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• The principal object that attracted our attention, was the Hare o Keave (the house of Keave), a sacred depository of the bones of departed kings and princes, probably erected for the reception of the bones of the king whose name it bears, and who reigned in Hawaii about eight generations back. It is a compact building, twenty-four feet by sixteen, constructed with the most durable timber, and thatched with ti leaves, standing on a bed of lava that runs out a considerable distance into the sea. It is surrounded with a strong fence or paling, leaving an area in the front, and at each end about twenty-four feet wide. The pavement is of smooth fragments of lava, laid down with considerable skill, Several rudely carved male and female images of wood were placed on the outside of the enclosure ; some on low pedestals under the shade of an adjacent tree, others on high posts on the jutting rocks that hung over the edge of the water. A number stood on the fence at unequal distances all around; but the principal assemblage of these frightful representatives of their former deities was at the south-east end of the enclosed space, where, forming a semicircle, twelve of them stood in grim array, as if perpetual guardians of “the mighty dead” reposing in the house adjoining. A pile of stones was neatly laid up in the form of a crescent, about three feet wide, and two feet higher than the pavement, and in this pile the images were fixed. They stood on small pedestals, three or four feet high, though some were placed on pillars, eight or ten feet in height, and curiously carved. The principal idol stood in the centre, the others on either hand, the most powerful being placed nearest to him : he was not so large as some of the others, but was distinguished by the variety and superior carvings of his body, and especially of his head. Once they had evidently been clothed, but now they appeared in the most indigent nakedness. A few tattered shreds round the neck of one that stood on the left hand side of the door, rotted by the rain, and bleached by the sun, were all that remained of numerous and gaudy garments, with which their votaries had formerly arrayed them. A large pile of broken calabashes and cocoa nut shells lay in the centre, and a considerable heap of dried and partly rotten wreaths of flowers, branches of shrubs and bushes, and fragments of Tapa, (the accumulated offerings of former days,) formed an unsightly mound immediately before each of the images. The horrid stare of these idols, the tattered garments upon some of them, and the heaps of rotting offerings before them, seemed to us no improper emblems of the system they were designed to support, distinguished alike by its cruelty, folly, and wretchedness.
• We endeavoured to gain admission to the inside of the house, but were told it was tabu roa (strictly prohibited), and that nothing but a direct order from the king, or Karaimoku, could open the door. However, by pushing one of the boards across the door-way a little on one side, we looked in, and saw many large images, some of wood very much carved, others of red feathers, with wide distended mouths, large rows of shark's teeth, and glaring pearl-shell eyes. We also saw several bundles, apparently of human bones, cleaned, carefully tied up with cinet made of cocoa-nut fibres, and Vol. XXV. N. S.
placed in different parts of the house, together with some rich shawls and other valuable articles, probably worn by those to whom the bones belonged, as the wearing apparel and other personal property of the chiefs is generally buried with them.'
The Heiaus, or temples of the gods, were nearly every where in a state of ruin and dilapidation, and all present appearances give evidence that idolatry has received its death-blow. Some interesting details occur of the great battle which preceded its abolition. Tamehameha, when making the final arrangements for the future government of the islands, left the civil and military sovereignty in the hands of his son Rihoriho, while he bequeathed to his nephew Kekuaokalani the more especial guardianship of the national worship. The latter seems to have thought that the apostacy of his cousin gave him a fair opportunity to strike for empire, and he collected a large force of malcontents for that purpose. Rihoriho, however, though he had acted decidedly, had done nothing rashly. His conduct had been sanctioned by the high priest of his father's war-god, and he had taken every step in concurrence with Karaimoku and other principal chiefs. The conflict that ensued, is thus described by Mr. Ellis.
• After travelling about two miles over this barren waste, we reached the place where, in the autumn of 1819, the decisive batile was fought between the forces of Rihoriho, the present king, and his cousin, Kekuaokalani, in which the latter was slain, his followers completely overthrown, and the cruel system of idolatry, which he took up arms to support, effectually destroyed. The natives pointed out to us the place where the king's troops, led on by Karaimoku, were first attacked by the idolatrous party. We saw several small heaps of stones, which our guide informed us were the graves of those who, during the conflict. bad fallen there. We were then shewn the spot on which the king's troops formed a line from the sea-shore towards the mountains, and drove the opposing party before them to a rising ground, where a stone fence, about breast-high, enabled the enemy to defend themselves for some time, but from which they were at length driven by a party of Karaimoku's warriors. The small tumuli increased in number as we passed along, until we came to a place called Tuamoo. Here Kekuaokalani made his last stand, rallied his flying forces, and seemed, for a moment, to turn the scale of victory; but being weak with the loss of blood, from a wound he had received in the early part of the engagement, he fainted and fell. However, he soon revived, and though unable to stand, sat on a fragment of lava, and twice loaded and fired his musket on the advancing party. He now received a ball in his left breast, and immediately covering his face with his feather cloak, expired in the midst of his friends. His wife Manona during the whole of the day fouglis by lois side, with steady und dauntless courage. A few moments aiter her husband's death; perceiving Karaimoku and his sister advancing, she called. out for quarter ; but the words had hardly escaped from her lips, when she received a ball in her left temple, fell upon the lifeless body of her husband, and instantly expired. The idolaters having lost their chief, made but feeble resistance afterwards; yet the combat, which commenced in the forenoon, continued till near sunset, when the king's troops, finding their enemies had all either fled or surrendered, returned to Kairua.
• Karaimoku grieved much at the death of Kekuaokalani, who was his own sister's son. He delayed the engagement as long as possible; and, the same morning that the battle took place, sent a messenger, addressing the young chief as his son, and requesting him to refrain from hostilities till they could have an interview, and, if possible, effect an accommodation. But the message was rejected, and the messenger obliged to jump into the sea, and swim to save his life. In the moment of victory, also, he acted with humanity; and, contrary to the usual custom, the vanquished were not pursued and murdered in their retreats.' pp. 92, 3.
The Sandwich Islands are an important station, both in a religious and a commercial point of view, and the missionaries appear to have before them a fair field for exertion. The natives are, as we have already intimated, inquiring; and their Christian teachers are received with kindness and deference. What effect the death of Rihoriho may have on the interests of the mission, cannot, of course, be ascertained as vet; but, at present, there seems every prospect of ultimate and permanept success.
Before we dismiss this article, we have two observations io make, one in the way of suggestion, the other in our less amiable character of critics. We would recommend that in the event of a second edition, which ought by this time to be in the press, Mr. Ellis give either an introductory or a supplementary chapter on the other islands of the groupe. A few pages might comprise a satisfactory view of their aspect, produce, population, with such other particulars as might be generally illustrative of their condition. There is already something of this, but not enough. Our criticism refers to the plates. Mr. Ellis is, most assuredly, no draughtsman: he describes well, but he sketches badly. The view of the tremendous crater of Kirauea resembles a conflagration in a frying-pan, or the preparations for a game at snap-dragon. We can hardly believe that the six-feet dyke is meant for the ghastly precipice of a thousand feet plunging down upon the fiery gulf.
Art. X: A Practical German Grammar: for the Use of Schools
and Private Students. By John Robotham. 12mo. pp. x. 347.
Price 6s. 6d. London, 1824. WE
E hail with great pleasure every appearance of an in
creasing attention to the language and literature of Germany. The affinity of that language to our own, its richness and energy, its utility in philological investigations, and the immense stores of information in all departments of knowledge which it contains, are considerations weighty enough to determine a sedulous attention to it, and to excite some wonder that it is not universally studied by English scholars and men of taste. Many of the least valuable, and even pernicious productions of the German press, have been translated into English, and have undoubtedly given a serious disgust to many. But an inference to the disadvantage of German literature generally, would be unjust. Christian divines should make themselves acquainted with the writings of the Antisupernatural school of Germany, and with those of their respondents and opponents, some of whom are very able. An opinion of its being an extremely harsh and difficult language has long prevailed among us: but this prejudice could have originated only with persons who were totally ignorant of the matter. An Englishman who has learned enough of German to understand the systematic involucra, if we may so speak, the language, sees plainly underneath them the primitives of his own. If he be acquainted with the provincial dialects and the obsolete phrases of his native tongue, especially those still subsisting in our northern counties, he will recognize a striking conformity. The difficulty which arises from the collocation of the words in sentences, especially the long and concatenated periods in which German prose-writers delight to indulge, is indeed a serious matter to a mere English student: but to a classical scholar, who is accustomed to the
very same character of construction in Cicero or Plato, it becomes rather a means of pleasure than of embarrassment.
Probably one cause of the neglect of the German language has lain in the want of a Grammar completely suited to its purpose. That of the late Dr. Nöhden is very excellent, and well deserving of the pre-eminence which has been generally given to it. But, in some parts, it is needlessly diffuse; and in others, where enlargement would be a signal benefit to the learner, it is brief even to sullenness. We may particularly instance, as examples of such deficiency, the parts on the impersonal verbs, the adverbs and adverbial phrases, and the conformities and differences of idiom in the English and German languages, which might have been represented in a tabular form. Indeed, it is not probable, nor scarcely possible, that a foreigner should be so well aware as an Englishman may be, of the points on which English minds stand in most need of information, provided that he have a philosophical head and the tact of practical application.
We have perused this Grammar by Mr. Robotham, with much satisfaction. It goes upon two 'excellent principles; to express the rules as briefly as is consistent with perspicuity, but to have the examples numerous and adapted to elucidate a large variety of the modifications of thought. Practical lessons to be construed, and exercises to be translated into German, are annexed to the chapters and sections. These are judiciously devised, and they confer a signal advantage, we believe we might say unrivalled, upon this work. We hesitate to acquiesce in Mr R.'s distribution of the nouns into five declensions. If he saw fit to depart from Dr. Nöhden's plan of four, which we believe is very generally received, we think that he would have done best by adopting Adelung's system of eight, which has the merit of clearing away nearly all the exceptions. The Syntax is very clear and satisfactory. We have not a doubt but that the work will be of great benefit to learners of any age, as it reflects much honour upon
the accu. racy and judgement of the Author. It has also the advantages of a clear type, and exemplary correctness in the printing, and of moderation in the price.
Art. XI. The Geography of the Globe ; containing a Description of
its several Divisions of Land and Water : to which are added,
Arithmetic, and Geography..12mo. pp. 356. London, 1826. WHAT with the political changes occasioned by Napoleon
in one hemisphere, and by the emancipation of the Spanish Colonies in the other, together with the astonishing progress of geographical discovery in all quarters,-an old book of Geography is reduced nearly to a par with an old Almanack. The work before us has attracted our attention as being the newest we have seen, and as it appears to have been compiled with great care and an examination of the latest authorities, we can safely recommend it to our readers.
In common with almost every book of the kind. we have seen, it contains too much, rather than too little for its proper