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Fig. 1.



his face, and told Simon that on the last day, when the ON EMPLOYMENTS WHICH INJURE THE books should be opened, he would meet with the just judge

EYE-SIGHT. ment of God for all his cruelties.

No. I. Three women only recanted; they were forcibly A POPULAR DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGANS OF SIGHT. held back by the noble lady of Marly, the mother of Bouchard, Lord of Montmorenci; terror and conster-Man in his present temporary position on the globe, nation succeeded to the enthusiastic fervour which is subject to all the physical laws which, under the had hitherto supported them, and consenting to be direction of a superintending Providence, govern the converted, they were saved from the flames.

universe. He is endowed with certain perceptions, by whose means alone, he communicates with the

exterior world and acquires all his knowledge. These AMUSEMENTS IN SCIENCE.

perceptive faculties are admirably fitted for use in the No. VIII.

strict sense of the word, and it seems to be a law of GEOMETRY.-Part 5.

nature, as rigid as it is grand and beautiful, that the To draw a right angle without any other instrument and inflict of themselves their own penalties. If, for

natural laws are self-acting; that is, they bear with than a straight stick and two or three pegs. Draw example, we exceed the use of any one faculty; so the straight line F A C B, and

soon as the use intended by nature is exceeded, the make FA, A C, and c B, equal abuse of the faculty begins, and then also the penalty to each other ; from c draw attached to the law of nature, which regulates the the straight line cod in any use, begins. Pain is the most apparent symptom of direction, make c D equal to abuse, and usually accompanies it; but the most CA, and draw the line dh awful, and awful because mysterious, operation of through the point a, draw the the penalty is, the slow and premature loss of the line F G, through any part of

use of the faculty either in part or wholly : the Dh, and make Eg equal to E F. faculty then ceases to act; and its possessor, because The point q will then be ex

he has abused one of nature's gifts, is deprived of it. actly perpendicular to A, and

And here there is no court of appeal: it is useless the line ga, when drawn, to urge ignorance of the powers of the faculty, since will be at right angles with a B, and consequently the nature began by inflicting her penalty by slow degrees, angle A is a right angle.

either by imparting to the possessor small increments To measure the superficial contents of a rectangular of pain, or partial deprivation of the power of the

piece of ground. Suppose a B to be equal to faculty, so as to urge, as it were, upon the owner, twenty feet, and c o to nine feet; multiply gently, and in her own beautiful way, the necessity of twenty by nine, which produces one hundred complying with those laws which never vary, by and eighty; this would be the contents of the chiding him for being so hard a taskmaster as to square plot of ground A B C D, and conse

exact from a faithful servant a task which it was quently, the contents of the triangular plot never calculated to supply.

would be equal to one-half one hundred C Fig. 2. B

Many of the arts of life furnish employments and eighty, namely, ninety feet.

which injuriously affect the faculties of those em

ployed in them : what these pursuits are, and how A BRICKLAYER had to construct a wall whose length they operate, is a curious and instructive inquiry, in the direction A B C was twenty-four feet. The one into which, as far as respects the organ of sight, we half of this wall, namely, from B to c, had to be built are now about to enter, with the hope that our reaFig. 3.

ders generally will find it useful, and some of them in particular will, we doubt not, find the subject one of more than common interest as it affects themselves

peculiarly. We shall point out how, in many emover a piece of rising ground, so that the base of this ployments, the faculty of vision is injuriously affected

or abused, and the simple and practicable means of part of the wall would necessarily be more than twelve feet. In making out his account he charged removing the abuse. We select the organ* of sight

as being probably the most extensively useful of all more for this half of the wall than for that which

our faculties, and the one most liable to abuse. was built on level ground from A to B. A geometrician assured him that the square contents of both

We propose, in order to the due comprehension of portions of the wall were exactly alike, which may tion of the eye somewhat fully; and as many of the

our present subject, to describe the organ and funcbe proved in this manner. Cut two pieces of card. visual imperfections to be hereafter described are the

results of the writer's own personal experience, the present paper may be considered partly as an expo

sition of the writer's own visual defects, and also how Fig. 5.

such defects may be traced to a large variety of board in the form shown in figs.'4 and 5, to represent causes more or less energetic in their action, but the two parts of the wall; lay the piece representing the whose proximate operation is nearly the same. straight wall on the curved piece, and it will be found

1. The eye, which, from the wonderful power of its that the angles which project at A and B will exactly exterior expression, and the exquisite beauty of its fill up the spaces at E and F. The piece of paste

internal arrangements, is said to be “Nature's masterboard representing the straight wall, may thus be piece," is a globular structure placed within an orbit, proved to be exactly sufficient to form a piece equal or funnel-shaped cavity, on one side of the root of to that representing the curved wall. You may then the nose and under the arch of the forehead. The lay the curved piece upon the straight one, and

• We may here state, that an organ is the physiological arrangereversing the experiment, prove that the curved piece ment of parts through which the function, or work done by the is capable of forming a rectangular piece equal to

organ, acts. Thus the eye is the organ of sight; seeing, therefore, is

the function. The ear is the organ of hearing, and hearing the the other

function, &c.




Fig. 4.

eye-ball is a little smaller than this socket or orbit, according as light is more or less abungant. In man to allow of free motion in every direction: this motion this apparatus seems to be self-acting, and not to is effected by means of a muscular arrangement depend upon the will, except in a few rare cases, attached to the white of the eye, and the motion is where individuals have been known to possess the rendered easy, and at the same time the eye is de- power of spontaneously regulating the motions of fended from injury or compression in its motion, by the iris; but this power, like that by which a very a quantity of fat which in health is secreted in the few persons have been able to move about the outer orbit, forming several soft cushions on which the ear, after the manner of some of the lower animals, globe of the eye rests. When this fat is absorbed seems lost to the great bulk of mankind. It will by any emaciating disease, the eye sinks within its doubtless have been noticed, that on quitting a wellsocket, and a person is then familiarly termed "hollow- illumined room, where the pupil is small, that is, in eyed.” The eye itself is composed chiefly of three its contracted state, in consequence of the abundant humours (one of which is solid and the others fluid), presence of light, and going out into a dark street, and four membranous coats or tunics: the humours we are apt, at first, to suppose that the night is more completely fill the eye, and give it its shape, and at than usually obscure; but, as we proceed, objects the same time support the membranous coats. The become more and more visible, and we are apt to white of the eye, or the slerotica, so named from its exclaim, “ It is not so dark as it was!" while, in all hardness, is the exterior coat, and forms the whole probability, the change, if any, is in the observer's of the outer eye-ball, with the exception of about own eye, since the fibrous arrangement which reguone-fifth, which latter space is occupied by the cornea, lates the motions of the pupil, being relieved from the (so called from its horny texture,) a transparent shield stimulus of a large quantity of light, gradually placed in front of the eye, through which the rays of relaxes, and allows the pupil to expand, so as to light pass uninterruptedly. The cornea receives its admit as much light as possible in the obscure situalustre and polish from the eyelids, which are con tion into which we now suppose it is transferred. It stantly engaged in folding over it; and our readers is believed that the motions of the pupil in the eyes will doubtless call to mind that one of the first acts of feline animals, such as cats, &c., and animals of of the cold though active hand of Death, is to dull prey generally, are voluntary; that is, they are reguthe transparency of this beautiful convex mirror, lated by the will of the animal, and serve the purwhich reflects all objects presented to it; while life, poses of sudden and extraordinary adjustment, which health, and youth, preserve its properties unimpaired. may be required by the animal while engaged in its The tendency of age is to flatten the cornea, and to nocturnal pursuit after food. diminish its transparency and polish; hence, it is The iris divides the interior globe of the eye into said, that the eye of age is dim; and by a converse two very unequal parts, or chambers; that before the application the eye of youth is said to be lustrous, iris is called the anterior chamber, and contains a limpid sparkling, beaming, &c., since in this case the cornea colourless liquid, called the aqueous humour, from its is a convex mirror, whose polish reflects light from similarity to water, and the space behind the iris its surface, while its transparency transmits light into (which has been called the curtain of the eye, from the eye for the purposes of vision.

the beautiful manner in which it seems to fold and The white of the eye is lined internally with a unfold), is named the posterior chamber, and contains membrane of a more delicate structure, called the a small hard double convex lens, called the crystalline choroïd coat, or tunic, which is covered with a black lens, (from its resemblance to crystal;) and the vitreous non-transparent pigment, placed there for the pur-humour (from its similarity to molten glass), which pose of absorbing the rays of light when the purpose completely fills up all the rest of the eye. of vision has been served. Within the choroïd The crystalline lens in its posterior, and most concoat is the retina, (so called from its reticulated or vex face, is exactly fitted to a concavity in the forenet-like structure,) which is a very delicate mem- part of the vitreous humour; it is said to be enclosed brane, formed from the expansion of the optic nerve, in a transparent bag, called a capsula, and it is surwhich enters the eye at a point nearly opposite the rounded by what are termed the ciliary processes, pupil. In the centre of the retina there is a small which form an opaque circle round the lens, and spot surrounded with a yellow margin; this spot is impede all rays which might otherwise be transmitted miscalled the foramen centrale, or central hole; for it by its side: the lens itself is composed of triangular is not a hole but a spot; and it is remarkable, that pieces, which in their turn are formed of concentric while the whole of the retina receives upon itself the scales. The substance of the lens increases in den. images of external objects, and is highly susceptible sity: that is, its structure becomes more compact of luminous impressions, the foramen centrale is in- from the circumference to its centre, for the purpose capable of luminous excitation by means of light of of correcting what is called its spherical aberration t. ordinary intensity, and it does not, as far as we The form of this lens varies in different animals acknow, assist the visual powers of the eye.

cording to their habits and places of abode. In the Behind the cornea we find a coloured membrane eye of the cod-fish it is spherical, and such of our drawn across the eye; this membrane is called the readers as have seen a boiled cod's-head at table, will iris, (a Latin word for the rainbow,) and is the probably have noticed a white opaque ball in the eye distinguishing feature by which the colour of eyes of the animal; this is the crystalline lens of the codis determined, its anterior surface being in some fish, which containing albumen, becomes of an opaque animals richly and variously coloured. The iris is white, similar to the white of egg (which is almost pure perforated nearly in its centre by the pupil*, which albumen) when subjected to the heat of boiling water. is a hole for the admission of light into the interior The vitreous humour occupies the whole of the chambers of the eye; and it is a fact no less extra space between the crystalline lens and the retina. ordinary than beautiful, that the iris is furnished This humour is contained within cells, and resembles with a self-adjusting apparatus, to which there is no

+ The object of spherical lenses is to converge the rays of light to parallel throughout the whole of human invention, a point or focus, but in practice it is found that the rays deviate by means of which the pupil is contracted or enlarged, somewhat from this point, and this deviation is called spherical

aberration ; the latter term implies a wandering or straying. Two * The Latin word pupilla signifies the ball, the apple or sight of causes are assigned to this phenomenon ; Ist, the form of curvature of

the lens ; 2nd. the different refrangibilities of different rays of light.

the eye.


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(to use a rough analogy) honey contained in the cells year is evidently connected with the welfare of the of the honeycomb: this humour and the cells which whole, and the production of the greatest sum of contain it are both transparent.

being and enjoyment. That motion in the earth, and Having thus pointed out the principal parts of the change of place in the sun, which cause one region eye and their uses, we may briefly allude to a few of the globe to be consigned to cold, decay, and external appendages of the same organ. The bony barrenness, impart to another heat and life, fertility projection of the eyebrows forms sort of arched and beauty. Whilst in our climate the earth is bound abode for the eye, to shield its delicate tenant from with frost, and the chilly smothering snows external violence, and from too much light; and, like falling, the inhabitants of another behold the earth a projecting roof, the brow is furnished with a ridge first planted with vegetation and apparelled in verdure, of hairs, the eyebrows, which arrest or entangle any and those of a third are rejoicing in the appointed small substances, solid or fluid, which might otherwise weeks of harvest. fall or trickle upon the eye. The eyelids, or semi Each season comes attended with its benefits, and oval curtains which cover the great aperture of the beauties, and pleasures. All are sensible of the orbit, graduate the light falling upon the eye by the charms of Spring. Then the senses are delighted extent of their separation, or exclude it when they with the feast that is furnished on every field and on are closed, although to a small extent light does enter every hill. The eye is sweetly delayed on every at the line of junction of the two lids. The eye- object to which it turns. It is grateful to perceive lashes are hairs which border the edges of the lids, how widely, yet chastely, nature hath mixed her arranged in three or four rows. Their direction is colours and painted her robe ; how beautifully she curved ; those from the upper lid proceeding upwards, hath scattered her blossoms and flung her odours. and those from the under lid downwards. Their We listen with joy to the melody she hath awakened length and fulness varies in different individuals; their in the groves, and catch health from the pure and colour is generally that of the eyebrow, and their tepid gales that blow from the mountains. purpose is that of an additional screen to the eye. When the Summer exhibits the whole force of The lachrymal ducts in which tears are secreted, in active nature, and shines in full beauty and splendour, their usual healthy and natural state, supply the eye when the succeeding season offers its purple stores with moisture, which is spread over its surface by and golden grain, or displays its blended and softened means of the eyelids: these ducts are situated a tints; when the Winter puts on its sullen aspect, little within the nose.

and brings stillness and repose, affording a respite

from the labours which have occupied the preceding REVOLUTIONS OF THE SEASONS.

months, inviting us to reflection, and compensating
for the want of attractions abroad by fire-side delights

and home-felt joys. In all this interchange and
I solitary court
The inspiring breeze, and meditate upon the book variety we find reason to acknowledge the wise and
Of nature, ever open; aiming thence,

benevolent care of the God of the seasons. Warm from the heart, to learn the moral song.

passing from the finer to the ruder portions of the Persons of reflection and sensibility, contemplate frequently overcast. The garden and fields have

year. The sun emits a fainter beam, and the sky is with interest the scenes of nature. The changes of the year impart a colour and character to their

become a waste, and the forests have shed their

verdant honours. The hills are no more enlivened thoughts and feelings. When the seasons walk their round, when the earth buds, the corn ripens, and the by the bleating of flocks, and the woodland no longer leaf falls, not only are the senses impressed, but the

resounds with the song of birds. In these changes mind is instructed; the heart is touched with senti

we see evidences of our instability, and images of ment, the fancy amused with visions.

our transitory state.

To a lover of nature and of wisdom, the vicissitude of seasons

So flourishes and fades majestic man. conveys a proof and exhibition of the wise and bene. Our life is compared to a falling leaf. When we volent contrivance of the Author of all things. are disposed to count on protracted years, to defer

When suffering the inconvenience of the ruder any serious thoughts of futurity, and to extend our parts of the year we may be tempted to wonder plans through a long succession of seasons, the why this rotation is necessary,--why we could not be spectacle of the fading, many-coloured woods, and constantly gratified with vernal bloom and fragrance, the naked trees, affords a solitary admonition of our or Summer beauty and profusion. We imagine that, frailty. It should teach us to fill the short year of in a world of our creation, there would always be a life, or that portion of it which may be allotted to blessing in the air, and flowers and fruits on the us, with useful employments and harmless pleasures; earth. The chilling blast and driving snow, the deso- to practise that industry, activity, and order, which lated field, withered foliage, and naked tree, should the course of the natural world is constantly make no part of the scenery which we would pro preaching duce. A little thought, however, is sufficient to show Let not the passions blight the intellect 'in the the folly, if not impiety, of such distrust in the spring of its advancement, nor indolence nor vice appointments of the great Creator.

canker the promise of the heart in the blossom. The succession and contrast of the seasons give Then shall the summer of life be adorned with moral scope to that care and foresight, diligence and in-beauty, the autumn yield a harvest of wisdom and dustry, which are essential to the dignity and enjoy- virtue, and the winter of age be cheered with pleasment of human beings, whose happiness is connected ing reflections of the past, and bright hopes of the with the exertion of their faculties. With our present future.--Monthly Anthology constitution and state, in which impressions on the senses enter so much into our pleasures and pains, and the vivacity of our sensations is affected by com

The works of nature, and the works of revelation, display parison, the uniformity and continuance of a perpe- religion to mankind in characters so large and visible, that tual Spring would greatly impair its pleasing effect

those who are not quite blind may in them see and read upon our feelings.

the first principles and most necessary parts of it, and

from thence penetrate into those infinite depths filled with The present distribution of the several parts of the the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.—LOCKE.

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ON THE PLEASURE OF ACQUIRING KNOW-s of the wise in every former age,-is, perhaps, of all LEDGE.

the distinctions of human understanding, the most In every period of life, the acquisition of knowledge honourable and grateful. is one of the most pleasing employments of the When we look back upon the great men who have human mind. But in youth, there are circumstances gone before us in every part of glory, we feel our which make it productive of higher enjoyment. It eye turn from the career of war and of ambition, and is then that everything has the charm of novelty; involuntarily rest upon those who have displayed the that curiosity and fancy are awake ; and that the great truths of religion, who have investigated the heart swells with the anticipations of future eminence laws of social welfare, or extended the sphere of huand utility. Even in those lower branches of instruc man knowledge. These are honours, we feel, which tion which we call mere accomplishments, there is have been gained without a crime, and which can be something always pleasing to the young in their ac- enjoyed without remorse. They are honours, also, quisition. They seem to become every well educated which can never die,—which can shed lustre upon person; they adorn, if they do not dignify humanity; the humblest head,--and to which the young of every and, what is far more, while they give an elegant succeeding age will look up, as their brighest incenemployment to the hours of leisure and relaxation, tives to the pursuit of virtuous fame.--ALISON. they afford a means of contributing to the purity and innocence of domestic life, But in the acquisition of knowledge of the higher

THE FEATHER OF A PEACOCK. kind,-in the hours when the young gradually begin in its embryo the feather of a peacock is little more the study of the laws of nature, and of the faculties than a bladder containing a fluid, while every one of the human mind, or of the magnificent revelations knows the general structure of those long ones which of the Gospel, there is a pleasure of a sublimer form the train. The star is painted on a great numnature. The cloud, which in their infant years, ber of small feathers, associated in a regular plane ; seemed to cover nature from their view, begins gra as those have found their way from the root, through dually to resolve. The world in which they are this long space of three feet, without error of arrangeplaced, opens with all its wonders upon their eye; ment or pattern, in more millions of feathe than their powers of attention and observation seem to imagination can conceive. If this is sufficiently expand with the scene before them; and, while they wonderful, the examination of each fibre of this see, for the first time, the immensity of the universe canvass (to adopt this phrase,) will much increase of God, and mark the majestic simplicity of those the wonder. Taking one-half of the star, the places laws by which its operations are conducted, they feel and proportions of the several colours differ in each as if they were awakened to a higher species of being, of those, as do their lengths and obliquities, yet a and admitted into nearer intercourse with the Author single picture is produced, including ten outlines, of Nature.

which form also many irregular yet unvarying curves. It is this period, accordingly, more than all others, And, further, the opposed half corresponds in every that determines our hopes or fears of the future fate thing; while this complicated picture is not painted of the young. To feel no joy in such pursuits; to after the texture is formed, but each fibre takes its listen carelessly to the voice which brings such mag- place ready painted, yet never failing to produce the nificent instruction; to see the veil raised which con- pattern. If this is chance, the coloured threads of ceals the counsels of the Deity, and to show no a tapestry might as well unite by chance to produce emotion at the discovery, are symptoms of a weak a picture; while every annual renewal is equally and torpid spirit,—of a mind unworthy of the ad- accurate, as it has been in every such animal since vantages it possesses, and fitted only for the humility the creation. And whatever the other chances may of sensual and ignoble pleasure. Of those, on the be, enormous as they are against the hypothesis, this contrary, who distinguish themselves by the love of further number cannot be evaded, because it would knowledge,—who follow with ardour the career that be to abandon the very principle of chance, to say that is open to them, we are apt to form the most honour- renewal, or perpetuation, were governed by laws. If able presages. It is the character which is natural to the system is to mean what it pretends to do, every youth, and which, therefore, promises well of their feather that ever existed must have been the result of maturity. We foresee for them, at least, a life of pure fortunate chances. This would be enough, had this and virtuous enjoyment; and we are willing to anti-object not demanded the arithmetical calculation; cipate no common share of future usefulness and for, omitting all else, who would even hope to resplendour.

produce the star from the same separated materials, In the second place, the pursuits of knowledge under any number of chances ? lead not only to happiness but to honour. “Length But the entire analysis I need not make in words ; of days is in her right hand, and in her left are riches it can be done by any one on the subject itself, and and honour.” It is honourable to excel even in the with a more satisfactory effect. Let him take each most trifling species of knowledge, in those which fibre separately, note the number of the colours, can amuse only the passing hour. It is more honour- | their gradations, the very different modes of those on able to excel in those different branches of science the different fibres, and the very different places of which are connected with the liberal professions of those colours on them, with the still more remarklife, and which tend so much to the dignity and well-able differences in those fragments of the many outbeing of humanity. It is the means of raising the lines included in the star. The painter, who best most obscure to esteem and attention; it opens to the knows the difficulty of producing gradations on even just ambition of youth, some of the most distin- a fixed plane, will best also conceive the impossiguished and respected situations in society; and it bility of producing, under any number of chances, places them there, with the consoling reflection, that it such a coloured plane, from a hundred separated is to their own industry and labour, in the providence fibres previously painted, or even of thus producing of God, that they are alone indebted for them. But, the much easier outlines. to excel in the higher attainments of knowledge,—to But who will compute this unwieldy sum? The be distinguished in those greater pursuits which have result alone, the figures expressing the chances commanded the attention, and exhausted the abilities | against onc, that this little object was not the pro


duce of chance, would fill a page; it is equivalent the edges of the great planes produced by the first to infinitude against one. Suffice it here, that I breaking, by which means the white coating of the inquire of the probability of simply replacing, by Aint is removed in the form of small scales, and the chance, the disarranged and intermixed fibres of the mass of flint itself laid bare, as shown in fig. 5; after star in their original places or order ; while, even then, I need not take more than the half, as the

Fig. 6.

Fig. 5. result of the total is equally unnecessary and unwieldy. It would be a purposeless parade of arithmetic to detail those figures ; if the reader will place a unit before sixty-four zeros, he will have a sufficient conception of these chances for the present purpose. And chances far short of this have ever been held competent to any proof.

this he continues to chip off similar scaly portions [MACCULLOCH on the Attributes of God.)

from the pure mass of flints as A A A, fig. 6, which is

a cross section or plan of fig. 5, the shaded portions THE MANUFACTURE OF GUN-FLINTS.

showing the points removed at each blow. These

portions are nearly an inch and a half wide, two inches The art of forming Gun-flints was formerly kept a

and a half long, and their thickness in the middle is profound secret, at least in France and Germany. about one-sixth of an inch: they are slightly convex The kind of 'stone employed, is that species of silex, below, and consequently leave in the part of the flint or flint, which is found in irregularly shaped lumps from which they are separated, a space slightly concave, in the chalk formations of the earth.

longitudinally bordered by two rather projecting The masses of flint which are best fitted for the straight lines or ridges. These ridges produced by the purpose, consist of those of a convex surface, ap- separation of the two scales, must naturally constitute proaching to globular, the knobbed and branched flints nearly the middle of the subsequent piece; and such being generally full of imperfections. The best flint scales alone as have their ridges thus placed in the nodules are in general from two to twenty pounds in middle are fit for gun-flints. In this manner the weight; they should be unctuous, or rather shining, workman continues to split or chip the mass of flint internally, with a grain so fine as to be imperceptible in various directions, until the defects usually found to the eye.

The colour should be uniform in the in the interior, render it impossible to make the fracsame nodule, and may vary from honey-yellow to a

ture required, or until the piece is reduced too much blackish-brown; it is necessary that the fracture

to be easily broken. should be smooth and equal, and somewhat conchoi. dal, hollowed like a shell, and should be partially selects such only as possess the requisite form ; to

To shape the gun-flint out of these scales, he transparent at the thin edges.

ascertain this, it is necessary to understand the parts Four tools are necessary in the manufacture of to be distinguished in a gun-flint. These are five in Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

number; A the sloping facet, B B the
sides, c the back, d the under sur-
face, which should be rather con-
vex, and F the upper facet, between
the tapering edge and the back.

In order to fashion the flint, those
scales are selected which contain at least one of the
ridges F or A; he fixes on any tapering border of the

scale to form the striking edge; he then divides the flints. 1. An iron hammer, fig. 1, with a square head, scale into pieces, of the proper width of the fint, by not more than two pounds in weight, and seven or means of his chisel; this tool is driven into a solid eight inches in length: 2. a hammer of well-hardened block of wood, with one of its edges upwards ; that steel

, fig. 2, with two points, a handle seven inches part of the fint is placed across this edge where the long, and from ten to sixteen ounces in weight: 3. a separation is intended to take place, and a blow from disk hammer, or roller, fig. 3, like a solid wheel or the roulette, or round hammer, on the upper surface, Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

divides it as cleanly as if it were cut; the back of the flint is then made square by the same means.

The last operation is to trim or give the flint a smooth and equal edge; this is done by turning the stone and placing the edge of its tapering edge on the chisel, and striking it a few blows with the round

hammer. cylinder, two inches and one-third in diameter, and not exceeding twelve ounces in weight; it is made of steel not hardened, and has a handle six inches long.

THE VERNAL AND AUTUMNAL CROCUS. 4. a chisel, fig. 4, tapering and bevelled at both ends, Say, what impels, amidst surrounding snow which should be made of steel not hardened, six,

Congealed, the crocus' flamy bud to grow; seven, or eight inches long, and two inches wide.

Say, what retards amidst the Summer's blaze
With these tools the flints are formed in the following

The autumnal bulb till pale declining days ?
The God of Seasons ! whose pervading power

Controls the sun, or sheds the fleecy shower; The workman, seated on the ground, places the He bids each flower his quick’ning word obey, nodule of flint on his left thigh, and applies slight Or to each lingering bloom enjoins delay. strokes with the square hammer to divide it into

White of Selborne. smaller pieces of about a pound and a half in weight, with broad surfaces and an almost even fracture. He

LONDON: then holds the piece of flint in his left hand, not sup

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. ported, and strikes with the pointed hammer on


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