« PoprzedniaDalej »
• The body of the temple was sixty* cubits long, and twenty broad, and thirty high, without reckoning the holy of holies, which joined to it on the same floor, and was twenty cubits in tength, and twenty in breadth, and twenty, in height.t At the entrance there was a porch that supported a great tower a hundred and twenty cubits high, and twenty broad. f I leave the learned to judge of the proportions. But I must desire those that think the temple small, to consider, that the people were never to go into it; only the priests, and such as waited on them, and that at stated times, morning and evening, to light the lamps, and offer bread and perfumes. The high-priest was the only person that entered into the sanctuary where the ark of the covenant stood, nor did he go’in oftener than once a year.
The whole temple and sanctuary too were wainscoted with cedar, adorned with carvings,
* We find two different cubits in the Scripture; one of "them equal (as Dr. Arbuthnot says) to an English foot, nine Linches and 1.88 of an inch; being a 4th part of the fathon, double the spun, and six times the palm. “ The other equal to one foot and $74 of a foot, or the 400th part of -a' stadiion. The Romans too had a cubit equal to one 'English t foot, five inches, and 400 of an inch. Father Mercenne makes the Hebrew oubit one foot four digits and five lines, with regard to the foot of the capital. According to Hero, the geometrical cubit is 24 digits:, and according to Vitruvius, the foot is of the Roman cubit, i. e. sixteen digits or finger's breadths. The Scripture says here, the cubits were after the first measure, · Vid. 2 Chron. iii. 3...!;
til Kings vi.2, 3, 20. Jos. Ant. I. X c. ult. & de bell. Jud. I. vi. c. 6. 2 Chron. üz. 4. 1 Kings vi. 3.
and all covered with plates of gold. On the outside it was surrounded' with two cedar-floors, which made three stories of chambers for different uses.*· Before the temple, in a great 'court, was the altar for holocausts, or whole burnt-offerings, that is to say, a platform thirty cubits square and fifteen high. The priests went up to it by an easy, ascent without steps, to place the wood and victims in order. In the same court' were ten great brazen basons set upon rolling bottoms, and that, which was supported by twelve oxen, the Scripture calls the brazen sea.
This court belonged to the priests, especially that part betwixt the altar and the porch, for the laity might advance as far as the altar to present their victims and slay them, when they offered sacrifices. The Levites stood upon the stairs of the porch, which faced the temple, to sing and play upon musical instruments.f The court of the priests was enclosed with galleries, and surrounded with a first court much larger, which was the usual place for the people, where the women were separated from the men, and the Gentiles might not come any farther than to stand under the galleries which made the enclosure of the first court. There were several parlours, chambers, and store-houses, for different uses, adjoining to these galleries of each enclosure.
They had treasuries for the sacred vessels of
gold and silver, which were so numerous that even at their return from the captivity they brought home five thousand four hundred ;* vestries likewise for the sacerdotal habits, t and storehouses, where they laid up the offerings set: apart for the maintenance of the priests and Levites, widows and orphans, and what was committed to their charge by private people. I For it was customary with the antients to deposite what was given for the public in temples. In other places they kept wine and oil for the libations, salt to season all the sacrifices, and the lambs that had been picked out to be offered at the evening and morning sacrifice, which was never omitted. In other places they made shewa bread, and what other pastry was necessary for the 'sacrifices. They had kitchens for the flesh of the victims, eating rooms for the priests and guard of the Levites that kept the doors and watched the temple day and night, besides lodgings for those of them that were musicians ; one, where the Nazarites were shaved after their VOW; another, to examine lepers in; a hall where the chief council of seventy elders was held, and other rooms of the same nature, with which we are not so particularly acquainted. So many fine regular buildings gave, no doubt, a high idea of the great king that was served in that sacred palace. • They offered four lambs every day for an holocaust, two in the morning and two in the even
* i Esd. ii. 14. + Ezek. xliv. 19. * 2 Chron. xxxi. 11, 21. 2 Macc. iii. 10. Ś Talmud. Cod. Midduth. | Ezek. xl. 44.
ing; and this is what was called the continual sacrifice. On sabbath and festival days the sacrifices were multiplied in proportion to the solemnity, without reckoning the offerings of private people, which were daily very numerous.
We are offended at the bloody sacrifices which made the temple a shambles: but it was the same amongst other nations; and the Israelites had taken sufficient precautions for performing these sacrifices with all the cleanliness and decency imaginable. The situation of the temple contributed to it: For as it was upon a mountain, they had made drains underneath to carry off the blood and nastiness. The peculiar part of the priests' office was only to pour out the blood, light the fire, and lay the pieces upon it that were to be offered. There were others to kill the victims, prepare them, cut them in pieces, and dress them; we see it in the law, and the story of the sons of Eli. I The priests never did these things but at the public sacrifices that were offered for all the people....
After this, we are not to think the comparison of a Pot strange, which we read of in Jeremiah and Ezekiel, to represent Jerusalem. These two prophets were priests, and used to see the sanctified meat dressed. Now they esteemed every thing honourable that was employed in the service of God, and the performing of the law: besides it was usual for the very best of people to work with their own hands, and do the necessary offices of life themselves, as we
*Yan Evdetexiquos, juge sacrificium. + Lev, iv, 10. 1 Sam. ii. 13. § Jer. i. 13. Ezek. xxiv. 3, 4.
said before. Thus, in Homer, king Agamemnon kills the lambs with his own hands,ll the blood of which was the seal of the treaty he had made with the Trojans. Thus, when Nestor - sacrificed to Minerva, his own sons kill the victims, cut the flesh in pieces, and broil it. He abounds with examples of this sort, not only when he is speaking of religious matters, but upon other occasions : as when Achilles entertained the messengers of the other 'Grecian generals. . .
As to the rest, every thing that is prescribed by the law relating to the quality of victimis, and the manner of performing the sacrifices, tended rather to cure the Israelites of their superstitions by confining them to a few ceremonies, that to introduce new ones.* Idolaters sacrificed in more places, used more ceremonies, and a greater variety of animals :t for they had every where temples and altars, and each family had their domestic gods and particular superstitions. Thus God prepared his people in a distant männer for the abolishing bloody sacrifices, telling them often at the same time by his prophets, that he had no need of them, that they were not essential to religion, and that the worship most agreeable to him was gratitude and purity of heart. I Do It was necessary for the priests to be married, as the priesthood was annexed to the family of Aaron : but they parted from their wives dur. ing the time of their officiating, and drank nei
Iliad iii. - Odyss. ii. in fine. * Tertull. in Marc, 1. ii. cap. 18. t Herod. I. i. c. 40, f 1 Sam. xv. 22. Psalm 1. 8, &c. Isaiah İxvi. 3. Q 2