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QUEEN ELIZABETH ; HER PROGRESSES Bohun, a writer of the seventeenth century, the AND PUBLIC PROCESSIONS.

scheme of her progresses is thus explained :No. I.

In the Summer she for the most part lived in the coun

trey; and she took her royal progresses into the several INTRODUCTION.

counties of England, and she would amuse herself with It was remarked in the last century by Bishop Percy, considering and commending the pleasantness and goodness that the splendour and magnificence of Elizabeth's of her country, and the greatness and variety of the fruits reign are nowhere more strongly painted than in the goodness of God in diversifying the face of the earth, by

England produced; she would also admire the wisdom and little diaries which have come down to us of some of ihe mixture of fields, meadows, pastures, and woods; and her Progresses, or Summer excursions to the houses she would, as occasion offered, hunt too. In all this she of her nobility. It may be added with equal truth, was intent upon that which was her main business, the that nowhere do we meet with more interesting and government of her people, the management of her family instructive illustrations of the manners and taste of and of her revenues, and the observing the state and con

dition, the carriage and designs, of the neighbour states that age—an age which, for many reasons, has always and princes. Which way soever she went, she was sure to been particularly attractive to Englishmen. The same

draw upon her the eyes of her people: innumerable crowds learned and accomplished prelate likewise observed of them met her in all places with loud hearty acclamations, that a more acceptable present could not be given to with countenances full of joy, and hearts ally filled with the world than a republication of a select number of love and admiration, and this ever attended her in publick the most interesting accounts,—such as those relating and in private: for what sight in this world can possibly to the entertainments which the Earl of Leicester please mortals like that of a just, beneficent, and kind gave the Queen at Kenilworth Castle in 1575, or to happy, in which, for the goodness of the air or the pleasant

So that those places were accounted the most

prince? that which the Earl of Hertford gave her Majesty at ness of the fields, she was pleased to stay the longest. Elvetham, in 1591. Several years have now elapsed

He then proceeds to describe her extreme affability since the desideratum then pointed out in our literature, was more than supplied by the able research and effect thereof upon her people:

and condescension during these journeys, and the indefatigable industry of Mr. Nichols, who published, in three quarto volumes, all the accounts which he private persons and magistrates, men and women, country

In her progress she was the most easy to be approached; could collect from original contemporary manuscripts, | people and children, came joyfully, and without any fear, to or from scarce pamphlets, &c., concerning the pro- wait upon her and see her. Her ears were then open to gresses, public processions, and other ceremonials the complaints of the afflicted, and of those that had been which occurred in the reign of this celebrated queen.

any way injured. She would not suffer the meanest of her Valuable, however, as were the labours of Mr. people to be shut out from the places where she resided,

but the greatest and the least were then in a manner Nichols, his work is rather`a book of reference, or

levelled. She took with her own hand, and read with the collection of authentic records and documents, than greatest goodness, the petitions of the meanest rusticks : a narrative digested from the materials which he had and she would frequently assure them that she would take amassed; its character, therefore, no less than its a particular care of their affairs, and she would ever be as bulk, renders it not very well fitted to the general good as her word. She, by, her royal authority, protected reader. Under these circumstances, we deem that those that were injured and oppressed: she punished the we shall be offering an acceptable present, in the

fraudulent, false, perfidious, and wicked. In all this variety

of affairs she was able to keep her temper, and appear with phrase of Bishop Percy, to our readers, in furnishing an equal and uninterrupted serenity and humanity to all .them with a series of papers, descriptive of the pro- that came nigh her; she was never seen angry with the gresses of Queen Elizabeth, her public processions, most unseasonable or uncourtly approach: she was never and such other similar matters as tend to illustrate offended with the most impudent and importunate petitioner. the taste and manners which prevailed in our country There was no commotion to be seen in her mind; no reduring her reign.

proaches, no reprehensions came from her. Nor was there

anything in the whole course of her reign that more won The practice of making progresses in different the hearts of the people than this her wonderful facility, parts of her kingdom, is a striking feature in the condescension, and the strange sweetness and pleasantness plan of popularity which- Elizabeth seems to have with which she entertained all that came to her. Thus, followed from the beginning of her reign. The spirit for the most part, she spent her Summer. of the times encouraged those splendid recreations, When Queen Mary died, on the 17th of November, when the habits and amusements of the great pos- | 1558, Elizabeth was at Hatfield. On the 23rd of sessed so different a character from that which they November, she made a magnificent progress from have in more modern times. To show the impression thence to the Charter-house in London ; which was which these progresses made upon the people generally the prelude to her passage through the city from the we shall first quote the words of a contemporary poet, Tower to Westminster, on the 13th of January followwho was one of Elizabeth's gentlemen pensioners, --we ing, the day before her coronation. In the Summer of mean Puttenham, whose Arte of English Poesie has 1559, she made an excursion from Greenwich to Dartsecured the transmission of his name to our ays In ford and Cobham, and afterwards to Eltham, Nonsuch, one of his poems in praise of the Queen, he thus and Hampton Court. In 1560, she went in progress addresses her:

to Winchester and Basing. In the third year of her Thou that besydes forreyne affayres

reign, 1561, she began her progress through Essex, Canst tend to make yerely repayres, By Sommer progresse and by sporte,

Suffolk, and Hertfordshire ; and on her return, she To shire and towne, citye and porte,

passed from Hertford Castle through Enfield, IslingTo view and compasse all thye lande,

ton, and over St, Giles in the Fields (which did not And take the bills with thine own hande

then belie its name,) to St. James. In 1563, she Of clowne and earle, of knight and swayne, received the congratulations of the Eton scholars at Who list to thee for right complayne,

Windsor Castle, and in the next year, those of the
And therin dost such justice yeelde,

University of Cambridge at King's College. In 1564
As in thy soxe folke see but seelde;
And thus to do arte less afrayde,

likewise, she went into Huntingdonshire and LeicesWith houshold trayne, a syllye mayde,

tershire ; in 1565, to Coventry, and the year following Than thyno anncestours one of tenne

to Oxford, in compliment to Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Durst do with troopes of armed men.

then Chancellor of that University; and to Burghley, In the Character of Queen Elizabeth, by Edward on a visit to her Treasurer, the great Cecil. In 1567,

shire ;

she was in Berkshire, Surrey, and Hampshire ; in sixty-eighth year. In 1600, also, and the following 1568, in Kent, Essex, Hertfordshire, and Northamp- year, she made progresses into Surrey, Hampshire, tonshire; in 1569, in Surrey and Hampshire. In Wiltshire, and Berks; and in 1602, she made short 1570, Elizabeth went into the city again, to honour visits from the capital into Middlesex and Kent. In Sir Thomas Gresham on the occasion of his building the year 1603, she closed her reign and life. the Royal Exchange; she was likewise entertained The Puritans in Elizabeth's time, condemned much by him in 1573, at his mansion at Mayfield in Sussex ; of the gaiety and splendour of the court, but the queen and some time between 1577 and 1579 at his house was exhorted from the poetical press, not to regard at Osterley near London. In 1571, she visited their objections. The poet and gentleman pensioner, Hunsdon House, which had formerly been her nursery, George Puttenham, in a poem, or rather collection of and which she gave to her first cousin, Henry Cary, poems, styled Partheniades, which he devoted as a new whom she had created Baron Hunsdon. On May- year's gift to the Queen in 1579, has some lines writday, 1572, she was entertained at Greenwich, with ten for the purpose of maintaining “agaynste the many warlike feats, by the citizens of London; the Puritantes,” that “ amonge men many thinges be coming of the French ambassadors in the same allowed of necessitye, many for ornament, which year, was the occasion of great festivities, and after cannot be misliked nor well spared, without blemishe their departure, the Queen proceeded on a progress to the cyvile life;" and that “all auncyent courtly into Essex, Kent, Herts, Bedfordshire, to Kenilworth, usages, devised as well for the publique intertaynWarwick, Reading, Windsor, and Hampton Court; ments, as for other private solaces and disportes," are at which last place, about the end of September, she “not scandalously evill or vicious.” The muse Calfell ill of the small-pox. In 1573, she passed through liope, addressing the Queen, recounts a list of calamia part of Surrey and Sussex, and honoured many ties which must result from adopting the obnoxious places in Kent with her presence.

She visited Arch- principles : bishop Parker at Croydon; and seems to have intended

Deny honoure to dignity paying him another visit in 1574; in which year

And triumphe to just victorie also, she was amused at Bristol with the regular siege

Pull puissance from soverayntie

And credit from authoritee of a fort; was entertained by the Earl of Pembroke at

From holy-dayes and fro weddinges Wilton, and visited the city of New Sarum.

Minstrells and feasts and robes and ringes In 1575, the Queen made a progress through the

Take fro kinges courtes intertaynments; counties of Northampton, Oxford, and Worcester ;

From ladyes riche habillimentes : and it was during this progress, that she was so mag; And then indignantly exclaims— nificently entertained for nineteen days by the Earl

Princesse! yt ys as if one take away of Leicester at Kenilworth*. In 1577, she was again

Green woodes from forrests and sunne-shine fro the daye. in Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, and spent three days at Sir Nicholas Bacon's mansion at Gorhambury. In

The chances of success in this contest, were natu1578, she went over Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridge- rally with the poets. The innovating spirit of the

and received the compliments of the University Puritans rendered them very unacceptable to the of Cambridge on her way, at Audley Inn. In 1579, Queen; and the manner in which they put forward she again visited Essex and Suffolk. In 1581, she their demands, was not at all calculated to ensure received ten commissioners from the King of France their success. Camden thus describes the “Insolency concerning her marriage with the Duke of Anjou; and of the Puritans," in the year 1588, in which year, he in their honour, a “Triumph” was performed with tells us, that England was “pestered with schism." great solemnity.

Certainly, (he says,) never did contumacious impudency From 1581 to 1588, the Queen appears to have and contumelious malapertness against ecclesiastical ma remained quiet at Westminster; her amusements gistrates, show itself more bold and insolent. For when consisting of shows and tiltings on the reception of to innovatours in religion who designed (as she thought) to

the Queen (who was always the same) would not give ear foreign princes and ambassadors. In the latter year, cut in sunder the very sinews of her ecclesiastical gowhich is memorable for the projected invasion of her vernment and her royal prerogative at once, some of those kingdom by the Spaniards, and the defeat of their men who were great admirers of the discipline of the church grand Armada, Elizabeth paid her celebrated visit of Genera, thought there was no better way to be taken to her army at Tilbury Fort. In 1591 we find her for establishing the same in England, than by inveighing recommencing her progresses over Surrey, Sussex, the people to a dislike and hatred of the bishops and pre

and railing against the English hierarchy, and stirring up and Hampshire, and being entertained at Cowdry, lacy. These men, therefore, set forth scandalous books Southampton, and Elvetham; and the next year at against both the church government and the prelates, the Bisham, Sudley and Ricott, with all the fantastic pomp tiiles whereof were, Martin Marre-Prelate, Mineralis, which characterized the age. In 1592, likewise, she Diotrephes, a Demonstration of Discipline, ģc. In these paid a second visit to Oxford, in compliment to Lord libels they belehed forth most virulent calumnies and opBurleigh, who was then Chancellor of that University. that the authors might seem to have been rather scullions

probrious taunts and reproaches in such a scurrilous manner, In 1594, the students of Gray's Inn entertained her

out of the kitchen than pious and godly men. Yet were with a masque; and next year the Earl of Essex cele- the authors thereof (forsooth) Penry and Udal, ministers brated the anniversary of her accession with a “device." of the word, and Job Throckmorton, a learned man and of In 1599, she went again over part of Berkshire. In a facetious and gybing tongue. Their favourers and up1600, she honoured the wedding of Lord Herbert with holders were Richard Knightley, and Wigston, Knights, her presence, in Black Fryers, and was there enter

men otherwise good, grave, and sober, but drawn in by

certain ministers, who aimed at some private respects of tained with dancing and a masque at the Lord Cob- their own, for which the said knights had smarted by a ham's, and even “ dawnced t” herself, though in her heavy fine laid upon them in the Star-Chamber, had not the

Archbishop of Canterbury, (such was his mildness and * See Saturday Magazine, Vol. I., p. 101. + The fondness of Queen Elizabeth for music and “ dawncing" in good nature,) with much adoe requested and obtained a her old age, is thus noticed in a letter from the Earl of Worcester 10

remission thereof from the queen. the Earl of Shrewsbury, dated September 19, 1602, and printed by Mr. Lodge, from the Talbot MSS., in his Illustrations of British

But if the Queen had been disposed to abolish History: Wee are frolyke heare in Courte; mutche dawncing in what the Puritans disliked, she had not the power to the privi chamber of contrey dawnces before the Q. M. (Queen's do so. She did not, as Mr. Sharon Turner remarks, Majesty) whoe is exceedingly pleased therwthe Irishe tunes are at this tyine most pleasing,” &c.

like Charles the Second, make the manners of her

was

very visits !

court. She found them as they were ; poets repri- | Lord Treasurer “will have in remembraunce to promanded them, but the nobility were too formidable, vide and helpe that her Mats tarieng be not above and her crown too precarious from their cabals, to two nights and a daye," hinting, indeed, that he has allow her to alter their state or enjoyments. She made preparation for no longer time. had no choice but to join the festivities they expected Archbishop Parker,” says Sir Henry Ellis,“ and required. It was the general taste, as well as his one of the few who seemed thoroughly pleased at one own, and not peculiarly the queen's inclination, that of these intended visits. A thought struck him to Leicester sought to gratify by his magnificent festivities make it subservient to the promotion of the protestant at Kenilworth.

religion.” This visit, which we shall describe on a It has been oftentimes objected to these progresses future occasion, was paid to the Archbishop of Canthat they were calculated only to impoverish her terbury in 1573, and in his letter to the Lord Treawealthy subjects under colour of honouring them,- surer, he says,that, in fact, they were an instrument of oppression It would much rejoyce and stablishe the people here in in the hands of the Queen. With reference to the this religion, to see her Highness that Sondaye (being the poorer classes of the people, it is allowed that she first Sonday of the moneth, when others also customablie seemed on all occasions willing to spare them; but may receive) as a godlie devoute prince, in her chiefe and for those of better rank and fortune, it is said that which by her favour I would minister unto her. Plurima

metropolituall churche, openly to receive the communyon. she had no consideration, but that, on the contrary, sunt magnifica et utilia ; sed hoc unum est necessarium. she contrived in many ways to pillage and distress [Many things are magnificent and useful; but this one is them,

necessary.) I presume not to prescribe this to her Highnes, It was the tameness of that time, (says a speaker in one

but as her trustie chapleyn shewe my judgement. of Bishop Hurd's Dialogues,) to submit to every imposition

Strype tells us that a rumour of the small-pox and of the sovereign. She had only to command' her gentry measles being at Canterbury, caused some stop of the on any service she thought fit, and they durst not decline Queen, and made the archbishop stay some of his it. How many of her wealthiest and best subjects did carriages. “For as in fifteen years it should rejoice she impoverish by these means, (though under colour you him, as he told the lord treasurer, to see her Majesty may be sure of her high favour); and sometimes by her

at his house at Canterbury, the cost whereof he weight An old writer, in a Description of England, speaking not; so he would be loth to have her person putin

or of the variety of the Queen's houses, checks himself with saying,

In the year 1577, Lord Buckhurst, who expected

to receive her Majesty at Lewes, was so forestalled in But what shall I need to take upon me to repeat all, and respect of provisions, by other noblemen in Sussex tell what houses the Queen's Majesty hath, sith all is and the adjoining counties, that he was obliged to hirs? And when it pleaseth hir in the Summer season to send for a supply from Flanders. He thus writes to recreate hirself abroad and view the state of the countrie, and hear the complaints of her unjust officers or substitutes, the Earl of Sussex :every nobleman's house is hir palace where she continueth My good during pleasure, and till she returne againe to some of hir

I besech your lordship to pardon me yf thus I owne; in which she remaineth as long as pleaseth hir. shall becom troblesome unto you, to know some certenty of

The historian Carte, expressing the opinion that the Progres yf it may possibly be. The time of provision Queen Elizabeth made it her business to depress sort as appertaineth, so great, as I can not but thus im

is so short, and the desire I have to do all thinges in such the nobility,” and that “even her appearing favours portune your lordship to procure her H. to grow to some ministered to this purpose,” adds,

resolucion, both of the time when her Ma. will be at Lewis, Whether she stayed a time with any of them in her pro

and how long her H. will tary theare. For having alredy gress, (as she did A.D. 1601, for a fortnight together, with sent in to Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, for provision, I assure the Marquis of Winchester at Basing, or only took a dinner,) your lordship I find alredy all places possest by my lord of they paid very dear for the honour of the visit; and what- Arundell

, my lord Mountague, and others. So as of fors I ever exorbitant expence she put them to, she did not think am to send in to Flaunders, which I wold spedely do yf the herself well entertained unless they made her a rich pre- time of her Ma. coming and tarians with me were certain. sent at parting. Thus, dining on December 6th, not four I besech your lordship, therefore, yf it may be, let me know months before her death, at Sir Robert Cecil's, he made by your Lo. favourable means somewhat whereunto to trust, her, when she went away, according to the custom, presents for if her H. shall not presently determin, I se not how to the value of two thousand crowns. Her ministers might, possibly we may or can perform that towardes her Ma. perhaps, be able to support such an expense; but by im- which is du and convenient. poverishing the nobility, who were generally discontented at When Mr. (afterwards Sir) Michael Hickes, Lord their usage, it sunk their credit so low that it was impos- Burghley's secretary, was married, in 1597, the sible for any of them to get a number of followers, were

Queen binted that she would honour him. Hickes they never so inclined to make a disturbance.

wrote to a friend at 'court to ask the Lord ChamberIn Sir Henry Ellis's Original Letters illustrative of lain what preparation he should make ; and his friend English History, are a few epistles illustrative of the told the Lord Chamberlain that it troubled Hickes, feelings of some of Queen Elizabeth's subjects, when they heard that her Majesty had vouchsafed to honour

“ that he had noe convenient place to entertainé them with a visit during her Progresses; and the

sum of her Maties necessary servants." The Lord editor remarks, that it will be readily gathered from by his friend :

Chamberlaine's reply is thus communicated to Hickes those letters, how inconvenient to many these Progresses must have been. Sir Nicholas Bacon, the

His answeare was, that you weare unwise to be at aine Lord Keeper, in a letter to Lord Burghley, concerning and wished that theare might be presented to her Mave

such charge: but onelie to leave the howse to the Quene: the Queen's contemplated visit to him at Gorham- from your wief, sum fine wastcoate, or fine ruffe, or like bury, in 1572, rejoiced much that her Majesty in-' thinge, which he said would be acceptablie taken as if it tended to do him so great an honour, but owned

weare of great price. himself quite a novice in receiving royalty. The Earl Sir Henry Ellis notices it as a fact not generally of Bedford, writing to Lord Burghley in the same known, that much as these visits sometimes put the year, announces his intention of preparing for her Queen's subjects to expense, “ the cost of them to the Majesty's coming to Woburn, “which shall be done,” | public treasury was also a matter of deep concern."

“ in the best and most hartiest manner that Among the Lansdowne Manuscripts in the British 1 can;" but he trusts, at the same time, that the Museum, is “an Estimate of increase of Chardgies

he says,

in the time of Progresse, which should not be if her Queen, was greater to him than to any of her subjects. Majestie remeynid at her Standing Howses within But his love to his sovereign, and joy to entertain her and xx. myles of London ; collected out of the Creditors her train, was so great, as he thought no trouble, care, or of the last Progresse, Aono, xv!: Reginæ Elizabeth," cost, too much, but all too little, so it were bountifully A.D. 1573. It is altered and corrected in Lord of her train.

performed to her Majesty's recreation, and the contentment Burghley's hand. The increase of charges caused by the Progress, appears to have amounted in the fond of magnificence and show, and wished to be

It appears, moreover, that although Elizabeth was whole to 10341. Os. 6d.

royally entertained, she, nevertheless, “misliked suLord Burghley, it is probable, (says Sir Henry Ellis, perfluous expense" in her progresses. Puttenham, would have been personally glad, if the Progresses could in his Arte of English Poesie, after laying down a have been altogether dispensed with. The Queen's visits to him were extremely frequent. His Lordship's treatmen number of rules to regulate the carriage of courtiers of the Queen's suite when she went to Theobalds, seems not to their sovereigns, observing that, in playing with a to have been generally acceptable to the visiters. In more prince, it is decent to let him sometimes win of purthan one letter we find the writers vexed when they learned pose, “to keepe him pleasant," and never to refuse they were to go there.

his gift," for that is undutifull; nor to forgive him Yet, although the Queen's visits might have put his losses, for that is arrogant, nor to give him great her nobles to considerable expense and inconvenience, gifts, for that is either insolence or follie, nor to feast the inference is not necessarily to be drawn that him with excessive charge, for that is both vaine and those visits were unacceptable, and that the parties envious," adds— to whom they were paid, thought the honour of And therefore the wise prince, King Henry the Seventh, receiving them an insufficient compensation for the her Majesty's grandfather, yf his chaunce had been to lye cost and annoyance which they occasioned. Are we at any of his subjects' houses, or to passe moe meales then sure, as Mr. Nichols asks, that Leicester thought he one, he that would take upon him to defray the charge of paid too high a price for the gratification of his am

his dyet, or of his officers and houshold, he would be marbition,-or that the Earl of Hertford regretted the dare undertake a Prince's charge, or looke into the secret

relously offended with it, saying-What private subject expense of regaling her Majesty at Elvetham, to of his expense ? Her Majestie hath bene knowne oftenregain her long forfeited favour ; or that Sir Robert times to mislike the superfluous expense of her subjects Cecil thought much of the great entertainments he bestowed upon her in times of her progresses. gave her at Theobalds, when she conferred the Much of the manners of the times may be learned honour of knighthood on him in 1591, and it was from these Progresses. expected that he would have been advanced to the They give us (says Mr. Nichols) a view into the interior secretaryship. Cecil, indeed, glories how much The- of the noble families, display their state in housekeeping, obalds was increased by occasion of her Majesty's often and other articles, and set before our eyes their magnificent coming; “whom to please,” says he, “I never would of the succeeding age. Houses that lodged the Queen of

mansions, long since gone to decay, or supplanted by others omit to strain myself to more charges than building England and her Court

, are now scarcely it for farms, or it.” The strong desire of Elizabeth's .subjects to levelled with the ground or rebuilt. Such were the seat of please her in her progresses, was never more strikingly the Compton family at Mockings ; of the Sadleirs at Stanshown than on the occasion of a visit which she don; of the great Burleigh at Theobalds; of the Earl of paid to Sir Thomas Gresham, the founder of the Leicester at Kenilworth ; of the Bishop of Ely at SomerRoyal Exchange, at the mansion which he had built Mildmay's at Moulsham; Lord Rich's at Leiglis; Sir Tho

sham; Sir Thomas Cook's at Giddyhall; Sir Thomas at Osterley, in Middlesex. Her Majesty happened to

mas Waldgrave's at Smallbridge; Mi. Tuke's at Layer find fault with the court of the house, observing that Marney. The royal palaces are almost all gone. it was too great, and that it would appear more Our illustration is copied from a very celebrated handsome if divided with a wall in the middle.

engraving by Vertue—one of his “ Historic Prints," What doth Sir Thomas, but in the night time send for which he copied, in 1737, from the original picture in workmen to London, (money commands all things,) who so the possession of the Earl of Oxford, at Coleshill in speedily and silently apply their business, that the next Warwickshire. It had then been in the hands of that morning discovered the court double, which the night had left single before. It is questionable whether the Queen family for fifty or sixty years; but no account of it next day was more contented with the conformity to her had been handed down, except that it was painted in fancy, or more pleased with the surprise and sudden per- memory of Queen Elizabeth's visit to a young married formance thereof.

couple. Who the parties thus honoured were,-and. Her courtiers amused themselves with sundry wit- when or where the visit was made,—were points ticisms upon the transformation; some observing wholly unexplained. Vertue himself, after much conthat it was no wonder he could so soon change a sideration, came to the conclusion that it represented building who had been able to build a Change ; while a visit to Henry Cary, Lord Hunsdon, at Hunsdon others, reflecting on some well known differences in House in Hertfordshire, where she is known to have the knight's family, remarked that a house was easier been in September, 1571; and that it was the work divided than united.

of Mare Gerrards of Bruges, painter to Qucen ElizaThe visits which Elizabeth paid to Cecil were fre. beth. But the appropriation of the scene to Hunsdon quent. She was twelve times at Theobalds, which House, has been controverted in the British Topostood at a very convenient distance from London. graphy as having every probability against it. Each visit cost Cecil two or three thousand pounds The queen is seated in a canopy-chair of state, a large sum in those days; the Queen staying with carried by six gentlemen ; several knights of the garhim “

at his lordship's charge,” sometimes three ter with their collars are walking before the queen, weeks or a month, or six weeks together.

and many favourite ladies following in the train. Her Sometimes she had strangers or embassadors come to yeomen of the guard follow, and the band of gentlemen her thither, where she has been seen in as great royalty pensioners line the way. and served as bountifully and magnificently as at any other I have some reasons to think (says Vertue) that amongst time or place, all at his lordship's expense, with rich shows, the ladies that follow the Queen, the foremost in white may pleasant devices, and all manner of sports that could be be the Lady Hunsdon; on her right hand, Lord Hunsdon's devised, to the great delight of her Majesty and her whole sister, Lady Katherine, who was wife to Admiral Howard, train, with great thanks from all who partook of it, and as and next behind, in a dark grave habit, Lady Mary Boleyn, great commendations from all that heard of it abroad. His mother of Lord Hunsdon: all the ladies are richly adorned lordship's extraordinary charge in entertaining of the with jewels, &c., to grace the solemnity of this procession,

THE HUMAN HEART.

the mind or the body, but of special legislation, Had man been a mere animal machine, destitute of founded on premeditated design, and accomplishing reason, he would have been the most defenceless an adaptation of means to end, wonderful for their creature on earth. The elephant possesses an instru- perfection. Thus the heart, to which the lover apment by which he can grasp his enemy, and an enor- peals as the seat of his ardent feelings, as the most mous weight by which he can trample him to death. sensible organ of his system, may be rudely pressed The bear is endowed with a degree of muscular by the hand without conveying to him the sensation strength, by which he can compress the human figure that it has been touched. Harvey's celebrated expewith as much facility as we break a nutshell. The riment puts this fact beyond a doubt. lion and the tiger can spring upon their prey, and fix

It happened that a youth of the noble family of it by their claws to the earth until they satiate their Montgomerie had his interior exposed in an extraorhunger. But the infant, what a helpless being it is, dinary manner, in consequence of an abscess in the and remains, long after it first sees the light! The side of the chest, which was caused by a fall. The idiot who never enjoyed reason ; the melancholy youth was introduced to the presence of Charles the maniac who has been deprived of it: how pitiably First, and Harvey, putting one hand through the weak and dependent are they, compared with the aperture, grasped the heart, and so held it for some rhinoceros or the eagle! Nevertheless, it has been time, without the young man being at all conscious given to man to subdue all the tribes of animated that any new object was in contact with it. Other nature to his use, and he has fulfilled his destiny in observations have since confirmed this discovery, and that respect by means of his hand, the most perfect the heart is now universally declared by medical men physical instrument with which we are acquainted. I to be insensible! Nevertheless, we all well know that Not all the skill of man has yet been able to imitate the heart is affected not only by the emotions of the the hand in its formation and functions, or to sug- mind, but by every change that takes place in the gest an improvement in one of its joints or muscles. condition of the body. Here, then, is a complete Galen's enthusiastic and eloquent description of it, proof of design. The heart insensible to touch, which, which the reader will find translated in Dr. Kidd's from its internal position, it was never intended to volume, though unrivalled in ancient or modern lite experience, is yet sensibly alive to every variation in rature, scarcely does justice to the flexibility, delicacy, the circulation of the blood, and sympathizes in the and strength of this admirable instrument. But it strictest manner with the powers of the constitution. is, after all, nothing more than an instrument; it There is nothing, however, in the mere principle of would have been, comparatively, powerless, had it life, still less in the physical texture of the heart, to not been moved to action by the rational faculty of give it insensibility to touch, and sensibility to feeling which it is the immediate servant.

of the most active and refined description. As life Yet, although it is by means of the hand that we

is animation added to the body when formed, so this operate upon external matter, we cannot perceive, peculiar susceptibility of the heart is an endowment as Sir Charles Bell justly remarks, any relation be added to the organ bv Him who made it. --Quarterly tween that instrument and the mind. The hand is

Review. not more distinct from the rose which it is about to pluck, than the mind is from this organ of its voli

THE STOMACH.—"I firmly believe that almost every

malady of the human frame is, either by high-ways or by tion. Indeed, we must all feel that the pulse which ways, connected with the stomach. The woes of every beats at the wrist, has nothing whatever to do with other member are founded on your belly timber; and I our will. We may use the hand for our purposes, must own, I never see a fashionable physician mysteriously but its machinery, its vitality, do not in any way consulting the pulse of his patient, but I feel a desire to depend upon our dictates. The action of the heart, exclaim - Why not tell the poor gentleman at once, Sir

, the circulation of the blood, are carried on by laws you have eaten too much; you've drunk too much, and

you have not taken exercise enough!' The human frame to which the mind is no party. Had it been other was not created imperfect. It is we ourselves who have wise, a single act of omission in ordering the requisite made it so. There exists no donkey in creation so overfunctions on our part, might bring life to a premature laden as our stomachs." -Bubbles from Nassau. termination. The fracture of a small filament in the admirable tracery of nervous cords which unites

How frail and inconsistent is men! How different does he

think and act even for himself, in different circumstances ! many organs in sympathy, would produce spasm,

How strangely does the same passion of pride seek for suffocation, and death. Thus, then, we have two

gratification from contrary causes, from pursuing ideal good, principles of vitality in us,—one, that of the mind, and from giving up that which is attainable and real ! One the other, that of the frame in which it is enveloped ; moment le strains at a gnat, and applauds himself for each perfectly distinct, and manifestly the work of a sagacity, in the next he does not suspect himself of creduSuperior Intelligence, who has given us a control over

lity when he swallows a camel.-PARR. the operations of both, but has taught us the secret Longevity.—In the third volume of Mr. Sharon Turner's of immortality, in the laws which disclose their sepa- Sacred History of the World, is the following passage: rate existence. The planets move round the sun by "The salubrity of England, either from its climate, its his attraction; the blood circulates through our manners, or its intellectual cultivation, to the more advanced frame by no relation to the mind. The planets and periods of social life, is indicated by the fact that, in 1834, the sun itself shall perish; the blood shall cease to

it was calculated that there were then seventy peers in the circulate, and the fairest fabric of mortality shall

House of Lords, who were between seventy and eighty moulder in the dust ; but the mind lives indepen- ears of age, or a sixth part of the 426 of whoin the House,

Eleven of these were dently of matter, as matter dues of mind, and can noticed as octogenarians, or still older. These eleven peers no more be affected, as to its vital essence, by the were thus represented :destruction of the body, than Sirius would be by the Lord Wodehouse ..

Lord St. Helens

81 extinction of our entire solar system.

Lord Lynedoch...

Earl Fortescue
Lord Stowell

Earl of Ranfurley
Not only are the vital functions of the body inde-

Ea:) Powis pendent of our will, but each of our organs has been Lord Scarsdale

Lord Middleton............

Lord Carrington endowed, without any consent or previous knowledge on our part, with powers admirably suited to its pur, the Earl of Egremont, and Lord Rolle, the two former of

To these might have been added the Bishop of Norwich, pose; powers which are not the result of life eíther of whom have paid the debt of nature: the last is still living.

93 .iii. 84

89

..... 83 ............ 83

82

81 80 80 80

Lord Eldon

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