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Ausa et jacentem visere regiam
Voltu sereno, fortis et asperas
Tractare serpentes, ut atrum

Corpore combiberet venenum,
Deliberata morte ferocior,
Saevis Liburnis scilieet invidens
Privata deduci superbo

Non humilis mulier triumpho.

change for her own kingdom shores out of
the sight of men.' It is said that Cleopatra
contemplated quitting Egypt to escape from
Augustus, and that she transported vessels
across the desert to the Red Sea; but they
were destroyed by the Arabs, and she aban-
doned her design. Plut. Ant. c. 69. On the
word 'reparavit' see C. i. 34. 12 n. Bentley
proposes 'penetravit,' but without altering
the meaning of the passage, which is suf-
ficiently expressed by reparavit,' the read-
ing of all the MSS. with the exception of
one, which has repetivit.' Bos proposes
by the addition of one letter to make it
ire paravit' (Animad. p. 36). Orelli gives
various other conjectures, as 'repedavit,'
'peraravit,' 'remeavit,' 'recreavit,' 'pro-
peravit,' trepidavit.' [See Keller's note.]
25. jacentem] One MS. has 'tacentem,"
which Bentley approves, appealing to C.

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25

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iv. 14. 36: vacuam patefecit aulam.* Because Cleopatra's palace was not pulled down, he thinks jacentem' inappropriate and unhistorical. On Cleopatra's death, &c. see Plut. Ant. c. 84.

[29. Deliberata] Resolute,' 'resolved;' it means that which is well cleared up or freed from doubt and impediment; for 'deliberare' is a stronger form of liberare.']

30. Liburnis] The Scholiast Porphyrion relates on the authority of Livy that Cleopatra having the prospect of being carried to Rome used to exclaim οὐ θριαμβεύ σoμal. [Saevis Liburnis' is the dative depending on 'invidens,' though both words must be understood with deduci.' The sense is, 'refusing to be led as a private person in a proud triumph by the Liburnian ships' (comp. Epod. i.), 'she, no mean-souled woman.']

CARMEN XXXVIII.

"The only two persons," says Franke, "who know when this ode was written are Kirchner and Grotefend. The former assigns it to A.U.C. 729, the latter to 725." [Ritter also knows. It was written, he says, in September A.U.c. 724. All three know, and all differ.] It may be said in favour of Kirchner, that he expresses a doubt by marking the date with a (?). The words were probably written as a song and set to music. I learn from Jani that Voltaire had a contempt for this ode, and that for his disrespect he was well punished by the illustrious Schmid: "egregie depexum dedit Cl. Schmidius." There is not much to remark upon it one way or the other. No great pains are usually bestowed on such matters. Some suppose it to be a translation, others an original composition. It is probably only a good imitation of Anacreon. The time is supposed to be Autumn (v. 4).

ARGUMENT.

I hate your Persian finery, your sutile crowns. Hunt not for the rose, boy; I care not thou shouldst seek for aught save the myrtle, which will do for thee the servant and for me thy master drinking under the shade of my vine.

PERSICOS odi, puer, apparatus,
Displicent nexae philyra coronae ;

[1. apparatus] In this sense frequently used with another word, as epularum

apparatus,' 'apparare convivium' (Cicero). Terence, Andr. iii. 4. 15.]

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Q. HORATII FLACCI

CARMINUM

LIBER SECUNDUS.

CARMEN I.

A.U.C. 724-725.

POLLIO retired from public affairs, in which he had taken an active part for twenty years, after the triumph he obtained for his victory over the Parthini, an Illyrian people, A.U.C. 715 (v. 16), and betook himself to literature, but confined himself at first chiefly to dramatic writing. It appears from Suetonius (de Illust. Gram. c. 10) that he did not undertake his history till after the death of Sallust, A.U.c. 720 (see Clinton, F. H. a. 39 B.C.), for it was after that event that he became acquainted with the grammarian Atteius, who furnished him with rules for composition. And if the history was not begun till that year, even though (as is probable) Pollio should have taken notes of most of the transactions he had to relate, with a great many of which he had been personally connected, it is not probable that so large a work, consisting of seventeen books, and taking in the whole period from the coalition of Caesar, Pompeius, and Crassus to the conclusion of the civil wars, could have been so far completed as to be communicated to his friends before the year A.U.C. 723, which was the year of the battle of Actium. But the words "arma nondum expiatis uncta cruoribus (v. 4 sq.), coupled with "cui dabit partes scelus expiandi Juppiter" (C. i. 2. 20 sq.), make it likely that these two odes were written about the same time; that is to say, shortly after the battle and before Augustus had established his government in the confidence of the people. It is true Lambinus and some of the older commentators were of opinion that the history of Pollio is not meant, but only his tragedies, which they say related to the events of the times, and which Horace wishes him to lay aside for a while and give his attention to public affairs, until the republic should be settled. So they interpret

"mox ubi publicas

Res ordinaris grande munus

Cecropio repetes cothurno."

"

But there is no reason to suppose any of Pollio's tragedies had reference to the events of the day, while his history related to nothing else. The Scholiasts understood the history to be referred to (see note on v. 10).

The ode was written after hearing Pollio recite part of his work; a practice which he is said to have introduced among literary men at Rome.

ARGUMENT.

The civil wars, their causes, their faults, their progress, the sports of fortune, and the fatal leagues of chiefs, and arms stained with blood not yet atoned for-a dangerous task is thine, and treacherous is the ground thou art treading.

HORATII FLACCI CARMINUM II. 1.

87 Leave the tragic Muse for a little while, and thou shalt return to her when thou hast finished the historian's task, O Pollio! advocate, senator, conqueror! Even now I seem to hear the trumpet and the clarion, the flashing of arms, and the voices of chiefs, and the whole world subdued but the stubborn heart of Cato. The gods of Africa have offered his victors' grandsons on the tomb of Jugurtha. What land, what waters are not stained with our blood? But stay, my Muse, approach not such high themes.

MOTUM ex Metello consule civicum
Bellique causas et vitia et modos
Ludumque Fortunae gravesque
Principum amicitias et arma
Nondum expiatis uncta cruoribus,
Periculosae plenum opus aleae,
Tractas et incedis per ignes
Suppositos cineri doloso.
Paullum severae Musa tragoediae
Desit theatris: mox ubi publicas
Res ordinaris grande munus
Cecropio repetes cothurno,

1. Motum ex Metello consule] The foundation of the civil wars is here laid in the coalition of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, which took place in the consulship of Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer and L. Afranius, A.U.C. 694, B.C. 60. But the civil war did not break out till A.U.C. 704, B.C. 50, when Caesar and Pompey came to their final rupture. Cruquius supposes Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus to be the consul referred to. His consulship was in the year 615, B. c. 109, the third year of the Jugurthine war, which as leading to the civil war of Marius and Sulla he considers the foundation of the mischiefs referred to by Pollio. But such was not the subject of his history, which was confined to those civil commotions of which he himself had been witness, as the Scholiast Porphyrion says, "In translatione bellorum civilium Pollio historiam belli civilis a consulatu Lentuli et Mamerti coepti altius repetit, i. e. a Metello Celere et a L. Afranio Coss." (Mamerti' is a mistake for Marcelli.' Lentulus and Marcellus were consuls the year after the breach between Caesar and Pompey, A.U.C. 705). ['Modos,' a prosaic word, perhaps means 'events.' Ludumque Fortunae,' see C. iii. 29. 50.] 4. Principum amicitias] The alliance of Caesar and Pompeius.

5. Nondum expiatis uncta cruoribus] See C. i. 2, Introduction, and v. 31 n. Bentley conjectures tincta' for 'uncta,' “multa argutans," as Jani says. In Ep.

xvii. 31, we have

66

5

10

Quantum neque atro delibutus Hercules
Nessi cruore,"

where the Scholiast says 'delibutus' is
equivalent to 'unctus.'
'Cruoribus' sa-
vours of the Greek. So Aesch. Supp. 262:
παλαιῶν αἱμάτων μιάσμασιν.

6. Periculosae plenum opus aleae] Pollio had been faithful to C. Julius Caesar, but after his death had sided rather with M. Antonius than Augustus; and therefore, when Augustus had put an end to his rival, and had the entire power in his own hands, it was a bold and difficult task that Pollio had undertaken. It does not appear, however, that he involved himself in any dif ficulty with Augustus, for he died in his eightieth year at his villa at Tusculum, A.U.C. 758, A.D. 4. Cremutius Cordus, the historian who was capitally condemned under Tiberius for having called Brutus and Cassius the last of the Romans, appealed in his defence to the impunity with which Pollio had expressed his sentiments (Tac. Ann. iv. 34). Pollio's history may have been written with impartiality, and Augustus was not jealous and could afford to be otherwise. [Ritter says that these words refer to the events contained in Pollio's history, and he appeals to Tacitus, Hist. i. 2: Opus adgredior opimum casibus,' &c.]

7. incedis per ignes] Thou art treading on ashes that cover a smouldering fire, like the ashes at the mouth of a volcano, cool

88

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Afris inulta cesserat impotens

Tellure victorum nepotes

Rettulit inferias Jugurthae.

Quis non Latino sanguine pinguior
Campus sepulcris impia proelia
Testatur auditumque Medis
Hesperiae sonitum ruinae?

on the surface but burning below.' Such
is the threat of Propertius to his rival (i.
5. 4):-

"Infelix! properas ultima nosse mala, Et miser ignotos vestigia ferre per ignes,"

&c.

10. mox ubi publicas Res ordinaris] "When you shall have finished your history of public events.' Thus Bentley also takes it, saying the Greeks used ovvтáoσew for writing a book. Plutarch uses σúvтayμа for a book. Ανατάξασθαι occurs in the preface to St. Luke's Gospel, and is thus rendered in the Vulgate translation, "Quoniam quidem multi conati sunt ordinare narrationem " (quoted by Orelli). The Scholiast Acron says that Pollio was writing tragedy at the same time with his history, and that the style of the one affected the style of the other: so that Horace advises him to lay aside his tragedies in order that he may do justice to his history. As the theme is delicate and he is well able to adorn it, he should put aside his tragedies, the only obstacle to its proper accomplishment. They were probably of no great merit. None have survived, and he has no credit for them, except with Horace and Virgil, who were under personal obligations to him. See S. i. 10. 42, and Virg.

30

Ec. viii. 19. Turnebus advocates this interpretation (Adv. x. 21).

16. Delmatico-triumpho] See Introduction. [Delmatico' is the form in intico.'] scriptions and on some coins, not 'Dalma

17. Jam nunc] See C. iii. 6. 23 n.

21. Audire-videor] I seem to myself to hear,' as C. iii. 4. 6. Cicero uses the word with 'videre' not unfrequently, as (de Am. 12) "videre jam videor populum à senatu disjunctum." Divin. in Q. Caecil. c. 14: "Te, Caecili, videre jam videor," &c.

23. cuncta terrarum subacta] It is probable that Pollio had given a very stirring account of Caesar's African campaign, in which he himself served, and that his description had made a great impression The victory of Thapsus upon Horace. made Caesar master of the whole Roman world. Bentley reads 'videre' for 'audire,' as being more appropriate to 'cuncta terraBut Horace is plainly referring to rum.' what he had heard Pollio read. The MSS. have audire.' ['Cuncta terrarum' means the same as 'cunctas terras.' Comp. 'amara curarum,' C. iv. 12. 19.]

'Juno and any

25. Juno et deorum" of the gods that favour Africa, who had departed helplessly (i. e. after the Jugurthine war) and left that land unavenged, have

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