Obrazy na stronie
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formed the turning-points of the course; and the charioteer who shunned or just grazed them, by coming as near as possible without hitting them, saved space, got round quickest, and won the prize. See Dict. Antiqq., and Rich's Companion, under Circus.· 6. Terrarum dominos. I prefer, with Orelli and Dillenburger, to join these words with the object of evehit, and not with deos. Exalts to the gods, as if they (i. e. the victors) were, the rulers of the earth The passage illustrates the well-nigh divine honors, ascribed by the Greeks to the victor in the Olympian games.

Praetor, and of Consul.

8. Tergeminis. The offices of Curule aedile,

10. Libycis. Africa was one of the chief granaries of Rome. Observe in this word, and below, Cypria, Myrtoum, Icariis, etc., the use of particular expressions, because more forcible and lively than such general ones as mare, navis, etc.—

12. Attalicis.

Attalus III., king of Pergamus, who bequeathed his vast possessions to the Roman people. · -15. Fluctibus, dative with luctantem, instead of the prose construction, abl. with cum. Horace has the same construction with other verbs; e. g. O. i., 3, 13; ii., 6, 15; Epod. xi., 18; Sat. i., 2, 73.- – 18. Pauperiem. Not absolute poverty, which is expressed by inopia or egestas, but narrow means; paupertas, or pauperies, is opposed to divitiae, inopia to copia or opulentia, egestas to abundantia. Döderlein.

19. Massici. The Massic wine (from the Mons Massicus) was one of the best Italian wines, inferior only to the Setinian and the Falernian. The Massic and the Falernian were grown in Campania. See Dict. Antiqq. p. 1056.- -20. Solido-die. The dies solidus was the chief portion of the day, devoted to the serious business of life; its cares and toils once over, then came the coena, when one might indulge in social recreation. But the voluptuary, in his hot haste for sensual indulgence, is here said to take away a part from the solid day, in order to waste it upon the pleasures of the table.. 21. Membra. An example of the so-called Greek accusative; it is the acc. of the part to which any statement applies. It is incorrect to say, that such an acc. depends upon a word understood. See A. & S. § 234, ii. ; H. 380, 1. 23. Lituo tubae. Lituo, abl. governed by permixtus; so below, 1. 30, Dis. But miscere and its compounds govern also the dat. See n. O. iv., 1, 22.—The tuba was deep-toned, the lituus shrill; the former was peculiar to the infantry, and was straight in its form; the latter was peculiar to the cavalry, and was slightly curved at the extremity.—See Dict. Antiqq.· -24. Matribus. Dat. for abl. with a or ab; as often in poetry. So below, 1. 27, catulis. See Z. ý 419; Hark. 388, II, 3. 25. Manet; i. e. pernoctat; see Sat. ii., 2, 234. Dillenb.- Sub Jove. Ὑπὸ Διός. The word Jupiter here, as often in poetry, means the air. 28. Teretes plagas. Teretes, firmly twisted. Plaga is from τλéкw, plico, to twist, and must be distinguished from plāga, from Tλhσow, TλNYH a blow, and from vlåga, from πλá, a region. See Doederlein, vol. 6, p

272. The plagae were used in hunting the larger animals; retia is a general word for fishing, as well as hunting, nets.-Comp. Epod. ii., 32.

-32. Tibias. The pipe was one of the earliest and commonest musical instruments of the ancients. With the Greeks and Romans it was usual to play on two pipes at a time. Hence here, and often, the plural. See Dict. Antiqq., and n. O. iv., 15, 30. See illustration of a tibia on p. 115, and of tibiae on p. 139, of this volume. - 33. Euterpe-Polyhymnia. Here used figuratively, as personifications of the Muse of lyric poetry; and the conditional form si, etc., expresses the modest, hesitating manner in which the poet hopes for her all-inspiring aid. Lesboum; in allusion to the Greek lyric poets, Alcaeus and Sappho; both natives of Lesbos. Comp. O. i., 32, 5, and note.- - Barbiton. This instrument belonged to the class of lyres, but was larger, and had thicker strings than the ordinary lyre. See Dict. Antiqq. and Rich's Companion; also the illustration on p. 164 of this book.

-34.

ODE II.

This ode was written in honor of Octavianus; whom the poet represents as the sole source of hope and safety for the Roman people. After describing the national calamities, which had followed the assassination of Julius Caesar, the poet calls upon Jupiter to commit to some deity the task of expiating that act; and at length insinuates, that Mercury is to descend from heaven, and in the form of Octavianus, to avenge Caesar's death.

The ode was probably written B. c. 29, the year in which Octavianus returned from Egypt to Rome, and the year which marks the termination of the Roman Republic. At the beginning of B. C. 27 Octavianus received the title of Augustus and of Imperator.

1-20. These five stanzas describe a terrible storm with which Rome was visited (1-12), and an inundation of the Tiber; both which events the poet represents as visitations from heaven for the murder of Julius Caesar. Comp. the fine passage in Virgil, Georgics, i., 463–497. 1. Nivis. See n. O. i., 9, 4. 3. Arces. Jaculari is generally construed with the dat. or the acc. with the prep. in. Horace has, however, another instance like this, in O. iii., 12, 11. Arces refers to the temples of the Capitol. 5. Terruit-ne;=terruit ita, ut metuerent, ne, etc. 6. Saeculum Pyrrhae. In allusion to the legend of Deucalion and Pyrrha, and of the deluge in Thessaly, of which they were the only survivors. Ovid gives the legend in Metam. i., and Juvenal alludes to it, Sat. i., 81. —Nova monstra, strange prodigies; inversions of the order of nature, such as are described in the lines that immediately follow.- -7. Proteus; a sea deity, described by the poets as the keeper of Neptune's herds, the phocae, and other sea-monsters. See Homer,

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Od. iv., 386; Virgil, Georg. iv., 395. 8. Visere. Poctic for ut vise rent, or ad visendum. Such a use of the infinitive is common in Horace and other poets. 10. Columbis. This is the reading of all the MSS. Some editors would correct the poet, and read palumbis; but columba is the generic word.- -13. Flavum. The usual epithet for the Tiber, which applies to it now as well as in the time of Horace. The color is owing doubtless to the sand and mud which the stream bears along with it. - 14. Litore Etrusco; i. e. the shore of the Mare Tyrrhenum, into which the river empties. The waters of the river, instead of being discharged into the sea, are described as being thrown back, so as to inundate the city.. -15. Monumenta regis. The palace of Numa, to which these words refer, was built at the foot of the Palatine, overlooking the upper or eastern extremity of the Forum; and it was so joined to the temple of Vesta, that it was often called Atrium Vestae; it was also called Atrium Regium, or simply Regia. Hence the close connection of the two buildings in this passage.. 17. Nimium querenti. Nimium is an adverb; the too complaining; not nimium ultorem, as some read, contrary to the collocation of the words, and to the sense of the passage. As Ilia, the mother of Romulus and Remus, was thrown into the Anio (which flows into the Tiber), the poet, here, by a bold figure, represents her as married to the god of the stream, who avenges her wrongs, by inundating the city.. 18. Sinistra; the Roman side; the left, of course, as you look down the river. -21. Cives acuisse; sc. adversus cives; the poet now touches upon the destructive civil wars, that followed the death of Caesar. -22. Persae. The Parthians (for it is these, whom the poet means) were at this time the most formidable of the enemies of Rome. "Horace uses the terms Medi, Persae, Parthi, indiscriminately; since the Empire of the East had passed from the Medes to the Persians under Cyrus, and from them to the Parthians under Arsaces."-Osborne. - -25. Vocet. See Arn. Pr. Intr. 424.26. Imperi rebus. For the form of the gen. see H. 45, 5, 1). Rebus is dative. - 27. Minus audientem. Vesta, too, is represented as angry with the Romans, because Julius Caesar was Pontifex Maximus. Hence she says in Ovid, Fasti, iii., 699:

Ne dubita, meus ille fuit, meus ille sacerdos,
Sacrilegae telis me petiere manus.

32. Augur Apollo. Invoked first of all, as the god of divination, from whom mortals may learn how the anger of the gods may be appeased; also because he was one of the tutelary deities of Troy. 33. Erycina; from Mt. Eryx, in Sicily, where was a temple of Venus. 34. Jocus-Cupido; always represented by the poets as the attendants of Venus. - -36. Respicis. Respicere, to look with favor; said of

the gods, when propitious; like the Gr. emßλéπw. - Auctor; Mars, the founder of the Roman nation. −37. Ludo; i. e. war, the sport of Mars. - - 39. Mauri peditis. The reading Marsi is conjectural. The expression Mauri peditis is equivalent (as Dillenburger gives it) to Mauri equo dejecti, the unhorsed or dismounted Mauretanian. The image is that of a Mauretanian thrown from his horse, and turning with fierce look on his bloody foe. Livy also uses pedites for dismounted cavalry, as in B. vii., 8. - -41. Juvenem; Octavianus, who was now nearly forty years of age. The word juvenis might be used of any one between twenty and forty. An adolescens was, strictly speaking, younger than a juvenis; the former word being used of persons, between fifteen and thirty. But the usage, in respect to both these words, was not uniformly observed, even by the best prose writers. -42. Ales. Join with filius Maiae; it alludes to the winged sandals, talaria, and cap. petasus, with which the ancient artists and poets clothed Mercury. 46. Triumphos. The year, in which this ode was written, was signalized by the three-fold triumph of Octavianus, in honor of his victories over the Pannonians, the Dalmatians, and over Antony and Cleopatra.

50. Pater atque princeps. Augustus received the title of princeps senatus B. C. 27; but it was not till B. c. 1, that the title of pater patriae was conferred upon him. -51. Medos. See above, n. on 1. 22. The chief strength of the Parthians lay in their cavalry, who made frequent incursions (equitare) into Syria.

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In this ode, Horace, having first charged the ship, in which his friend Virgil had em barked for Athens, to bear its precious freight in safety to the place of destination, dwells with a poet's kindled imagination upon the daring of those who first braved the perils of the sea, and thence passes to general illustrations of the presumptuous boldness of the human race.

We learn from Virgil's Life, written by Donatus, that that poet, in the year of Rome 735, went to Greece with the intention of remaining abroad three years, but that, on his arrival at Athens, meeting with Augustus, who was going back to Rome from the East, he determined to return with him; and that while on his way home he was taken ill, and finally died at Brundusium, on the 22d day of September.

1. Sic, etc. Sic, in forms of petition, implies some condition, and is hac conditione, thus: if-on condition that-you do so or so, may this or that befall you. Here the condition is found in the last two lines of the passage, reddas-et serves, etc. The force of the construction will appear, in translation, by beginning with Navis-meae, and ending with Sic-Iapyga. -Potens Cypri. Venus; see n. O. i., 30, 1.

2. Fratres Helenae. Castor and Pollux, who were regarded as the

protectors of ships in tempests, and for their services thought to be translated to the stars. Hence their connection, in poetry, with the constellation of the Gemini. Comp. O. i., 12, 25; ib. iv., 8, 31.3. Ventorum-pater. Aeolus. -4. Praeter Iapyga. The Iapyx, the W. N. W. wind of the Greeks, the same as the Latin Favonius; a favorable wind to any one sailing from Italy to Greece. - -6. Finibus. The caesura of the line manifestly connects this word with reddas. Dillenburger, however, contends that the poet puts the word purposely between the two verbs, that it may depend alike upon each.. 13. Aquilonibus. See n. O. i., 1, 15.- -14. Tristes Hyadas. Seven stars, called Hyades, from "w, to rain, because their setting was a presage of rainy weather; hence, too, the epithet tristes. The Mythology makes them the seven sisters of Hyas, who died of a broken heart from the loss of their brother, and were transferred to the heavens, and made weeping stars. - 18. Siccis; i. e. free of tears, "undimmed;" expressing a want of emotion. Orelli compares Aeschylus, Sept. c. Theb. 698, ξηροῖς ἀκλαύστοις ὄμμασι. 20. Acrocerannia. A high ridge of rocks, between Macedonia and Epirus. 22. Dissociabili. A view of the ocean, not merely poetic, but quite natural and necessary with the ancients, who had so limited means of navigation; but modern science has made the ocean, as Osborne on this passage well remarks, "the most available means of human intercourse." 27. Iapeti genus. Prometheus, for the story of whom see Class. Dict. 33. Corripuit gradum. A traditionary vestige of the longevity of the antediluvian period, and of the fact recorded in Scripture, that the duration of human life has been considerably shortened." Osborne.

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ODE IV.

This ode is occasioned by the return of Spring, which awakes man and all nature to new life (1-8); which summons us to cheerful and joyous scenes (9-12); while yet we do well to remember that the whole life of man is at best one brief spring, soon to be closed by death (13-20).

1. Solvitur. Our word dissolve retains the meaning of solvere. borne happily quotes from Thomson's Spring:

Forth fly the tepid airs, and unconfined,
Unbinding earth.”

Winter, on the other hand, is called earth in its icy fetters. -Favoni. In the spring, the ships which had

Os

acer, stern, because it binds up the See n. O. i., 3, 4. -2. Trahunt. been hauled up on shore for the

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