semel, more than once, but duplex damnum intulit. It is opposed to pari vice, and means with more than a simple requital, since in the destruction of so many more than he had lost, he visited upon them a heavy retribution. Plus vice for the usual plus quam vice. Comp. n. O. i., 13, 20. 21. Pleiadum. The Latin Vergiliae, seven stars in the constellation of Taurus. 24. Medios per ignes ;=per pugnam ardentissimam, the hottest of the fight. Orelli cites Silvius Ital. 14, 176, and Ovid, Met. 8, 76, where the same expression occurs. -25. Tauriformis. River-gods were represented with a bull's head and horns, perhaps from the violence and roar of the waters. So in Virgil, Georg. 3, 371, taurino cornua vultu Eridanus; Aen. 8, 77, Corniger Fluvius. 26. Dauni. See n. O. iii., 30, 11. -30. Ferrata;

i. e. ferreis loricis tecta. Dillenb. Mail-clad.

32. Humum. Acc.

depending upon stravit, as in O. iii., 17, 12; not, as others have it, for in humum. -33. Te-praebente. As all commanders were the legati of the emperor, who was the commander-in-chief, it was always under his auspices (auspiciis) that all military operations were conducted. Hence Tacitus, Ann. 2, 41, distinguishes between ductu and auspiciis; 'signa amissa ductu Germanici, auspiciis Tiberii" (the emperor). Under the Empire, as the Republic, only the commander-in-chief took

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