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terity was led up into the land, and have possessed it, only to be twice possessed it; yet I contend that even pulled up,' and now for nearly two these never held it according to the thousand years peeled and scatfull terms of the promise, and that tered among the nations. their possession of it was but the The early christian Fathers fully type and pledge, which the Lord concur in this view. Treating of usually grants, when the great pro- the blessing pronounced by Isaac on mise is deferred to a distant period. Jacob,-
Jacob," God give thee of the dew Thus the Apostle, in his Epistle to
of heaven and the fatness of the the Hebrews argues, that if the rest earth, &c. Let people serve thee in the land, into which they were or and nations bow down to thee, led under Joshua, were the real rest " &c.”-Irenæus says,
that it was covenanted, then would not God “ not made good to him in this life, afterwards have spoken of a future
" and therefore without doubt those rest, as he does in David. f And in " words had a further aim and prosthe Epistle to the Ephesians he re- pect on the times of the kingdom, minds children of the promise at- “ when the just rising from the dead tached to the fifth commandment; “ shall reign, and when nature re(viz. that their days may be long in “ newed and set at liberty shall the land ;) which would be un- yield plenty and abundance of all meaning, as regards gentile children, things, being blest with the dew were it applicable only to the Jews; “ of heaven and great fertility of and the more so, as the Jews them- " the earth.” Likewise in his fifth selves were then just about to be book against heresies, he takes Ezeagain ejected from the land. As to
As to kiel xxxvii, 11-14, to signify a litethat interpretation which refers it to ral resurrection. The descendants the comparative longevity in those of Abraham are described in this times of obedient children, it is con- place as captive at Babylon; and tradicted by the fact, that persecu- the promise to them appears so hopetions shortened the lives of christians less, that they cry, Our hope is below the ordinary term, instead of lost, we are cut off for our parts.” their “ living long upon the earth.” Then the answer of God comes to
In regard to the terms of the them, “ Behold, O my people I will grant also ; the land was given to open your graves, and cause you Abraham from the River of Egypt " to come up out of your graves, to Euphrates ; g but his seed did not " and bring you into the land of possess it to this extent, unless it Israel, and ye shall know that I were for a short period during the am the Lord, when I have opened reign of Solomon. And if we take your graves, O my people, and that grant to Abrabam as St. Paul brought you up out of your graves, explains it, viz. that he should be and shall put my spirit in you, heir of the world,” h it has plainly and ye shall live, and I shall place never been fulfilled. It was like.
you in your own land; then shall wise given to them for an everlasting ye know that I the Lord have possession; and Amos therefore
spoken and performed, saith the speaks of a time when Israel shall
- Lord.” no more be pulled up out of their The words of St. Paul (Acts land;” i which of necessity points xxvi, 6–8) plainly evince that the to some future occupation, since they expectation of the Apostle in regard
f Heb. iv, 7-9.
& Compare Gen. xv, & xxvii, 12.
1 Rom. iv, 13.
i Amos ix, 15.
" to come.
to the promised land was, that it
" Now to Abraham and his seed should be fulfilled to the Patriarchs
were the promises made. He by a resurrection. And now (he
“ saith not And to seeds, as of says) I stand and am judged for the many; but as of one-And to
hope of the promise made of God thy seed, which is Christ.”k “unto our fathers ; unto which pro- Therefore the remaining posterity “ mise our twelve tribes, instantly are only the seed, in as much as they serving God day and night, hope are in Christ, being of the faith of
For which hope's sake, Abraham : they are members of King Agrippa, I am accused of Christ's body and blessed in Him. oc the Jews. Why should it be Indeed I may say, that Abraham
thought a thing incredible with himself, to whom the promise is
you, that God should raise the addressed, is only partaker of it in « dead ?? Here the promise to the Christ; who, as he is the root as Fathers is coupled with the resur- well as the branch of David, was berection of the dead, which are both fore Abraham.l To Christ the world evidently in the mind of the Apostle. especially belongs, being created But what was the promise to the by him and for him ;m-that is Fathers ? There is no express men- to say, when it shall be redeemed tion to them of a resurrection ; and from the curse and renovated : “ for though several things are included it is the world to come whereof we in the promise to Abraham, Isaac, speak. and Jacob, yet there is not one of 4. Before I pass on to the next them which requires a resurrection head I must notice an objection, to fulfil it, except the promise of the which may still operate on the minds land. It was this which must have of some readers ; viz. that the New led Paul to couple the promise of the Testament Scriptures declare of the Fathers with the resurrection from kingdom, that it is to be in heaven, the dead. Agreeably with which whilst the exposition I have given expectation, Daniel, when favoured makes it to be on earth. In reply, with divers revelations concerning there is no such phrase in Scripture Christ's kingdom and the reign of kingdom in heaven;" it is althe saints, is assured, that his inter- ways“ kingdom of heaven;" which mediate decease shall not prevent I have shown in my last paper to be him from participating ; but that peculiar to St. Matthew's Gospel,* many that sleep in the dust of the being rendered by the other Evanearth shall awake,—and that he gelists' kingdom of God.' And I shall rest, yet stand in his lot at the would here make a further observaend of those days, which were then tion in regard to those Scriptures, specially numbered to him.j
which, as I have admitted at page 27 3. In regard to the seed it must of the last Number, do refer to this further be observed, that, in the in- present Gospel dispensation, and are terpretation of these promises in therefore called by divines 'the kingGenesis, the Apostle Paul insists dom of grace ;' viz. that this very that they specially refer to Christ. circumstance disproves the necessity
j Dan. xii, 2 & 13. k Gal. iii, 16. 1 John viii, 58 ; Rev. xxii, 16. m Compare Rom. xi, 36 with Col. i, 16 and Heb. ii, 5-10.
* Nearly thirty times repeated, and always in the plural, » Baoilea twv epavwv, " the kingdom of the heavens."
of interpreting the phrase · kingdom and then immediately adds, that in of heaven' as of a kingdom in hea- this tabernacle we groan, “earnestly ven; for if these refer to the gos- desiring to be clothed upon with pel dispensation, they clearly speak our house which is FROM heaven.” of transactions which are to take This shows, that the very house place on earth.
prepared in heaven, is ultimately to The kingdom, however, which is be revealed from heaven. I do not assigned in Daniel to the Son of man suppose that there are as many boand to the saints, is the kingdom, dies prepared in heaven, as there are
dominion, and the greatness of the saints who have existed and who kingdom UNDER the whole hea shall be born on earth ; but that in
St. Paul, in his Epistle to heaven is the great exemplar of them Timothy, speaks of the Lord's hea- all—the Lord Jesus. For thus also venly kingdom,o and in Hebrews of in 1 Cor. xv, the Apostle tells us, a heavenly country, or the heavenly “ The first man (by which, from the Jerusalem ;P which leads us to the “ context, he means our first body, proper meaning of the phrase "king- " made in the likeness of the first dom of heaven, viz. that it is a king- Adam)-is of the earth, earthy : dom of a heavenly nature. It is " the second man is the Lord FROM heavenly, because it is
- set up by
heaven ;--and that, as we have the God of heaven;"—it is heavenly, borne the image of the earthy because the God-man from heaven [man], we shall also bear the image will rule in it;-it is heavenly, be- “of the heavenly.” And this will cause all things, both in heaven and be effected (as he tells us in Philipearth, will be at his command, being pianss) by His descending from put under him ;9—and finally it is heaven; si when he will change our heavenly, because its principles, its vile body, that it may be fashionlaws, its spirit is heavenly, being “ed like unto his glorious body, ac
the will of God done ON EARTH cording to the working whereby as it is in heaven."
he is able to subdue all things to It is declared that the saints in himself." that kingdom shall have heavenly There are many other things bodies : a heavenly body however which are said to be prepared,”“ laid does not necessarily signify a body up,' and 'reserved in heaven ; which in heaven, but a body of a hearenly are nevertheless to be enjoyed on nature. The first and second verses earth, and which will be made mani. of the 2d Corinthians, chap. V, fest in the day when the Lord shall will further prove this, and make appear. Thus St. Paul in the Epistle evident likewise, that the glorious to the Hebrews, speaking of tembody of believers (though now, as it poral goods, says, " that they joywere, reserved in heaven) is first to fully suffered the loss of them, be enjoyed on earth. Speaking of knowing that they had in heaven the present body, which the Apostle "a better and an enduring subcalls our earthly house of taber- " stance." And this Peter explains nacle,”r he says, that if it were
an inheritance incorruptible dissolved, we have a building of " and undefiled and that fadeth not God, a house not made with
away, reserved in heaven for you, hands, eternal in the heavens :" who are kept by the power of
to be "c
n Dan, vii, 27. 02 Tim. iv, 18. 8-10. r Compare verses 6 & 8.
p Heb. xi, 16 ; xii, 22. q Ibid, ii, 8; Phil. ii, s Chap. iii, 20, 21. t Heb. x, 34.
“ God through faith unto salvation “ the top of the mountains, and shall
ready to be revealed in the last be exalted above the hills; and " time.”u
ro all nations shall flow unto it. I have necessarily anticipated in “ And many people shall go and these remarks some things, which say, come ye, and let us go up to belong more immediately to the Re- " the mountain of the Lord, to the surrection ; but I trust the Reader " house of the God of Jacob; and will perceive, that what is proved in he will teach us of his ways, and regard to the glorious body or house we will walk in his paths : for out of the believer, is equally applicable of Zion shall go forth the law, and to the heavenly kingdom.
the word of the Lord from Jeruceed now to the second point, viz.
o salem.” that Zion is to be a special place of
In Micah iv, 1, 2, there is a pasmanifestation.
sage almost word for word the same ; II. Every reader of the Scriptures - the mountain of the Lord' and must be familiar with the numerous - the house of the God of Jacob' promises and glorious things spoken being made the same; and Zion and of Mount Zion and Jerusalem ; but Jerusalem also the same, The third owing to the unhappy mode, derived place is Isaiah xxvii, 13, where from Origen, of spiritualizing or speaking of the return of Israel it is rather of explaining away these said :-" They shall worship the passages, their force and significance Lord in the holy mount at Jerusalem.” are lost. But I must first, in order Now the first mention which we to prevent confusion in the mind have of this place is in Genesis, in the from the use of different terms when account of Abraham returning from speaking of these places, shew that the overthrow of the kings. It is Zion, Jerusalem, the Mount of God, here called Salem, (which signifies and House of the Lord, all mean one peace, i. e. the place of peace,) and and the same thing ;-that is to say, Melchizedec was king of it. This they all refer to the region of Mount Melchizedec is held up as an eminent Zion, or to some particular spot or type of Christ on various accounts; structure within that region. This but among the reasons is, that he I shall prove by three different texts. was a priest and king, and specially The first is in Isaiah ü, 1, 2, And as being king of Salem : w for “ in " it shall come to pass in the last Salem also is his tabernacle, and his
days, that the mountain of the dwelling-place in Zion.” ** or Lord's house shall be established in The next mention which we have
u 1 Pet. i, 4, 5.
V Chap. xiv, 18.
17 Heb. vii, 1–3.
x Psalm lxxvi, 2.
* The Rev. H. Blunt, in his Lectures on the History of Abraham, page 98, takes occasion to deny that Salem, of which Melchizedec was king and priest, could be the same as Jerusalem ; on the ground, that the supposition is irreconcileable with the geographical situation of Jerusalem, in regard to the route of Abraham, when Melchizedec came out to meet him. He therefore concludes with Jerome, that well known opponent in after times of millennarian doctrines, that Salim (which was the ancient Scythopolis) must be intended. The assertion, however, instead of being borne out by the facts of the case, is decidedly contradicted by them. The route of Abraham homeward (for he was returning to Mamre, and not to Sodom as Mr. Blunt states) from Damascus, would necessarily lead him either right through Jerusalem, or close by it. So that, whether Melchizedec came up in company with the king of Sodom to Shaveh, the kings' dale, (as it was afterwards called,) and which was in the west of Heshbon; or whether he came out from Salem only upon the approach of Abraham to that place; the situation of Jerusalem corroborates the opinion, that it was the
of this region is also in Genesis, Zechariah informs įs, " the Lord when the Lord commands Abraham, shall inherit Judah his portion in who had seen the type of Christ “ the holy land, and shall choose reigning at Salem, to take his son " Jerusalem again.” Isaac, another type of Christ, and Observe then now a remarkable offer him up for a burnt offering on prophecy concerning this mountain a mount, which he should point out in Isaiah. “In this mountain shall in the land of Moriah: y for Abraham the Lord of Hosts make unto all must also be instructed, that the Son people a feast of fat things, a of Man must suffer. And this land " feast of wines on the lees, of fat or region of Moriah is no other than things full of marrow, of wines on Sion and Jerusalem ; for in 2 Chron. the lees well refined. And he iii, 1, we are told, that Solomon will destroy in this mountain the began to build the house of the face of the covering cast over all Lord at Jerusalem in Mount Moriah people, and the vail that is spread where the Lord appeared unto David over all nations. He will swallow his father. * And Abraham after
up death in victory, and the Lord this transaction on Mount Moriah “ Ĝod will wipe away tears from off calls the name of the place Jehovah all faces, and the rebuke of his Jireh ; which is thus explained in people shall he take away from off our translation,
“In the mount of all the earth : for the Lord hath the Lord it shall be seen. 2
And it shall be said in Of the circumstances which caused " that day, lo, this is our God; this region to fall into the hands of “ have waited for him, and he will the Jebusites we are not informed ; save us; this is the Lord; we only it appears to have been in their have waited for him, we will be possession at the time when David
glad and rejoice in his salvation. besieged and took it, and made it " For in this mountain shall the hand the royal city. He now gave it the of the Lord rest.” (XXV, 6—10.) name of Jerusalem ; which Cruden Passing by the ordinary explanation says
is made up of the two former of the feast of fat things, I shall names Jireh-salem, and may refer notice only the usual interpretation to the two appearances, the one to of death being swallowed up in Abraham, the other to David, both victory in this mount; viz. that it was pledges of future manifestation. The fulfilled by the resurrection of Jesus. Jebusites called it Jebus, which sig- And in as much as he was the first nifies despised or trodden under fruits or earnest of the victory, I foot,” which it now is again, and will agree that his resurrection was an remain so, till the times of the Gen- incipient fulfilment of the promise ; tiles shall be fulfilled; and then as but the fifteenth chapter of St. Paul's
Salem here mentioned. If he were in company with the king of Sodom, it is still more unlikely that it should have been Salim. The Fathers before Jerome always considered Salem to be Jerusalem ; (which opinion the learned Heideggar supports in his Hist. Patriarch.) and there ought to be much stronger grounds, than those brought forward either by Jerome or Mr. Blunt, to lead us to conclude, that in all the four places of Scripture in which Salem is mentioned the text is incorrect.
* The floor of Araunah, or Ornan, the Jebusite was the spot; and the appearance of the angel to David when tlie pestilence was stayed, and his being openly answered on this spot by fire from heaven is, I presume, the circumstance intended. 1 Chron. xxi, 18-28. ✓ Chap. xxii, 2. 2 Gen. xxii, 1.1.
a Zech. ii, 17,