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tioned, is, in some measure, confined to himself; because he obtains it chiefly by watching the condition and progress of his own mind. But this is not the case altogether; for the tree is known by its fruits. It is a matter of external observation, when the sinner is turned from the error of his ways, the proud man humbled, and the Christian character formed. It cannot be concealed from others, when the designed effect of an acquaintance with Scripture is actually produced in the individual; when “ the man of God is perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works." Nor can any one who entertains a just notion of the moral attributes of the Supreme Being, refuse under such circumstances to confess, that the writings from the use of which these consequences result, have originated in the power, the wisdom, and the love of God. pp. 106-108.

It is no inconclusive evidence of their Divine origin, Mr. Gurney adds, that, in the Scriptures, we find both the foundation and the boundaries of all secondary means of religious improvement.'

• That the ministry of the Gospel ought to be exercised under the immediate direction of the great Head of the Church, is a principle which will probably be allowed by many pious Christians; yet we are not to forget, that when that ministry is most spiritual in its origin, it is still found to dwell on the declarations of Scripture. The purest gifts of the Spirit, as they are now administered, are almost exclusively directed to the application of those materials which originated in a higher and more plenary operation of the same Divine influence. Thus, also, the sentiments which chiefly edify in the writings of modern Christians, are precisely those sentiments which, in their original form, have been expressed by prophets and apostles. It is Divine truth, as applied to the heart of man by the Spirit of God, which converts, sanctifies, and edifies; and of this Divine truth, the only authorized record-a record at once original and complete-is the Bible.' pp. 108, 9.

If this be Quakerism, we are happy to assure Mr. Gurney, that, on this point at least, we are Friends. To a disregard of the Scriptural connexion between the operations of the Holy Spirit and the instrumental cause, that word which is Truth, almost every description of fanaticism owes its origin. The written Scriptures and the ministry of the word, separated from the agency of that Spirit which worketh all in all, are found to be alike powerless and inefficient; and those persons who ascribe an inherent efficiency to the instrument, or look for any spiritual effects independent of a Divine Agency, are chargeable with an infidel fanaticism not more reasonable than those who rely on immediate impressions, dreams, or inspirations, of which the revealed will and word of God are not the substance and the medium. On the other hand, a Popish regeneration,


a sacramental grace, which, while it seems to do honour to the Spirit of God, sets aside his word as the medium of his saving and sanctifying operations, attributing to water or a wafer the moral influence of truth, and substituting a sacerdotal incantation for the work of faith, Scripture and Reason alike disown. The office of the sacraments, we hold with Calvin to be pre'cisely the same as that of the word of God, which is to offer • and present Christ to us, and in him the treasures of his hea

venly grace;' while, on our part, they serve at once as a solemn confession and pledge, a vow of allegiance and a significant memorial. On these grounds, and on that of their Divine

appointment, we contend for the obligation of observing them.

If we have dwelt the longer on that portion of the volume which has given us the least satisfaction, it is in the hope that our suggestions may lead the estimable Author to reconsider the passages referred to. The sixth essay, which treats of the Divine nature and attributes, is a delightful specimen of genuine theology: the sentiments are strictly Scriptural, and a glow of piety is diffused over the whole, which is but too seldom preserved in theological treatises.

In the subsequent essay, on the union and distinction in the Divine nature,' we have been not less charmed with the Author's explicit avowal and defence of the orthodox doctrine, and his correct method of stating it, which is in entire accordance with the views we expressed in a recent article. While the primary truth, that there is no other God than Jehovah, must ever be held sacred on the authority of the Holy Scriptures ; 'it is on the same authority,' Mr. Gurney remarks, ' that we admit another doctrine,-name* ly, that in his revealed operations, and more especially in the

appointment and application of the scheme of man's redemption, God has manifested himself to us as the Father, the Son, • and the Holy Ghost. The Divine nature of the Son of God is more fully discussed in the tenth Essay. In reference to the personality and deity of the Holy Spirit, after citing numerous declarations of Scripture, Mr. Gurney remarks :

· Now, if the inquiry be addressed to us, Who is this person of whom Christ and his apostles thus bear witness ; who teaches and consoles the disciples of Jesus; who reproves the world of sin, of righteousness, and of judgement ; whom it is unpardonable to blaspheme, wicked and dangerous to tempt and to grieve; who finds his temple in the hearts of the righteous; who inspires the apostle, speaks by. the prophet, appoints the overseer, calls forth, anoints, and directs the evangelist; who distributes to his people, according to his own will, those manifold gifts and graces by which the church is edified, and the cause of truth promoted !--the fundamental principles of our religion, and the whole analogy of Scripture, will assuredly admit but of one answer, This Person is God.

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pp. 147, 8.

God is a Spirit. Invisible, and spiritual in his nature, he fills his own works : he exercises over them an unseen but powerful influence : he dwells and operates in the hearts of men. Nor can we deny the truth of the converse of such a proposition-namely, that the Spirit who fills the works of Deity, who exercises over them an unseen yet powerful influence, who dwells and operates in the hearts of men, is God. “ Now, the LORD IS THAT SPIRIT,” said the Apostle Paul; “ and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. But we all with open face beholding, as in a glass, the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as by the SPIRIT OF THE LORD." ;

Having briefly exhibited the Scriptural evidence that the Father is God, that the Son is God, that the Holy Spirit is God, Mr. Gurney proceeds to take a view of the additional passages

in which the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, • whose deity is thus distinctively and separately indicated, are

presented to our attention as the united sources of the Chris* tian's help and consolation, the united objects of the Chris• tian's belief and obedience.' The first passage cited is John xvi. 13, 14., on which are founded the following forcible remarks.

• If, then, I am asked, who is to guide the people of God into all truth? I answer, on the authority of this luminous declaration, The Spirit of Truth. If I am asked again, Whose wisdom and


does the Spirit of Truth administer ? it is on the same authority that I reply, The wisdom and grace of the Son of God. And if, lastly, the inquiry be addressed to me, On what principle can we say that it is the wisdom and grace of the Son, which the Spirit administers? this inquiry also is fully met by the information contained in our text. namely, that all wisdom and grace are from the Father, and that, whatsoever the Father hath, is the Son's. From whom then does the Christian derive the strength of his spiritual life and the hope of his soul's salvation? From the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. And to whom does he owe the tribute of gratitude and praise, and the return of a faithful and unhesitating obedience? To the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.' pp. 148, 9.

The other texts which Mr. Gurney proceeds to illustrate, are Eph. iv. 4-6; 1 Cor. xii. 4-6; 2 Cor. xiii. 14; Luke iii. 21, 22; and Matt. xxviii. 29, 30. In noticing the last of these, the Author slightly indicates his peculiar view of the rite, by remarking that in whatever manner we may here in.terpret the participle baptizing—whether we understand it as • denoting merely the sign of conversion or the act of convert• ing itself,'—the doctrine is clear, that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are in common the objects of the Christian's faith and allegiance. In the following paragraphs, Mr.

Guruey adverts to the order of that relation in which they

stand to each other, and the distinct offices which they are ' respectively described as bearing in the glorious economy of • the Divine dispensations. This is ground, however, on which we fear to tread ; and although we have no fault to find with Mr. Gurney's statements on the score of orthodoxy, since they are in strict accordance with the received opinions of theologians, yet, the stress laid on John xv. 26, as a proof of • the subordination of the Spirit to the Father and the Son, that mysterious dogma of procession which has agitated contending churches, -we think far from judicious. On the whole, however, we have been highly gratified with this part of our Author's work, in which he has displayed not less wisdom than piety ; and we cannot but anticipate the happiest results from the circulation of his clear and Scriptural statements.

The next essay, on the existence and personality of the Spiritual Adversary, is not less admirable. This subject has commonly been treated under the general head of the existence and attributes of angels, considered either as part of the works of God or as the agents of his government. The ministry of holy angels certainly claims a place among the articles of the Christian faith ; but the character and agency of Satan as the author of evil, form a distinct topic, and one of such primary importance as to demand a separate consideration. In this point of view, systems of divinity are for the most part very defective; and Mr. Gurney will have rendered a great service to the Christian public, if, by his Scriptural and explicit manner of treating the subject, he should lead divines and preachers to give this topic its due place, not merely in their systems, but in their discourses. After reviewing the Scriptural evidence, Mr. Gurney expresses his astonishment, that any persons professing to regard the Scriptures as divinely inspired, and laying claim to the character of fair interpreters of the sacred volume, should deny the personality of the great adversary.

• It ought ever to be remembered, that the Holy Spirit can neither err nor feign ; and although there is to be found in the Bible much of poetry, and something, perhaps, of allegory, yet, as a guide to practice and to doctrine, it can be regarded only as a code of principles and a record of realities. Besides, the descriptions of Satan are to be found principally in those parts of Scripture which are not poetical, but either historical or simply didactic. Never were there plainer or more unsophisticated historians historians less disposed to indulge in fanciful imagery or oriental exaggeration—than Moses or the four evangelists, who have severally, in the course of their histories, presented to our attention the personal character and opera. I tions of Satan. To these are to be added, Paul, Peter, James, and Jude-those homely yet luminous didactic writers, who, as well as our blessed Lord himself, have all made mention of the devil, not as an allegorical figure, but as a powerful, insidious, malicious being.'

p. 173.


The denial of the personality and power of Satan, Mr. Gurney very justly represents to be closely connected with a low and

inadequate view of the malignity, the depth, and the danger • of sin. The essential demerit of sin is, in fact, a proposition which lies at the foundation of all theological science. In false views of this subject, the Pelagian, Socinian, and Antinomian heresies mainly originate; and unless this be admitted as a first principle clearly and necessarily deducible from the Perfection of God, it will be found impossible to give either meaning or coherency to any system having the least pretension to a Scriptural character. The fall of man is thus stated by Mr. Gurney in terms which appear to us alike clear and unexceptionable.

• The Scriptures teach us, that the fall of our first Parents from a condition of natural righteousness to one of natural sinfulness,-- from a condition in which he was the heir of a blessing, to one in which he was the subject of the curse, -was the immediate cause of a moral degeneracy, and therefore of a punishable guilt, in the whole family of his descendants.' p. 209.

The practical observations with which this Essay closes, are highly striking and impressive, and serve as an excellent preparation for the subject of the ensuing essay, the character of the Saviour. Our limits will not admit of our pursuing any further an analysis of the work, but we must make room for a few more detached extracts. Mr. Gurney seizes every occasion to bear his decided testimony to the true and proper deity of the Son of God, his real equality and unity with the Father.

• The Father alone knoweth the Son, or who the Son is: the Son alone knoweth the Father, or who the Father is. The omniscient Father has a perfect knowledge of the Son; and the Son knoweth the Father, even as the Father knowcth the Son. The Son glorifieth the Father, and the Father glorifieth the Son. All those persons who are in a peculiar sense the Son's, are also the Father's; and all those persons who, in the same sense, belong to the Father, belong also to the Son. Whatsoever things, indeed, are possessed by the Son, are of necessity the Father's, and “ all things that the Father hath,” are the Son's. John xvi. 15. So intimate is their connexionin so absolute a sense is it true that the Son is in the Father and the Father in the Son,--that whosoever believeth in the Son, believeth in the Father, whosoever knoweth the Son, knoweth the Father ; whosoever seeth the Son, „seeth the Father; to whomsoever the Son is shewn, the Father is shewn. So even is their fellowship in the

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