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Nil obstet tibi dum ne sit te ditior alter.
Quid juvat immensum te argenti pondus et auri
Furtim defossa timidum deponere terra?
"Quod si comminuas vilem redigatur ad assem."
At ni id fit quid habet pulchri constructus acervus ?
Milia frumenti tua triverit area centum,
Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus: ut si
Reticulum panis venales inter onusto
Forte vehas humero, nihilo plus accipias quam
Qui nil portarit. Vel dic quid referat intra

The second person is used to give force to
the language. The self-deceiver is con-
fronted with his own illustration.

42. Furtim] Orelli says that furtim' belongs only to defossa; but defossa deponere terra cannot be taken too closely together, as Dillenbr. justly remarks.

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43. Quod si comminuas] The miser is supposed to interrupt, and say, "but if you were to take from it, it would soon dwindle to a paltry as.' Bentley and some others put a comma after 'quod,' and make the same person speak the whole. Though 'quod' is always the neuter of the relative, whether it be translated that,' 'because,' or 'but,' here it is "used to connect a new sentence with what precedes" (Key's L. G. 1454 i), and is not connected with 'pondus' as its antecedent. [I think it is but the explanation is right.]

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45. Milia frumenti] Modiorum' must be supplied. As to millia,' 'mille,' see S. ii. 3. 197 n. On area,' see C. i. 1. 18 n. 'Triverit,' 'suppose that it threshes.' On this concessive use of the subjunctive, see Key's L. G. 1227 b. The practice of putting a note of interrogation in such sentences as this is bad. The older editions generally have it. See Cic. in Verr. Act. ii. 3. 2: "Furem aliquem aut rapacem accusaris: vitanda tibi semper erit omnis avaritiae suspicio," &c., with Long's note and Heindorf's on this passage. Similar constructions are S. 10. 64: "Fuerit Lucilius inquam Comis et urbanus; fuerit limatior-sed ille," &c. S. 3. 15: "Decies centena dedisses :-quinque diebus nil erat in loculis." Epp. i. 1. 87: “Lectus genialis in aula est; Nil ait esse prius, melius nil coelibe vita." Epp. i. 6. 29: "Vis recte vivere: quis non ?" v. 31, "virtutem verba putas ut lucum ligua: cave ne portus occupet alter." Horace uses the ablative 'hoc' for 'propter hanc rem' in other places. S. i. 3. 93: " Minus hoc jucundus amicus Sit mihi?" 9. 7,

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"Hic ego, Pluris hoc mihi semper eris." See the passage of Cicero quoted on v. 27. Lambinus says, incorrectly, that 'hoc' is to be taken deiKTIKŵs, by so much,' "verbi gratia, pilo et similibus." Plus ac' occurs again S. i. 6. 130, "victurum suavius ac si." S. i. 10. 34, "non ligna feras insanius ac si." S. i. 10. 59, Mollius ac si quis." S. ii. 3. 270, "Nihilo plus explicet ac si Insanire paret." Cicero likewise uses ac' with the comparative (Ad Att. xiii. 2), "Diutius abfuturus ac vellem." See Key's L. G. § 1439. Plus quam' occurs immediately below. The scene that follows is that of a rich man's household preceding him to the country, a pack of slaves (venales), some carrying provisions and particularly town-made bread in netted bags (reticula), and others with different burthens, and some with none at all. The man who carried the bread would not get any more of it on that account when the rations were given out, but all would share alike. [Venales' may mean a gang of slaves for sale: Krüger.]

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49. quid referat-viventi] This is a very natural construction. 'Refert' is 'rem fert' (Key's L. G. 910), and the construction 'mea,' ' tua,' &c., refert,' is no more, as Professor Key shows, than a corruption of meam,' 'tuam,' &c., 'rem fert.' magni refert' is 'rem magni fert,' 'it brings with it a matter of great price' and refert viventi' signifies it brings something that concerns him who lives,' that is, it affects him, and 'quid refert' is wherein does it affect him ?' The bounds of nature can only be explained relatively. Artificial wants are natural wants in some conditions of life, but this second nature also has its limits, which there are few that do not transgress who can. The man who can live upon the produce of a hundred acres might live upon fifty and still satisfy the wants of nature, though in some conditions of society, in which the wants of

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Naturae fines viventi jugera centum an

Mille aret? "At suave est ex magno tollere acervo."

Dum ex parvo nobis tantundem haurire relinquas,
Cur tua plus laudes cumeris granaria nostris?

Ut tibi si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna,

Vel cyatho, et dicas, " Magno de flumine malim

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Quam ex hoc fonticulo tantundem sumere." Eo fit
Plenior ut si quos delectet copia justo

Cum ripa simul avulsos ferat Aufidus acer.

At qui tantuli eget quanto est opus is neque limo
Turbatam haurit aquam neque vitam amittit in undis.
At bona pars hominum decepta cupidine falso,

nature become confused with the wants of
fashion, he would find it hard to do so;
and the fault lies in a great degree, though
not entirely, with the social laws or habits
which create that difficulty. The case
supposed is that of a man who professes to
wish to live reasonably, and has greater
wealth than a reasonable mode of life re-
quires. What value, Horace asks, has the
surplus for the owner? The answer (in-
troduced as usual by 'at') sounds irra-
tional, and even extravagant, but it is the
only solution of avarice in its simple
form.

[50. centum an mille] This is one of the forms of expressing an alternative, which is expressed at length by utrum an,' and 'ne an.']

53. cumeris] Acron explains 'cumerae' as large baskets of wicker-work or earthenware vessels like a 'dolium,' in which farmers kept their wheat. He says that cumerae' were also vessels of smaller capacity containing five or six modii,' called in the Sabine language 'trimodiae.'

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54. liquidi] This word is used for 'aqua' by Ovid (Met. v. 454): "Cum liquido mixta perfundit diva polenta." The 'urna,' one of the Roman liquid measures, contained half an 'amphora,' or twenty-four 'sextarii.' The cyathus' contained onetwelfth of a 'sextarius. (C. iii. 19. 14 n.). [Non amplius' a pitcher of water, not more.' This form occurs in Caesar: B. G. i. 41, 'milium amplius quinquaginta circuitu.' 'Amplius' in such cases is independent of the grammatical construction.] 55. malim] All the editions before Bentley had mallem,' which he changed to malim,' not without MS. authority. Fea, Cunningham, Sanadon, Meineke, and others have the present. 'Malim' simply means I would rather;' mallem,' I

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would have done it if I could, but the time is past.' Heindorf defends 'malim.' The 'violens Aufidus' (C. iii. 30. 10) represents the copious stream, because it is Horace's purpose to represent a river rapid as well as broad. Swinburne (Travels in the two Sicilies,' vol. i. p. 165) says of this river, which he visited in the summer of 1778, "there was but little water in it, and that whitish and muddy; but from the wideness of its bed, the sandbanks and buttresses erected to break the force of the stream, it is plain that it still answers to Horace's epithets of fierce, roaring, and violent." See C. iv. 14. 25 n. [Orelli and Ritter have mallem.' Ritter has the following note: 'mallem' si fieri posset: at fieri nunc non potest, quippe ad fonticulum est, ut ostendunt verba ex hoc fonticulo,' non in fluminis ripa. Recte igitur se habet "mallem" non "malim." He seems to suppose that the river is almost dry, and is then called a fonticulus' and opposed to a river which is magnum' or full. This is ingenious, but perhaps not the true explanation.]

59. tantuli eget quanto est opus] From some unknown MSS. which Lambinus says have quantum,' Bentley adopts that reading. All the editions before him and all other MSS. have 'quanto.' The nominative 'quantum' is admissible, as Bentley has shown (see also Key's L. Gr. § 999 note), and if the weight and existence of Lambinus's MSS. were more certain, there would be something in Bentley's argument (the common one) that the copyists were more likely to change quantum' into 'quanto' than, vice versa, the ablative into the nominative.

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61. bona pars] "Bona pars: major" (Acron). "Bona nunc pro magna dictum, ut saepe Ennius et alii veteres" (Porph.).

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"Nil satis est," inquit; "quia tanti quantum habeas sis."
Quid facias illi? Jubeas miserum esse, libenter
Quatenus id facit; ut quidam memoratur Athenis
Sordidus ac dives, populi contemnere voces
Sic solitus: "Populus me sibilat; at mihi plaudo
Ipse domi simul ac nummos contemplor in arca.'
Tantalus a labris sitiens fugientia captat
Flumina . . . . Quid rides? mutato nomine de te
Fabula narratur: congestis undique saccis
Indormis inhians et tamquam parcere sacris
Cogeris aut pictis tamquam gaudere tabellis.

Nescis quo valeat nummus? quem praebeat usum?
Panis ematur, olus, vini sextarius, adde
Quis humana sibi doleat natura negatis.

See Terence (Eun. i. 2. 43): "Nam hic quoque bonam magnamque partem ad te attulit." A. P. 297: "Bona pars non ungues ponere curat." On 'cupido,' see C. ii. 16. 15 n.

62. tanti quantum habeas sis] This appears to have been a proverb. Lambinus quotes Plutarch (πepì piλonλovтías, c. 7) ταῦτα γάρ ἐστιν ἃ παραινοῦσι καὶ διδάσκουσι· κέρδαινε καὶ φείδου καὶ τοσούτου νόμιζε σauтdy ǎciov bσov av exps. Jacobs (Lect. Ven. p. 383) has restored the last words thus as taken from some comic poet :

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63. illi] Such a man as this; but Bentley, taking it to refer to 'pars, reads 'miseram on his own conjecture. Orelli quotes one MS. in its favour. Quatenus' signifies since,' not 'quamdiu,' as Acron says and others following him. See C. iii. 24. 30. The story that follows may have been picked up by Horace at Athens or invented by him. Acron says it refers to Timon, who hating man retired to his money-bags for consolation, which is nonsense; but Lambinus has repeated it. [The

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70

75

construction Quid facias illi ? what would you do with such a man?' is common; and the ablative is also used in the same sense.]

See

69. Quid rides] The miser is supposed to laugh at Horace's trite illustration and the solemn way it is announced; perhaps, Orelli says, in imitation of some poet of the day, but I think more likely from his own head. [Wieland in his translation of the Satires explains Quid rides,' thus. The covetous man smiles when Horace solemnly begins to talk of silly stories which nobody at that time believed. Cicero, Pro Čluentio, c. 61, Juvenal, Sat. ii. 149. But the Satirist shows him the application of the fable.] This version of the legend of Tantalus is taken from Homer (Odyss. xi. 582). Pindar (Ol. i. 57) and other poets give a different one, that a stone ening to fall upon him. See Euripides, was kept always hanging over and threat. Orest. v. 5; Lucretius, iii. 993 sq. See also Epod. xvii. 66 n.

71. tamquam parcere sacris] This appears to have been a proverbial expression. Compare Isocrates (Panath. c. 66): Twv μὲν γὰρ Ελληνίδων πόλεων οὕτως αὐτοῖς ἀπέχεσθαι σφόδρα δεδογμένον ἦν ὥσπερ τοῖς εὐσεβέσι τῶν ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς ἀνακει μévwv. See also S. ii. 3. 109 sq.: scius uti Compositis metuensque velut contingere sacrum ?"

"Ne

[73. Ritter writes this line without the (?), and perhaps he does right.]

74. sextarius] See v. 54 n. A sextarius' of wine would be quite enough for one temperate man's consumption in a day. [Ritter writes 'holus.']

An vigilare metu exanimem, noctesque diesque
Formidare malos fures, incendia, servos
Ne te compilent fugientes, hoc juvat? Horum
Semper ego optarim pauperrimus esse bonorum.
"At si condoluit tentatum frigore corpus,
Aut alius casus lecto te adfixit, habes qui
Adsideat, fomenta paret, medicum roget ut te
Suscitet ac gnatis reddat carisque propinquis."
Non uxor salvum te vult, non filius; omnes
Vicini oderunt, noti, pueri atque puellae.
Miraris, quum tu argento post omnia ponas,
Si nemo praestet quem non merearis amorem ?
An si cognatos, nullo natura labore
Quos tibi dat, retinere velis servareque amicos,
Infelix operam perdas, ut si quis asellum
In Campo doceat parentem currere frenis?

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80. At si condoluit] This may be an argument urged by the avaricious man: if you have money you will have anxious friends to nurse you in sickness.' Orelli puts a (?) after propinquis,' and supposes the meaning to be, if you are sick will any one nurse you and pray for your recovery? Not one.' Butat' seems to be the introduction of a reply, which use it so often serves. [Ritter also says that 80-83 are to be assigned to the poet; and then the sense may be,Well, you will say,' &c.; and the answer will be Non uxor,' &c. But Ritter also puts a (?) after 'propinquis.']

81. lecto te adfixit] The old editions nearly all have this reading. Most MSS., and among them those of the Berne, have 'afflixit,' which Lambinus and Cruquius adopt, and the former declares the correctness of that reading is not to be doubted. He adopts the same in S. ii. 2. 79. He takes it to have the same meaning here as there, illidere.' But it is not suitable in either place. Bentley has aptly quoted

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Seneca (Ep. 67): “Ago gratias senectuti quod me lectulo affixit;" and Cicero (in Verr. Act. ii. 5. 7): "Pater grandis natu jam diu lecto tenebatur."

85. pueri atque puellae] This proverbial sort of expression occurs S. ii. 3. 130.

[86. argento post] There seems no explanation of this except that 'argento' depends on the preposition 'post.' Ritter quotes a similar use of 'ante' from Cicero (De Off. iii. 13): malitia-mala bonis ponit ante.']

88. An si cognatos] But say, if you would retain and keep the affection of those relations whom nature gives you without any trouble of your own, would you lose your labour, like the luckless fool that tries to turn an ass into a racer ?' Nullo labore' cannot go with 'retinere,' as Dacier and others take it. The position of the words forbids it, and 'operam perdas' would have no meaning. Sine labore tuo' is Porphyrion's explanation, and gratuitos' is Acron's, though he notices the other. At si' is the reading of the Scholiasts, of the old editions, and most MSS. 'Ac si' is in others, and Heindorf adopts it. Various other readings have been proposed, but 'at' or an 'are the best. Orelli (2nd ed.) adopts

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an' on the authority of his two oldest MSS. With either the sentence should be pointed interrogatively. [Orelli, 3rd ed.

At si... frenis.'] Training an ass to run in the Campus among the horses (C. i. 8. 5; iii. 12. 7) was perhaps a proverbial way of expressing lost labour.

Denique sit finis quaerendi, quumque habeas plus
Pauperiem metuas minus et finire laborem
Incipias, parto quod avebas, ne facias quod
Ummidius quidam, non longa est fabula, dives
Ut metiretur nummos; ita sordidus ut se
Non unquam servo melius vestiret; adusque
Supremum tempus, ne se penuria victus
Opprimeret metuebat. At hunc liberta securi
Divisit medium, fortissima Tyndaridarum.
"Quid mi igitur suades? ut vivam Maenius aut sic

92. quumque habeas plus] This is the reading of all the MSS. Some editors have adopted 'quoque' on the conjecture of Muretus.The more you have you may fear poverty less,' would be an encouragement to hoarding instead of a dissuasion. What Horace says is, 'Since you have more than others, you should fear poverty less.' [Denique,' to conclude,' 'kurz und gut,' or ut brevi praecidam,' as Ritter says.]

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95. Ummidius quidam] The orthography of this name (for which the coined name Nummidius has been substituted by some to suit the occasion, and Fufidius by others, from the next satire, v. 12) is decided by Bentley from inscriptions and a passage from Varro (de Re Rust. iii. 3. 9), where one of this name is mentioned, who Bentley thinks may be Horace's Ummidius. He also says that a man so rich must have been very celebrated, and would not have been spoken of as a certain Ummidius;' and for this and other reasons he changes 'quidam' into 'qui tam' on his own conjecture. The end of this worthy was that he was murdered by one of his freedwomen (his mistress probably), who Horace says was as stout-hearted as Clytemnestra, the bravest of her family. "Tyndaridarum' is masculine: Tyndaridum' would be the feminine form. The sons of Tyndarus, therefore, as well as his daughters, must be included, as Lambinus, Bentley, and others observe. Facias' is equivalent to Tрáoσe, 'to fare.' [Dives ut metiretur:' · so rich that he measured, not counted his money.' This is a common formula, both in prose and verse; and Bentley's emendation is very bad. See Epod. xvi. 31.]

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97. adusque] Forcellini gives only two other instances of this word from writings of Horace's day. Virgil (Aen. xi. 262), "Menelaus adusque columnas Exsulat," and Horace himself (S. i. 5. 96), "adusque Bari moenia piscosi." It is only an inversion of usque ad,' 'every step to.'

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101. ut vivam Maenius] The construction is the same as "discinctus aut perdam nepos" (Epod. i. 34 n.). Maenius and Nomentanus appear to have been squanderers of money and good livers, according to the obvious meaning of this passage, which the Scholiasts mistaking make Maenius a sordid fellow and Nomentanus a prodigal. They are united again in S. i. 8. 11; ii. 1. 22, where the former appears under the name Pantolabus, one who lays his hands on any thing he can get. He spent his money and turned parasite. This is in accordance with what the Scholiasts Acron and Comm. Cruq. affirm on Epp. i. 15. 26 :

"Maenius ut rebus maternis atque paternis

Fortiter absumptis."

But on S. i. 8. 11 they tell a different story, and say that the real name of Pantolabus was Mallius, to which Acron and Porphyrion add Verna, whether as a description or a cognomen is uncertain. Comm. Cruq. for 'Verna' has 'Scurra.' It has been proposed accordingly to change Maenius into Mallius in the above Epistle. (Heusdius, Studia Crit. in C. Lucilium, p. 230.) But we had better admit some confusion to exist in the Scholiasts' statements or text. Both Maenius and Nomentanus are names used by Lucilius for characters of the same kind, and Horace may have only borrowed the names to represent some living characters whom he does not choose to mention. Nomentanus (whom the Scholiasts on this passage call L. Cassius) was the name of one of the guests at Nasidienus' dinner (S. ii. 8. 25), and the Scholiasts tell us a story of the historian Sallust hiring his cook for an enormous sum of money. Cruquius' Commentator (on the passage last quoted) says he was a 'decumanus,' one who farmed the decumae,' and therefore an 'eques'

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