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through which they wander. They are certainly a of those books, are quite different, and, indeed, oppovery remarkable people; and if there had been any site to what might have been expected from impostors prophecy (which there was not,) of their being thus or enthusiasts, dispersed, we might well have believed that such a And lastly, you have seen that many of the diffiprophecy must have come from inspiration.
culties that have been brought as objections against But in some remarkable points their condition Christianity, turn out, on careful inquiry, to be an differs from that of the Jews, and is less unaccount additional evidence of its truth. able.
Among others, this is remarkably the case with the First, they do not like the Jews) live in towns difficulties relating to the history and condition of the among other men, and in houses; but dwell in tents, Jewish nation. Though you may not be able fully to by the road-sides, and on commons; leading the life explain all the circumstances relating to that wonof strolling tinkers, pedlars, and fortune-tellers. This derful People, you may learn from them, what they roaming life, of course, tends to keep them separate refuse to learn from themselves, a strong proof of from the people of the countries in which they are the truth both of their Scriptures, and of the Gospel found.
which they obstinately reject. It is so ordered by But the chief difference is, that the Gipsies are Providence that even that very obstinacy is made to always ready, when required, to profess the religion furnish an additional proof of Christianity; by setting of the country, whether Christian or Mohammedan, them forth before all the world as a monument of or any other; seeming to have no religion of their fulfilled prophecy. own, and to be quite indifferent on the subject. The There are several other instructions and warnings, Jews, on the contrary, always, when they are allowed, also, which you may learn from attentively reflecting settle in towns along with other men; and are kept on the case of the Jews: and I will conclude by distinct from them by their religion, and by nothing shortly mentioning a few of these. else. They are the only people who are everywhere First, you should remember that when you see the separated from the people of the country in which Jews, both formerly, and now, obstinately keeping to they live, entirely by their peculiar faith and religious the faith of their forefathers, merely because it is observances; and that, too, though their religion is what they were brought up in, and refusing to en such (which is the strongest point of all) that the to any reasoning on the subject of religion, a Christian most important part of its ordinances,—the sacrifices has no right to wonder at, or to blame, them, if he ordained in their law,--cannot be observed by them. does the same thing himself; that is, if he is satisfied
The Jews, therefore, in their present condition, are to take upon trust whatever he may have been told, a kind of standing miracle; being a monument of and is resolved neither to seek nor to listen to any the wonderful fulfilment of the most extraordinary arguments that may enable him “ to give a reason of prophecies that were ever delivered ; which prophecies the hope that is in him.” And the same may be they themselves preserve and bear witness to, though said of Mohammedans and Pagans, as well as of they shut their eyes to the fulfilment of them. No Jews. Though the Christian happens to have a other account than this of the present state and past religion that is right, he is not more right than they, history of the Jews ever has been, or can be given, if he goes on the same plan that they do. At least, that is not open to objections greater than all the he is right only by chance, if he holds a faith that is objections put together that have ever been brought true, not because it is true, but merely because it is against Christianity,
that of his forefathers,
Secondly, -You should remember that we are apt This, then, as well as several other difficulties in to make much less allowance for the unbelieving our religion, such as have been formerly mentioned, Jews than for Christians who lead an unchristian life; will be found, on examination, to be,-even when and that we ought to do just the contrary. you cannot fully explain them,—not so much ob It is difficult for us, of these days, to understand jections against the truth of your religion, as con
and fully enter into the great difficulty which the firmations of it.
Jews had (and still have), in overcoming all the And when you do meet with any objection which prejudices they had been brought up in, and which you are at a loss to answer, you should remember, so flattering to their own nation, as God's (as has been above said,) that there are many things favoured People. It was a hard task for them to wean which all men must believe, in spite of real difficulties themselves from all the hopes and expectations of which they cannot explain, when there are much temporal glory and distinction to that nation ; hopes greater difficulties on the opposite side, and when which they and their ancestors had cherished for so sufficient proof has been offered.
many ages. No doubt it was a grievous sin in them And in the present case, you have seen that it is
to give way to those prejudices, and to reject the not only difficult, but impossible, to account for the Christ as they did. But it is a greater sin to acknowrise and prevalence of the Christian religion, suppos- ledge Him, as some Christians do, as their Lord and ing it not to have come from God. It certainly was Master, and to “ believe that He shall come to be our introduced and propagated (which no other religion judge," and at the same time, to take no care to obey ever was) by an appeal to the evidence of miracles. his precepts, and copy the pattern of his life. This is Nothing but the display of supernatural powers could more truly impiety than that with which an infidel is have gained even a hearing for the Apostles; sur-chargeable. For suppose two men each received a rounded as they were by adversaries prejudiced against letter from his father, giving directions for his chiltheir religion by their early education and habits of dren's conduct; and that one of these sons, hastily, thought, and inclinations, and hopes. And these su and without any good grounds, pronounced the letter pernatural powers were, as you have seen, acknow
a forgery, and refused to take any notice of it; while ledged at the time by those adversaries; who were the other acknowledged it to be genuine, and laid it driven to attribute the Christian miracles to magic up with great reverence, and then acted without the arts.
least regard to the advice and commands contained And you have seen, too, that the religion itself, in the letter : you would say that both of these men and the character of Jesus Christ as drawn in the indeed were very wrong; but the latter was much the Christian Scriptures, and the whole of the narrative
more undutiful son of the two.
Now this is the case of a disobedient Christian, as drawing, so that it shall exactly cut some particular compared with infidels. He does not, like them, point in the design, for instance, the corner of the pronounce his father's letter a forgery; that is, deny eye. Note which of the twenty-four divisions on the the truth of the Christian revelation; but he sets at moveable index is opposite to it, and, at the same time, defiance in his life, that which he acknowledges to be which of the divisions on the circular index is cut by the Divine command.
the edge of the straight index. Place the straight 3. Lastly, you should remember that no argument edge in the same position on the circle which carries you can bring against unbelievers, will have greater the blank paper. weight with most of them, than a Christian life ; and If the angle of the eye in the original design is nothing again, will be more likely to increase and opposite the ten on the moveable index, make a dot on confirm their unbelief, than to see Christians living in the paper opposite the same number of the moveable opposition to the precepts and spirit of the Gospel ; index of the circle on which the blank paper is placed, and especially to see them indulging bitter and unkind and it will show the place of the angle of the eye in and hostile and uncharitable feelings towards their the reduced copy. In this manner find as many fellow-creatures, and even their fellow-Christians. points as you think necessary for your guidance. If
The objection thence raised against the Christian the copy is to be one-fourth the size of the original, religion, is indeed (as has been above said) not a real use the index in which 'the twenty-four divisions and sound one ; but still it will be raised : and there- occupy one-fourth of its length, and so on. fore, you cannot too carefully consider how much you will have to answer for, if you contribute to bring an A carpenter having a piece of mahogany of a triill name on your Christian faith ; and if you do not, angular form, see fig. 3, wished to know how he could on the contrary, endeavour to the utmost, “to adorn cut it up to the best advantage. His first idea was to the doctrine of God our Saviour, in all things." make an oblong-square table of it, but he found that,
if he did so, the waste of the wood would be very great; after consideration, he discovered that the most eco
nomical method of using his wood would be to form AMUSEMENTS IN SCIENCE,
it into an oval. To make this oval contain as much No. VI.
wood as possible, he proceeded in
the following manner : Let BGD
Fig. 3. To reduce or enlarge a drawing by means of a simple take g 1, one-half of the base, instrument. Form two flat circles of wood, or of thick and divide the triangle by drawpasteboard; of sufficient size to receive the paper on ing a line from # to B; take G H which we are about to make an enlarged copy, or the in the compasses, and set it off original, if you intend to make a reduced one. on one of the sides from G to E,
draw the line E F, and the point
i will be the centre of the
The points A and c are found by dividing the line from E to k, and drawing. A c, or by drawing the dotted lines D A and G C through the centre at i. These points being found, the oval must be completed by the eye of the draughtsman.
In the Saturday Magazine, Vol. X., p. 220, in describing the mode of
forming Let the outer edge of each of these two circles be twenty triangular sides,
figure of divided into any corresponding number of equal parts, an error occurred in the with a small hole in the centre of each board to receive engraving; two of the tria pin, on which a thin piece of brass revolves; this angles forming the sides
Fig 1. piece of brass is divided, say into twenty-four parts, being omitted. Fig. 4 is a corrected outline. beginning at the centre, and reaching as far as the inner line of the index on the margin of the circular board. The other circle is furnished with several There is hardly a circumstance connected with our existsimilar pieces of metal having also twenty-four equal not yield abundant evidence of the wisdom and beneficence
ence, which, when examined with a little attention, does divisions, beginning from the centre; in one case which preside over the universe. We have only to turn up one-half of the distance from the centre to the outer the soil at our feet, to find in it innumerable seeds useful index contains the whole of the twenty-four divisions, to man; we have only to look around us upon the surface in another one-fourth contains the same number, and of the earth, to see it stocked with a variety of animals, in another two-thirds.
conducive not only to our subsistence, but to our conveniIn order to use this instrument, place the original ence and recreation. The sea also, and the air
, have their design on the circle first described, and place the vestigate the laws by which the whole system of vegetable
population at our command; and the more deeply we inindex in its place, the pin, of course, piercing the and animal life is governed, the more clearly we shall centre of the paper.
perceive their complete and exclusive adaptation to the We are supposing now that the drawing is to be planet on which they carry on their operations.—Quarterly reduced, say to one-half its breadth and length. Place
Review. a piece of paper sufficiently large on the other circle, and the brass index, on which the twenty-four divisions
LONDON: occupy one-half of its length, in its place on the second JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. circle. Suppose the object to be reduced is a head:
PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTI place the index on the circle which holds the original Sold by all Booksellers and Newsreaders in the Kingdom.,
base G D.
THE ROYAL EXCHANGE, LONDON. and five feet broad; from the smallness of their size, In most large commercial cities, it has long been the it often happened that the same person rented custom that a particular place should be appropriated
more than one. There were likewise at first, other to the daily meetings of merchants. The name which shops fitted up in the vaults below; but these was first generally applied to such places is Bourse, being found very inconvenient by reason of their by which they are still known in Paris, Antwerp, St. dampness and want of light, the vaults were soon let Petersburg, and other large cities on the continent.
out to other uses. An entry in the Ward-book of The account given of the origin of the name of Cornhill, under the year 1594, gives us some informaBourse, as applied to a place of meeting for mer
tion as to the manner in which the vaults were then chants, is this. In the city of Bruges there stood a appropriated ; it runs thus,large ancient building, which had been erected by the Presented William Grimbel for keping typlinge in the noble family of La Bourse, (signifying Purse in vaults under the Exchange, and for broyling of herringes, French and Flemish,) whose coat of arms on the sprotts, and bacon, and other thinges in the same vaults walls was three purses. The merchants of Bruges noisome to the merchants and others resortinge to the
Exchange. made this old house the place of their daily assem. blies; and when they afterwards went to the fairs of
The number of the upper shops was one hundred Antwerp and Mons, they called the place appropri- and twenty; which, when the vaults had been detached ated in those eities to similar purposes, by the same
from them, "paid, one with another, a rent of four name as that which they had applied to the place of pounds ten shillings a year, upon leases of twentymeeting in their own city, that is to say,—the Bourse.
one years." Ward, in his Life of Gresham, says, The French merchants also carried the name into the that the tenants placed in them by Sir Thomas were cities of their own country; and even in London
chiefly young men of small fortunes, but industrious, the merchants' place of meeting was called Bourse or who, by their diligence, brought great business to their Burse, until Queen Elizabeth ordered it to be styled shops, and employed some thousands of poor people the Royal Exchange ; and even afterwards retained in working our manufactures.” It would seem, howthe original name among foreigners, who styled it ever, that they were not at first very prosperous ; the Bourse Royale.
for when Elizabeth visited the Exchange, three years The Bourse or Burse in London was built by the cele- after its erection, so many of the shops were unbrated merchant, Sir Thomas Gresham *; and before occupied that Sir Thomas found it necessary to go its erection the merchants were accustomed to assemble round among the shopkeepers and entreat them “ to in the open air in Lombard-street, where they trans- furnish and adorne with wares and wax-lights, as acted their business, subject to the many inconveniences many shoppes as they either coulde or woulde, and of such an exposure. That these inconveniences were they should have all those so furnished, rent free for severely felt is proved by the fact that various schemes
that year.” Some time afterwards, Stow's Continuator, were suggested for remedying them; although no speaking of this Exchange says, “it is as plenteactive steps appear to have been taken for that pur- ously stored with all kinde of rich wares and fine pose until the year 1531. In that year, Sir Thomas commodities as any particular place in Europe; Gresham's father, Sir Richard, who enjoyed the into which place many forraine princes daily send to honourable distinction of being styled “the King's be best served of the best sort." The same authority Merchant," and who was then serving the office of enumerates among the tenants of the shops of that sheriff, wrote to Sir Thomas Audley, the Lord Privy period, haberdashers, armourers, apothecaries, bookSeal, requesting him to move the king (Henry the sellers, goldsmiths, and globe-sellers. Eighth) to direct a letter to be sent to Sir George
The visit mentioned above as having been paid Monoux, requiring him to sell certain houses in by Queen Elizabeth to the Bourse in 1571, was the Lombard-street to the mayor and commonalty, for occasion of its obtaining the name of "Royal Exthe purpose of erecting a Burse on the ground of the change,” by which it has ever since been known. same for the use of the merchants.
Her Majesty went into the city to dine with Sir Three years after Sir Richard's application, the Thomas Gresham, and on her return inspected it. king sent a letter to the city, directing that a Burse The three and twentieth of Januarie, [1571,] the Queene's should be built at Leadenhall; but as the Common Majestie, accompanied with her nobility, came from her Council voted that the place of meeting should not
house at the Strand, called Summerset-place, and entered
the citie of London by Temple Bar, Fleet-street, Cheape, be removed from Lombard-street, no further mea
and so by the north side of the Bursse, to Sir Thomas sures were taken.
Gresham's in Bishopsgate-street, where she dined. After Thirty years afterwards, when Elizabeth had been dinner, her Grace returning through Cornbill, entered the seated on the throne about six years, the scheme was Bursse on the south side; and after her Highness had revived with greater effect. Sir Thomas Gresham pro
viewed every part thereof above ground, especially the posed to the corporation of London, in the year 1564–
Pawne, which was richlie furnished with all sorts of the
finests wares in the citie, she caused the same Bursse hy That if the city would give him a piece of ground in a an herald to be proclaimed The Royal Exchange, so to be commodious spot, he, at his own expense, would erect an called from thenceforth and no otherwise. Exchange, with large and covered walks, wherein the merchants and traders might daily assemble, and transact
A curious tradition has been preserved relative to business at all seasons, without interruption from the this visit,-namely, that Sir Thomas, before the weather, or impediments of any kind.
Queen came to his house, purchased of a foreigner a This offer was accepted; and the foundation of the costly pearl, which, on account of its high price, had Exchange was laid by Sir Thomas Gresham on the been refused by several persons of the first quality, 7th of June 1566. The superstructure was carried that he caused it to be reduced to powder, and during on with rapidity, and the whole covered in with slate the entertainment drank it up in a glass of wine. by November 1567, soon after which the building The tradition is embodied in an historical play in was “ fully finished.”
which Gresham thus speaks,The upper part of this edifice was divided into Here fifteen hundred pound at one clap goes, shops, which were let out by Sir Thomas at a yearly
Instead of sugar Gresham drinkes this pearle
Unto his queen and mistress : pledge it lords. rent. These shops were seven feet and a half long
This story, (rays Dr. Ward,) has been handed down by * See Saturday Magazine, Vol. II., p. 225.
tradition as a real fact, but as I find no historical proof of
it, I would not be thought to mention it as a thing pro- | Exchange one of the greatest glories and ornaments of bable, but only to show upon what evidence it depends; for London. There were the statues of the kings and queens it seems no way agreeable to the character of Sir Thomas, of England set up, as in the most conspicuous and honourable who always knew how to make the best use of his money. place (as well receiving lustre from the place where they Sir Thomas Gresham died on the 21st of Novem
stood as giving lustre to it.)
How full of riches was that Royall Exchange. Rich men ber, 1579, and by his will bequeathed “the building in the midst of it, rich goods both above and beneath. There called the Royal Exchange, with all the pawns and men walk't upon the top of a wealthy mine; considering shops, cellars, vaults, messuages, tenements, and other what Eastern treasures, costly spices, and such like things, hereditaments” belonging to it, after the determination were laid up in the bowels, (I mean the cellars,) of that of the particular uses, estates, and interest for life, place. As for the upper part of it, was it not the great and entail thereof, upon the Lady Anne his wife, furnished with most of those costly things, wherewith they
storehouse whence the nobility and gentry of England were “jointly for ever to the Corporation of London and did adorn either their closets or themselves?
tluat Royall citizens out of their moiety should pay salaries of Exchange in building, viz., from June 7th till November 501. per annum each to four professors, who should in the year following. So that the sunne had finished his read public lectures gratuitously on Divinity, Astro
annual course once, and almost a second time, ere that work pomy, Geometry, and Music, at his Mansion-house
was finished; but was it so many hours in burning as it
was months in building ? between Bishopsgate-street and Broad-street, afterwards called Gresham College; 61. 13s. 4d. per annum
When this Exchange was burned in 1666 the each, to eight alms-people living behind the said amount of funds belonging to the trust in the mansion ; and 101. annually to each of the prisons of
possession of the trustees was only £ 234. 8s. 2d. ; Newgate, Ludgate, the Marshalsea, King's Bench, yet they soon began the work of rebuilding. and Wood-street Compter:—and that the Mercers
The plans and elevations were submitted to Charles out of their moiety should pay annual salaries of 501.
the Second in September, 1667, and, on the 23rd of to each of three persons who should read lectures on
October, the king laid the base of the column on the Law, Physic, and Rhetoric, at his Mansion-house ; his suite were plentifully regaled, under a temporary
west side of the north entrance, after which he and 1001, for four dinners quarterly, at their own hall,
shed and 101. yearly to Christ's, St. Bartholomew's, St.
upon the Scotch walk, “ with a chine of beef, Thomas's, and Bethlem Hospitals, the Spital and the fowls, hams, dried tongues, anchovies, cavaire, and Poultry Compter.
wines.” On the 31st of the same month, the first Lady Gresham continued to receive the emoluments stone of the column on the east side of the nortlı arising from the Royal Exchange, in rents, fines, &c., James the Second, and on the 18th of November, the
entrance was laid by the Duke of York, afterwards until her decease, in 1596, before which time they foundation-stone of the eastern column of the south amounted to 7511. 58. The Exchange built by Sir Thomas Gresham, was
entrance was laid by Prince Rupert. The architect nearly destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, not employed was Mr. Edward Jerman, and not as has quite one century after its completion. Evelyn, in been often stated, Sir Christopher Wren; the work his account of this awful calamity, laments “ the
was diligently superintended by the joint committee Sumptuous Exchange ;" he tells us also, that “ Sir of the Mercers' Company and the Corporation of Thomas Gresham's Statue, though fallen from its London, appointed for that purpose by those bodies. niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when
The following official entry was inserted in the all those of the kings since the Conquest, were
books by an order dated Dec. 16, 1667:broken to pieces.” Another eye witness of the great chester, recommending one Caius Gabriel Cibber to the
A letter from the Right Honourable the Earl of Manfire, the Rev. T. Vincent, after remarking in his God's making the statues for the Royal Exchange, and the rather Terrible Voice in the City, that no stately building was in regard he hath shown his Majesty some models which so great as to resist the fury of the flames, continues : have been well liked of, having been read; the committee
The Royal Exchange itself, the glory of merchants, is called the gentleman in, and acquainted him that the now invaded with much violence: when the fire was entered, business of making the statues is yet very much from their how quickly did it run round the galleries, filling them with thought, having the whole Exchange to build first; and flames: then descending the stairs, com passeth the walks, that a new committee will succeed before the main work giving forth flaming vollies, and filling the court with sheets
be effected, to whom, when fitting time shall come, he may of fire ; by and by the kings fell all down upon their faces, do well to apply himself. and the greatest part of the building after them (the Foun. Cibber seems to have taken their advice, for he did der's statue only remaining), with such a noise as was dread- execute most of the statues. ful and astonishing
During the period occupied by the rebuilding of In an old work styled the “Burning of London in this edifice, the merchants held their meetings at the year 1666, commemorated and improved in a CX. Gresham College, but when the works were suffiDiscourses, Meditations, and Contemplations, by ciently advanced, they took possession of the New Samuel Rolle, Minister of the Word, and sometime Exchange, which was first publicly opened on the Fellow of Trinity Colledge in Cambridge," we find 28th of September, 1669. some curious and interesting remarks upon this sub The whole cost of rebuilding the edifice was 58,9621. ject. In the third part which treats of “the most re Considerable repairs have, at times, been made in markable passages and circumstances of that dread this edifice. In the year 1767 Parliament voted ful fire,” Meditation IX. is Upon the burning of the 10,0001. for the purpose; and it was then found Royall Exchange.
necessary almost to rebuild the western side. But What a princely foundation (says the writer,) was that the most extensive reparations and improvements Royal Exchange! and of how great use ? Was not that the which this fabric has ever undergone were made center in which those lines met that were drawn from all between the years 1820 and 1826, from the designs parts of Europe ? rich merchants, I mean, and other eminent and under the superintendence of Mr. George Smith, tradesmen and great dealers, not merely English but architect to the Mercers' Company. These consisted Spanish, French, Dutch, Portugueze, Danes, Swedes. Was not the place a little epitomie or rather representative of
of building a new stone tower on the north front, in all Europe (if not of the greatest part of the trading world,) place of a more lofty one of timber; constructing renewed every day, at such a time, and for so many hours?
three new stone staircases of large dimensions ; As London was the glory of England, so was that Royal chipping, scraping, and repairing the entire surface