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• The weather clear and fine : we rode to-day through little valleys, delightfully green, lying between high ridges of granite ; and to add to the beauty of the scenery, there were many clear springs issuing out of the rocks, where young women were employed drawing water. I asked several times for a gourd of water, by way of excuse to enter into conversation with them. Bending gracefully on one knee, and displaying at the same time teeth of pearly whiteness, and eyes of the blackest lustre, they presented it to me on horseback, and appeared highly delighted when I thanked them for their civility: remarking one to another, “ did you hear the white man thank me!" !
Just before entering on that part of the road to the capital which was rendered dangerous by the frequent incursions of banditti, Captain Clapperton and his caravan were met by 150 horsemen despatched for their protection by Sultan Bello, and the leader bade the European visiter welcome in the name of his master. The travellers and their escort reached Sackatoo on the 16th of March, and on the following day the captain had his first audience.
• After breakfast the Sultan sent for me: his residence was at no great distance. In front of it there is a large quadrangle, into which several of the principal streets of the city lead. We passed through three coozees, as guard-houses, without the least detention, and were imme.. diately ushered into the presence of Bello, the second Sultan of the Felatahs. He was seated on a small carpet, between two pillars supporting the roof of a thatched house, not unlike one of our cottages. The walls and pillars were painted blue and white, in the Moorish taste, and on the back wall was' stretched a fire-screen, ornamented with a coarse painting of a flower-pot. An arm.chair, with an iron lamp standing on it, was placed on each side of the screen. The Sul. tan bade me many hearty welcomes.......... He asked me a great many questions about Europe and our religious distinctions. He was acquainted with the names of some of the more ancient sects, and asked me whether we were Nestorians or Socinians. To extricate myself from the embarrassment occasioned by this question, I bluntly replied, we were called Protestants.......... He continued to ask several other theological questions, until I was obliged to confess myself not sufficiently versed in religious subtilties to solve these knotty points....... The Sultan is a noble-looking man, forty-four years of age, although much younger in appearance, five feet ten inches high, portly in person, with a short, curling, black beard, a small mouth, a fine forehead, a Grecian nose, and large black eyes.'
When, at a subsequent interview, the presents were displayed, the Sultan was less attracted by the weapons and rich dresses, than by the compass and spy-glass; and he was specially gratified when informed that the needle would always enable him to find the east, when engaged in the stated prayers. * Every thing,' said he, ' is wonderful ; but you are the greatest
curiosity of all !-What can I give that is most acceptable to 'the king of England ?' Captain Clapperton replied, that his powerful aid in the suppression of the slave-trade was the most acceptable service he could render; and when Bello learned that we employed ships to prevent the traffic in human beings, that we had no slaves in England, with other particulars of our civil and military system, he exclaimed : You are a beautiful people.' On another occasion, writes Captain C,
• I was sent for by the Sultan, and desired to bring with me “ the looking-glass of the sun," the name they gave to my sextant. I was conducted further into the interior of his residence than on my two former visits. This part consisted of coozees pretty far apart from each other. I first exhibited a planisphere of the heavenly bodies. The Sultan knew all the signs of the Zodiac, some of the constellations, and many of the stars, by their Arabic names.
The looking glass of the sun was then brought forward, and occasioned much surprise. I had to explain all its appendages The inverting teles. cope was an object of intense astonishment; and I had to stand at some little distance, to let the Sultan look at me through it; for his people were all afraid of placing themselves within its magical influence. I had next to shew him how to take an observation of the
The case of the artificial horizon, of which I had lost the key, was sometimes very difficult to open, as happened on this occasion : I asked one of the people near me for a knife to press up the lid. He handed me one much too small, and I quite inadvertently asked for a dagger for the same purpose, The Sultan was instantly thrown into a fright; he seized his sword, and half drawing it from the scabbard, placed it before him, trembling all the time like an aspen leaf. I did not think it prudent to take the least notice of his aların, although it was I who had in reality most cause of fear; and on receiving the dagger, I calmly opened the case, and returned the weapon to its owner with apparent unconcern.
When the artificial horizon was arranged, the Sultan and all his attendants had a peep at the sun ; and my breach of etiquette seemed entirely forgotten.'
Among the visiters of Captain Clapperton, there were two of some note. The first was Ateeko, brother to Bello, but living in obscurity and disgrace, in consequence of an attempt made by him to obtain the sovereignty at the death of his father, Bello the first. The reigning Sultan had, it seems, during his father's life, sometimes talked of resigning royalty in favour of a life spent in the tranquil cultivation of learning and religion. Making this his pretext, Ateeko assumed the ensigns of dominion, marched to his brother's palace, and when the latter inquired into the meaning of the tumult, he was answered—“The
Sultan Ateeko is come.' Bello calmly ordered the usurper into his presence, and to the fair speeches of the intruder, only replied Go and take off these trappings, or I will take off
head. Never was rebellion more easily quelled, nor with fewer words. Ateeko is said to be brave, but avaricious and cruel. "Were he Sultan,' was the language of the people, • heads would fly about in Soudan.' The other gentleman who called to leave his card at Captain Clapperton's, shall be described in that officer's own words.
• I was sitting in the shade before my door, with Sidi Sheikh, the Sultan's fighi, when an ill-looking wretch, with a fiend-like grin on his countenance, came and placed himself directly before me. I asked Sidi Sheikh who he was? He answered with great composure, . the executioner. I instantly ordered my servants to turn him out. • Be patient,' said Sidi Sheikh, laying his hand upon mine : 'he visits the first people in Sackatoo, and they never allow him to go away without giving him a few Goora-nuts or money to buy them.' In compliance with this hint, I reyuested forty cowries to be given to the fellow, with strict orders never again to cross my threshold. Sidi Sheikh now related to me a professional anecdote of my unin. vited visiter. Being brother of the executioner of Yacoba, of which place he was a native, he applied to the governor for his brother's situation, boasting of superior adroitness in the family vocation. The governor coolly remarked : We will try-go fetch your brother's head! He went instantly in quest of his brother, and finding him seated at the door of his house, without noise or warning he struck off his head with a sword at one blow; then carrying the bleeding head to the governor, and claiming the reward of such transcendent atrocity, he was appointed to the vacant office. The Sultan being afterwards in want of an expert headsman, sent for him to Sackatoo, where, a short time after his arrival, he had to officiate at the execution of 2000 Tuaricks, who, in conjunction with the rebels of Goober, had attempted to plunder the country, but were all made prisoners; this event happened about four years ago.'
Captain Clapperton's original intention had been to extend his investigation further, and he was particularly anxious to reach Youri, but he found it impracticable to quit Sackatoo in that direction. Bello assigned as the reason of his objection, the dangers of the road; but it is more probably referred to the intrigues of the Arab merchants, who are jealous of every attempt to interfere with their monopoly. 'He determined therefore to return, and Bello dismissed him with prayers for his safety, putting into his hands a letter to the King of England, and assuring him of his anxious wish to open an intercourse in the direction of the sea-coast. Captain C. left Sackatoo on his return, May 4th, and after much suffering and considerable hazard in consequence of mistaking the route, reached Kouka, so changed in appearance by illness and fatigue, that Major Denham, at their first meeting, did not recognize his old companion, until he spoke. On the 16th of August, they left Kouka, and on the 26th of January 1825, reached Tripoli.
The information obtained respecting the long agitated questions concerning the course of the Niger and the Nile, is so slight and indefinite as to leave the matter just where it was before. In fact, there seems to be such a confusion of names and courses, that, having no favourite hypothesis to maintain, we have exempted ourselves from the trouble of attempting to unravel them.
It should seem from all that was collected on the subject, that the common reports concerning the death of Mungo Park were substantially true. An Arab, of great influence at Sackatoo, stated positively, that he was at Boosa, when the whitemen were wrecked on some ledges of rock just below the town. The natives assailing them with arrows, the two Europeans jumped into the water and were drowned. Bello confirmed this statement, and added, that he had once had in his possession a double-barrelled gun which was taken in the boat. It was the dry season, or the rocks would have been passable.
Major Denham made two attempts to effect the circuit of the lake Tchad : his failure leaves it in some degree uncertain whether it have any outlet.
A large Appendix contains various papers connected with the mission, and among them, the letters from El-Kanemy and Bello to the King of England. Some interesting illustrations of natural history are given. The plates are well executed, but the views are evidently the efforts of an unpractised pencil. The camera lucida would be a useful companion to a traveller deficient in graphic dexterity.
It is understood that Captain Clapperton is now on his way from the coast of Benin, in an attempt to reach the dominions of Bello by a shorter and more direct route.
Art. IV. Sermons, Expositions, and Addresses at the Holy Com.
munion, By the late Rev. Alexander Waugh, A.M. Minister of the Scots' Church in Miles-Lane, London. To which is prefixed, a short Memoir of the Author. Second Edition. 8vo. pp. xxxvi.
338. Price 10s. 6d. London. 1825. IT is the remark of a celebrated Roman poet, that in poetry neither gods nor men will tolerate mediocrity,
There are some persons who are disposed to apply a similar principle, or one still more severe, to Sermons; and who consider no pulpit compositions as entitled to public acceptance, or fit to be endured, unless they are adorned with all the graces and attractionis, if not of poetry, yet of the highest and most consummate oratory.
When the multiplicity of such compositions already published is considered, it cannot be thought unreasonable to insist, that those henceforth given to the world, shall be characterized by orthodoxy and good sense, and by a respectable portion of vigour, if not of elegance, both of conception and expression. But to demand that every volume of Sermons shall be a specimen of finished eloquence, is not only to demand more than is expected in any other department of literature, but to misapprehend in some measure the nature and design of "the ministry of reconciliation.” Poetry and secular eloquence are addressed to persons whose minds are presumed to have been cultivated and refined by education; but, “ unto the poor the gospel is preached.” The primary object of the poet is to please; that of the preacher is to instruct, to convince, and to persuade. The poet seeks to influence the subordinate faculties of the mind, the taste and the fancy; the orator whose subject is not of a religious nature, is far more at liberty to work on these principles than the Christian minister, who must seek to move the affections only through the medium of the intellect, and whose primary aim ought to be,“ to commend himself to the conscience of every man in the sight of God.” It is true, undoubtedly, that the subjects which constitute the materials of his ministry are, some of them, susceptible of imaginative decoration; and that all of them possess such ineffable grandeur and importance, that they may well excite the most profound and intense emotions. That perception, however, of their grandeur and importance which is an indispensable prerequisite to a just and impressive representation of them, tends necessarily to solemnize and overawe the mind, to · repress imagination's airy wing, and to exclude as irrelevant and injurious, those exaggerations and embellishments to which secular eloquence owes much of its effect. It was in conformity with the requirements of their subject, as well as in accommodation to the necessities of their hearers, that the Apostles determined to preach the gospel “ in simplicity, and not with the enticing words of man's wisdom." In subsequent times, the most eloquent, or at least, the most oratorical preachers and writers have not always been, nor are they fitted to be, the most powerful and successful ; and we doubt much whether the magnificence and sublimity of Howe are ordinarily as effective for usefulness, as the familiar and unadorned urgency of Baxter, compared with which, the exuberant brilliance of Taylor appears utterly puerile and impotent.
By these remarks, we are far from intending to maintain,