Obrazy na stronie

applied externally in the forms of lotions, plasters, or duce a temporary mitigation of suffering, than to ointment. In the latter case it kills more rapidly neutralize the effects of the poison. Happily there than when taken into the stomach. Hence the dan- have been instances in which, by skill and promptitude, ger of using the various ointments and plasters which life has been preserved; but when the first alarming profess to be efficacious in the cure of cancer and symptoms have abated, it is a long time before the other similar complaints An ointment containing patient can be considered in a fair way towards only one part by weight of Arsenic to thirty-two of recovery. fatty matter, was applied to a cancerous wound, the In an American journal (Silliman's) for May, 1836, surface of which did not exceed an inch and a half two cases are mentioned, on the authority of Dr. in diameter, for one night only. The day following, Eastman of Holles, New Hampshire, U.S., in which the patient, a girl of eighteen, was seized with vomit- tobacco had been employed with complete success in ing and violent colic, and on the second day she died counteracting the usual effects of Arsenic. The first with all the symptoms of having been poisoned. If case occurred about the year 1820, and the subject of we thought it necessary, we could enumerate many it was Sophia, the daughter of Dr. Eastman above instances in which the most lamentable effects have mentioned, who ate, by mistake, some Arsenic which accompanied the use of quack medicines. By the had been prepared for destroying rats. Painful combined efforts of ignorance, impudence, misrepre- symptoms soon led to inquiry, when the cause was šentation and avarice, the most deleterious nostrums immediately discovered. An elderly lady who was acquire a temporary notoriety. Their inventors very present, advised that the patient should be made to frequently become rich; whilst death, or lingering vomit as soon as possible, and as she had always felt disease, is the lot of many of their credulous and mis- j a perfect loathing for tobacco, that herb was recomguided patrons.

mended as most likely to effect the desired purpose, Referring again to the employment of Arsenic for A pipe was accordingly used, but as that did not the most wicked and detestable of purposes, namely, produce nausea, Miss E. next chewed a large quantity the destruction of human life; we wish distinctly to of strong tobacco, and swallowed the juice. To the state, that it is now hardly possible for any person surprise of herself and her friends, this failed in exwho resorts to it with criminal intentions to escape, citing even a sensation of disgust; as did also a sooner or later, from the ignominy and punishment strong decoction made with hot water, of which she their guilt justly merits.

drank about half a pint. But not only was the The detection of deleterious and poisonous sub- tobacco ineffective, but the painful symptoms prostances in cases of sudden or suspicious illness or duced by the Arsenic gradually abated, and the death, constitutes an important branch of medical patient began to feel well. Physicians soon afterjurisprudence; and there is no substance whose wards arrived, when an emetic of blue vitriol (sulphate presence can be more satisfactorily demonstrated, and of copper) was administered, which operated modewhich can be more easily separated from the contents rately once. No ill consequences followed, and in a of the stomach either before or after death, than that few days Miss Eastman fully recovered her health. to which we here particularly allude. By a process, The other case, which happened a few years afterthe details of which would not be interesting to our wards in the same place, was that of a sick person, a general readers, but which is of the utmost importance female, who took arsenic by mistake, and she emto the chemist, as it is also to the Christian philan- ployed tobacco with the same success as already thropist, so small a quantity as one-twentieth of a described. In this instance no emetic was taken, nor grain of arsenic has been collected from the stomach indeed any other remedy. of a person who had been poisoned. Nor must we During the last few months, public attention has omit to mention the antiseptic properties of arsenic, been directed towards a practice which seems to have by which we mean that it preserves from decay the prevailed to an alarming extent; we allude to the bodies of those whom it deprives of life. Instances use of arsenic in the manufacture of certain kinds of are well authenticated in which the stomach and in candles. The merit of the disclosure is clue, we testines of persons who had died from the effects of believe, to a medical gentleman, who first mentioned arsenious acid have been found, after the lapse of the fact in a lecture delivered by him, last summer, many months and even of years, in as perfect a state before the Medico-Botanical Society. The subject has as they were at the period of dissolution. Hence we subsequently been very ably investigated by the remark that the grave, instead of concealing, may be gentleman already referred to, in conjunction with a the means of preserving, evidences of guilt; and the committee, appointed expressly for the purpose by offender, when least suspecting it, may prove the truth the Westminster Medical Society. By the report of of that solemn declaration, “Be sure your sin will this committee it is clearly shown, that candles confind you out.'

taining arsenic are sold in very considerable quanThe effect of Arsenic upon the human body is so tities; that they are called by a variety of names sudden, that unless it is speedily expelled from the each manufacturer giving them a different name; stomach, there are but faint hopes of recovery. The that they are represented by the parties interested in symptoms of having swallowed this poison are the their sale as being very superior to tallow, and but occurrence within fifteen or twenty minutes of spas- little inferior to wax candles, yielding light greater in modic pains of the stomach, a sensation of heat and quantity, and purer in quality, than other candles ; tightness of the head and throat, and inflammation that they have platted, or, as they are sometimes of the eyes. To these succeed vomiting and purging, called, metallic wicks, and require no snuffing. It with excruciating pain of almost every part of the has further been shown, that the quantity of arsenic body, but especially of the stomach, bowels, and (arsenious acid,) is found to vary considerably in head. Not a moment should be lost in procuring different candles, and in different parts of the same medical assistance, and, in the mean time, the best candle, and that from 10 to 18 grains of this that can be done is to excite vomiting as quickly and poisonous substance has been obtained from a pound as easily as possible.

weight of candles. The committee have examined We are not acquainted with any antidote for Arsenic. Lime-water and magnesia are usually re

These are " German Wax Lights," “ Venetian Wax Candles,"

"Stearine Candles," " Imperial Wax,” “ Moulded Wax,”." I'ros commended, but these substances tend rather to pro- pical Wax Candles,” &c. &c.

samples of almost every kind of candle they could | A and B, and from it draw a line through the centre procure, and in no instance has arsenic been found of the circle at D. This line C D E is the meridian in " the true wax-lights, the true spermaceti, and the line of the place, and if care has been taken, its error old-fashioned composition-candles.'

will not be more than half a degree. The meridian The injurious effects of arsenic, when diffused line being once found, the construction of the sunthrough the atmosphere of an apartment in which dial can be effected without difficulty. candles containing it were burning, could never for a moment be doubted by those acquainted with its If two men are born on the same day and hour, and properties. To set the question before the public in die on the same day and hour, one shall appear to the strongest possible light, the committee already have lived one or even two days longer than the other. mentioned have conducted, with great care, a series It is well known to all navigators, that if a ship of comparative experiments, in which birds, rabbits, sails round the world, going from east to west, those and guinea-pigs were placed in boxes, and exposed, on board, when they return, will have counted a day under precisely similar circumstances, to the pro less than the inhabitants of the country they have ducts arising from the combustion of an equal num sailed from, and to which they have returned. The ber of candles containing arsenic, and of others cause of this is, that the vessel following the course of which were quite pure. Our space will not permit us the sun, has the days longer, and in the whole numto give the details of these experiments; but we ber of the days reckoned during the voyage, there is must not omit to mention, that they are both inte necessarily one rising and setting of the sun less, resting and important, as respects the public health. visible to the crew. On the other hand, if the ship During the week that these experiments were pur- proceeds round the world from west to east, as it goes sued, seven birds which had been exposed to the to meet the sun, the days are shorter, and during the vapour of arsenical candles died, whilst the birds in whole circumnavigation, the people on board necesthe boxes where pure candles had been burning, were sarily count one revolution of the sun more. as gay, and ate and drank as freely, at the end of Supposing then, that of twin brothers one embarks the week as they did at its commencement.

on board a vessel which sails round the world from east We cannot pursue this subject further. Let us, to west and the other remains at home. When the ship however, express a hope, that the exposure which returns, the inhabitants will reckon the day Thursday, has taken place, may lead to the immediate abandon-while those on board the vessel will reckon it only Wedment of a practice fraught with consequences of so nesday, and the twin who has been at sea will appear dangerous a character.

to have a day less in his life than he who has remained

on shore. Consequently if they should die the same AMUSEMENTS IN SCIENCE,

day, one of them would count a day less than the other, No. VII.

although they were both born on the same day. ASTRONOMY.

But suppose that while one was sailing from east

to west, the other went round the globe from west to In many astronomical problems, the discovery of the meridian line, that is, a line passing exactly north east; on their return their account of the time would

differ by two days,-one would appear two days older and south, on any part of the earth's surface, is essen

than the other, tially necessary. When extreme accuracy is not required, the following plans are sufficiently correct. The Polar Star is nearly due north, and when

Suppose the meridian line to be required for the pur- neither sun nor moon are visible, and no mariner's pose of constructing a sun-dial. Having firmly fixed compass at hand, it has directed the course of seamen a piece of brass or other substance, D E, fig. 1, in some across the trackless ocean, or been a guide to the place exposed to the sun, taking especial care that its wanderer on the land. Round this star the whole of surface is perfectly level and horizontal ; and on the the heavens appear to revolve. As it is not a peculiarly south side of this brass plate, fix a sharp-pointed bright star, its beauty is not likely to attract notice, piece of iron, A: take two squares, B and c, and place but it can be easily found by means of the splendid them as shown in the engraving; the point where constellation of the Great Bear or Charles' Wain. This Fig. 1.

constellation is so extremely beautiful that it cannot

fail to have been noticed by the most casual observer.
Fig. 2.

The following figure will show the method of

finding the Pole Star by means of the Great Bear.

A B C represents this con-
stellation. The two stars B and

Fig. 3.
A are called the Pointers, and

if a line is drawn through these
in the direction of a smaller
constellation, E, resembling the
Great Bear in the arrange-
ment of its stars, and known

by the name of the Little Bear, they join at c will necessarily be immediately under the line will pass immediately the pointed end of the wire ; take this point as under the Pole Star D. It is, a centre and inscribe several concentric circles.

as we have said, not very brilFig. 2 will explain this better. D is the point im- liant, but there are no stars of mediately under the point of the iron, and round this greater magnitude than itself within a considerable point several circles are drawn. An hour or two space of the heavens, for the remaining stars of the before noon mark the spot where the shadow of constellation of which it forms a portion, are much the iron point passes any of the circles; an hour or smaller, and only visible when the sky is particularly two after mid-day perform the same operation. clear.

Let us suppose A and B the points on the same circle where the shadow crossed in the forenoon and the

LONDON: afternoon. Take the point c exactly midway between JOHN WILLIAM PARKER WEST STRAND.






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CRUSADE UNDER SIMON DE MONTFORT AGAINST THE itself. In a former paper we brought down the

ALBIGENSES-CAPTURE OF MINERVE AND BAR- history of the persecution of the Albigenses to the

BARITIES COMMITTED BY THE PAPAL PARTY. period when the principal object of the first crusade The Castle of Minerve, situated at a short distance against them had been accomplished by the capture to the south-west of the town of St. Pons, in the of Carcassonne, in the month of August, 1209. All South of France, was one of the strongest of the open resistance on their part was then at an end ; feudal fortresses which, in ancient times, so thickly but as the Pope's legate, Arnold Amabrie, Abbot of covered that part of the country, and which have Citeaux, who had been foremost in preaching the still left their ruins to impart a picturesque charm to crusade, and directing its operations, deemed the its scenery at the present day. It was built upon a work of persecution to be yet incomplete, he consteep rock, surrounded by deep precipices, and from ceived the diabolical design of rooting out the the advantages of its position was generally esteemed “pestilent heresy,” by extirpating the enlightened impregnable. It formerly gave the title of count people who had fostered it, and into whose homes he and viscount to its possessors, and the adjacent dis-had already brought such dire calamities. trict was called Minervois, after its name.

The legate's first measure was to call a Council of graving gives a view of the castle in its present state; the crusading chiefs, to provide for the disposition of the adjoining little village still preserves the name of the conquests which had been made by their united Minerve.

arms, in favour of some prince, who would underIn the days of its strength the castle of Minerve take to complete the extermination of the Albigenses. was a place of importance, and occupied a conspicuous The viscounties of Beziers and Carcassonne, whose station in the wars which at different times desolated lawful lord, Raymond-Roger, still languished in the the South of France. The most prominent feature, prison to which the perfidy of Arnold had consigned however, in its history is its capture by Simon de him, were offered to Eudes the Third, the reigning Montfort, during the crusade against the Albigenses, Duke of Burgundy, This prince was one of the in the early part of the thirteenth century,-an event great lords who had engaged in this sacred war at of considerable moment in the history of the crusade

* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XI., p. 97 VOL. XII.


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the instigation of the monks of Citeaux; or, as a offer, the active operations of the campaign of 1209
French historian of Burgundy expresses it, he had were, for a time, at an end.
“ taken the cross and joined the other lords, who, for Simon de Montfort now turned his attention
the love of truth, and zeal for the Catholic religion, towards securing himself in possession of the new
took arms to beat and destroy the Albigenses, states which he "had acquired; and to effect that
heretics so much the more dangerous, as they affected object he had recourse to a deed which has left upon
to follow an apostolic, penitent, and altogether disin his character one of the deepest of the stains dis-
terested life." But although the blind bigotry of gracing it. He had observed, that although Raymond-
Duke Eudes had led him, “ for the love of truth," Roger, the lawful sovereign of those states, was still
to make war upon the truth, he was not wanting in allowed to be detained in prison, the hostility of many
that sort of magnanimity and regard for justice with of the crusading chiefs against him was mitigated,
which knights and nobles were, or were supposed to and that, in fact, pity had succeeded in their minds
be, inspired, in the age of chivalry. He refused the to fury. The neighbours of that prince loved him ;
legate's offer of the territory of Raymond-Roger, his people regretted him; and it was not impossible
saying, “ That he had plenty of lordships and domains that his uncle and sovereign lord, the King of Arragon,
without taking that to disinherit the said viscount, might be disposed to interfere in his behalf. Accord-
and that it appeared to him that they had done him ingly De Montfort “


the necessary orders that evil enough without despoiling him of his heritage." Raymond-Roger should die of a dysentery on the

The legate, however, was not long in finding a 10th of November, in a lower room of the viscountal more pliant ally. He obtained from the council for palace at Carcassonne, where he was carefully himself, in conjunction with two bishops and four guarded." Anxious however not to appear guilty of knights, full authority to settle the fate of the con so heinous a crime, he displayed the body of the quered lands; and then, in the name of this com youthful prince to his subjects, and caused him to be mission, offered them to Simon de Montfort, Earl of buried with honour. But his efforts to conceal his Leicester*, whose character is thus depicted by villany were fruitless ; the public voice accused him Sismondi.

of having poisoned his captive. This lord of a castle ten leagues from Paris, was the

The chief operations of the campaign of 1209 head of a house that had been illustrious for two hundred having been brought to an end, the crusaders deemed years, and which is traced by some to a natural son of their task accomplished, and certainly they had King Robert. He had possessed the countship of Evreux, ample reason to be satisfied with the extent of the which, a few years before, he had sold to Philip Augustus ; enormities which they had committed. They had and his mother, who was an English woman, had left him, destroyed two large cities, they had slaughtered with as an heritage, the Earldom of Leicester. He had distin. guished himself in the fourth crusade, from which he was

the sword thousands of the sectaries, and compelled recently returned. Skilful as a soldier, austere in his car others to fly from their burning houses, and sink riage, fanatical in his religion, cruel and perfidious, he under the pressure of want in the forests and moununited every quality which could please a monk. He was tains. Of the princes who had excited their wrath, too ambitious to refuse the offer which was made him, of by wishing to maintain in their own dominions some he still thought himself obliged to feign a refusal, very sure liberty of conscience, one had perished in prison, two that they would overcome this pretended reluctance.

others had submitted, and " to make their peace,

" Simon de Montfort having accepted the proffered refused not their tribute to the fires of the inquisition,

a lands, proceeded to receive the homage of those among the vassals of the two viscounties, whom fear up to the bigotry of these persecuting fanatics.

ar Sismondi observes, that those who had committed had inclined to submission, and brought to the camp of the crusaders; he also imposed on his new terri

so many crimes were not, for the most part, bad tories an annual tax payable at Rome, and issued

They came from that part of Burgundy and severe decrees against all his subjects, who should but the heretics were in their eyes outcasts from the

Northern France where crimes have always been rare; not display an immediate and eager anxiety to free

human race themselves from excommunication. In spite of the

Accustomed to confide their consciences to their priests, capture of Beziers f and Carcassonne f, the two prin

-to hear the orders of Rome as a voice from heaven, cipal towns of the Albigenses, they were yet far from

never to submit that which appertained to the faith to the submitting to their persecutors, but continued bravely judgment of reason,—they congratulated themselves on to hold out in the castles which abounded in the the horror they felt for the sectaries. The more zealous country. Many, too, of the crusaders departed from they were for the glory of God, the more ardently they the army, their stipulated term of service,--forty laboured for the destruction of heretics, the better Christians days,-having expired.

they thought themselves. Still however there remained a large force under the

Pope Innocent the Third, was the original in. command of De Montfort, and after taking some castles stigator of the persecution of the Albigenses; and

he he directed his arms against the Count of Foix, who, by his legates and emissaries, continually as well as the captive Viscount of Carcassonne, bore sharpened the sword of the murderers." The the name of Raymond-Roger. This count possessed two Spaniards whom he sent into the province in the greatest part of Albigeois, which was regarded 1204, and who helped to found the Inquisition, as peculiarly the seat of the new doctrines; and was

“ first taught the art of seeking out in the villages even himself suspected of having secretly embraced those whom the priests were afterwards to fasten to

their stakes." them. Unable to contend with De Montfort, he

The spirit of fanaticism had been offered to treat, after having sustained several reverses, excited to frenzy by the monks over Europe. Gerand his antagonist deeming it politic to accept the

mans came from the extremity of Austria to fight

under the banners of the crusade; and the English * This name sounds familiar to English ears. The earl men monk, Matthew Paris, testifies to the zeal of our tioned in the text was the father of that Simon de Montfort, Earl of benighted countrymen in the same cause, and to their reign of Henry the Third, and terminated his ambitious career on the triumphant joy at “the miracle which had avenged 4th of August, 1265, in the memorable battle of Evesham, which the Lord," as he calls the massacre of Beziers. restored the sovereign power to its legitimate possessor. + See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XI., p. 50.

The guilt, therefore, of the atrocities committed Ibid. Vol. XI. p. 97.

against the Albigenses, will not rest so heavily upon

JOIN W. PARKER, Pintor, 15. St. Martin's LAKAT


the actual perpetrators as upon the subtle instigators | place. As they were proceeding to execute them, of them; and as Sismondi remarks, it would be to the Abbot Arnold returned to the camp, and De destroy the only responsibility which rests upon the Montfort declared that nothing which they had powerful, the only resort for the oppressed upon this agreed upon could be considered as binding, till the earth, not to hold up to public execration the fana- legate had given his assent. tical monks who directed this movement, and the

At these words, (says Peter de Vaux-Cernay.) the abbot ambitious who profited by it.

was greatly afflicted. In fact, he desired that all the The vengeance of public opinion ought not to rest only enemies of Christ should be put to death, but he could not upon those who accompanied the Crusaders in their ex. take upon himself to condemn them, on account of his peditions, who dragged the reformers to the flames, and quality of monk and priest. who mingled their songs of triumph with the groans of With the view, however, of creating some dispute their miserable victims; these were, at least, blinded by concerning the negotiation, and thereby causing all the same mad passion with which they had inspired the the inhabitants to be put to the sword, he required combatants. There was something more personal, more

the two negotiators, De Montfort and Guiraud, to deliberate, more coldly ferocious, in those clouds of monks who, issuing from all the convents of the order of Citeaux, write down without communication the conditions to spread themselves through the states of Europe, occupied which they had agreed. As Arnold had hoped would all the pulpits, appealed to all the passions to convert them be the case, he found some difference in the state. into one, and showed how every vice might be expiated by ments, of which De Montfort availed himself to decrime, how remorse might be expelled by the flames of clare, in the name of the legate, that the negotiation was their piles, how the soul, polluted with every shameful broken off. But the knight of Minerve replied, that, passion, might become pure and spotless by bathing in the though he thought himself sure of his memory, yet he blood of heretics, Towards the close of 1209, the crusaders had

would accept the capitulation as Simon de Montfort

had drawn it up. De Montfort, however, referred experienced severe reverses, nearly all the castles which they had conquered having been surprised and recap

the matter to the Legate Arnold, who settled the capi

tulation upon the following terms:—That the Lord tured; so that at the end of that year, the dominion

Guiraud and all the Catholics in the castle, and even of Simon de Montfort, in Languedoc, was reduced to eight cities or castles, it having previously comprised their lives saved—that the castle should remain in

those who had favoured the heretics, should have more than two hundred. During the ensuing Winter the hands of De Montfort, -and that the “ he remained on the defensive ; but with the Spring heretics," of whom there was a considerable number,

perfect came fresh clouds of fanatics, who enabled him again should have their lives saved if they would become to take the field in force. De Montfort began his attacks at once upon the converted. When the capitulation was read in the

council of war, castles, which existed in great numbers. Many of them were, however, abandoned on the approach of Robert of Mauvoisin, (says the monk of Vaux-Cernay,) a

nobleman entirely devoted to the Catholic faith, cried, that the crusaders, their possessors not deeming them

the pilgrims would never consent to that; for it was not to capable of sustaining a siege. De Montfort gene show mercy to the heretics but to put them to death, that rally caused all their inhabitants whom he could lay they had taken the cross; but the Abbot Arnold replied hands upon, to be hanged upon gibbets. Some Fear not, for I believe there will be very few converted. castles, calculating too favourably upon their strength, The anticipations of the legate proved well founded. endeavoured to resist him; that of Brom was taken The crusaders took possession of the castle of Miby assault the third day of the siege, and Simon de

nerve on the 22nd of July, 1210; they entered Montfort chose out more than a hundred of its singing Te Deum, and preceded by the cross and wretched inhabitants, and having torn out their eyes, the standards of Montfort. The “heretics," as they and cut off their noses, sent them, in that state, had been styled, were in the mean time assembled, under the guidance of a one-eyed man, to the castle the men in one house, the women in another, and of Cabaret, to announce to the garrison of that for there, on their knees, and resigned to their fate, they tress the fate which awaited them. The castle of 1 prepared themselves by prayer, for the torments that Alairac was not taken till the eleventh day; a great awaited them. The Abbot of Vaux-Cernay came part of its inhabitants were able to escape from the in pursuance of the capitulation, and began to ferocity of the crusaders, but De Montfort massacred preach to them the Catholic faith ; but his auditors the remainder. Further on he found castles aban- interrupted him by a unanimous cry,doned and absolutely empty; and, not being able to

We will have none of your faith, (said they,) we have reach the men, he sent out his soldiers to destroy the renounced the church of Rome: your labour is in vain surrounding vines and olive-trees.

for neither death nor life will make us renounce the opinions De Montfort then conducted his army to a more

that we have embraced. important and arduous task-the siege of the castle The abbot then passed to the assembly of the of Minerve, situated at a small distance from Nar- women, whom he found equally resolute, and more bonne, on a steep rock surrounded by precipices, enthusiastic in their declarations. The Count de and regarded as the strongest place in the country. Montfort, in his turn, visited both, having already The castle belonged to William à Guiraud of Minerve, piled up an enormous of dry wood: “Be a vassal of the Viscounts of Carcassonne, and one converted to the Catholic faith,said he to the asof the bravest knights of the province. The army sembled Albigenses, or ascend this pile." None, of the crusaders appeared before Minerve at the be. however, were shaken. Fire was then applied to ginning of June; the Legate Arnold, and the canon the pile, and the whole square being soon covered Theodise, joined it soon after. The inhabitants, with a tremendous conflagration, the victims were among whom were many who had embraced the conducted to it. Violence, however, we are told, was tenets of the Albigenses, defended themselves with not necessary to compel them to enter the flames ; great valour for seven weeks; but when, on account they voluntarily precipitated themselves therein to of the heat of Summer, the water began to fail in the number of one hundred and forty, after having their cisterns, they demanded a capitulation, Guiraud commended their souls to God. came himself to the camp of the crusaders one day

These martyrs (says the historian Milner,) died in when the legate was absent, and agreed with Simon triumph, praising God that he had counted them worthy to de Montfort on conditions for the surrender of the suffer for the sake of Christ. They opposed the legate to


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