Obrazy na stronie

stay their vessels on the water, though the effect obtained | dolphin at the prow. Arion, the famous musician oi was always the same, the instrument was various. The Lesbos, having made great wealth in foreign parts by his most ancient anchors were large stones, bored through the profession, was returning home by ship, when the sailors middle; sometimes they were made of wood, having lead resolved to kill him and seize upon his riches. Playing inserted. In some places, baskets of stones, or sacks of once again, at his last request, a favourite tune, he leaped sand, suspended by cords in the sea, served as anchors, by into the sea. A dolphin, attracted by the melody, received impeding the course of the ship by their weight. At him safely on its back, and carried him again to the court length the anchor was made of iron, with one tooth, or of the prince, whence he had set out. Arion, doubtless, fluke; and soon after two-fluked anchors became general. escaped by a boat, the fore part of which consisted of a Sometimes they employed an anchor with four claws, or dolphin. The flight of Phryxus with his sister Helle, into flukes; which seems to be what is meant in Acts xxvii. Asia, on the back of a ram having a golden fleece, and her 29; although the ancients used more anchors than one, falling through giddiness into that part of the sea afterand usually dropped them by boats from the stern, contrary wards named the Hellespont, or Sea of Helle, now the to the practice of the moderns, who let them down from the straits of the Dardanelles, is explained by considering that prow. The boat, being fastened to the stern, was usually Phryxus absconded with an immense treasure in the ship towed along after the ship, unless in case of a heavy sea Aries or Ram, and that his sister Helle, who accompanied coming on, when it was drawn close up to the ship; as in him, fell overboard by some accident or other. The ship in Acts xxvii. 16. We learn from Bruce that the four-fluked which St. Paul sailed away from the island of Malta, had anchor is still used by the Egyptians; and we should ob- the twin sons of Leda for its sign. The Gemini were the serve that St. Luke mentions that St. Paul was voyaging in patrons of mariners, and were deemed to be present with an Egyptian vessel. Of the several anchors belonging to mortals, when a sacred light played around the tops of the each ship, one exceeded the rest in size and strength. masts. This light is now known by the people of the This was called the sacred anchor, and was used only in Mediterranean coasts, as St. Elmo's fire, and is due to extreme danger; so that the phrase, to throw out the sacred electricity, which is attracted by points. Many of the signs anchor, was in process of time proverbially applied to those of the Zodiac, and other constellations, received their names who were driven to their last shifts.

from the ships of early days, which the unaffected admiraWe find, upon one or two occasions, mention made of iron tion of the times resolved to honour with immortal rememchains in use for dropping the anchor. Cables, however, brance, by a belief in their translation to the skies. were generally employed, made at first from leather thongs, The people of Ægina, an island in the Ægean, and of or the sinews of animals. They then used flax, hemp, Crete, an island of the Levant, are among the earliest broom, rushes, or sea-weed. The ancient Greeks procured people, who pursued navigation. The inhabitants of from Egypt ropes and cables manufactured from rushes and Corinth and Corcyra were the first to form a fleet; but the sea-willow. We must not omit to mention the ancient prac-Cretans are said to have been the first to possess the empire tice of undergirding the ship, mentioned in Acts xxvii. 17. of the sea. By this is meant the passing of ropes several times round the hull, to prevent the timbers from starting and giving way, when the ship, in a very rough sea, is strained, and apt to lurch. It is even done now, upon occasion, when the vessel is not very largé; as we find in Walter's account of Lord Anson's voyage, who relates the undergirding of a Spanish ship with six turns of a cable, during a violent storm.

It seems to have been the ordinary practice of the ancients, to place at the head or prow of the vessel an image, called the sign; which we see also in modern times. This gave then, and usually gives now, a notion of the ship's

The sides of the prow were called cheeks, as this part of the vessel generally showed a human face, and was decorated with paint and gilding (see the engraving in page 35). The part of the vessel which cut the water, was called the goose; a great similarity being fancied to exist between the ship and this bird, while on the water. At the stern, often carved into the form of a shield, and elaborately painted, were small streamers. Here also was set, or in some way delineated, a representation of the deity to whose tutelary favour the ship was committed. To this deity daily prayer and sacrifice were offered, and this was the naval sanctuary. Taking this into consideration, and that ancient ressels were universally named after some beast, bird, or fish, we shall easily resolve many stories of antiquity, which contain facts under absurd and unnatural guises.

Ships were very usually termed horses among the ancients, which sets off in a clearer light the story of Nep. tune and Minerva contending for the honourable guardianship of the city of Athens. The horse, which the former ANCIENT SHIP, SHOWING THE SIGN, OR IMAGE, AT THE PROV gave, was a symbol of maritime affairs; as the olive, given by the latter, was of agricultural peace and quiet. Though the victory was at the time adjudged to Minerva, we read of

WAR AND MERCHANT SHIPS. her being an early patroness of Navigation. We are told that the poorer people of Gades, (now Cadiz,) a Phænician Taus far respecting naval affairs in general. We must colony in the south of Spain, called their small barks now observe that the vessels of the ancients were distinhorses; and we know that the Nubian savages, at the pre- guished into two chief classes; each possessing its own sent time, call a sailing-boat a water-mare." About characteristic features; war ships, and ships of burden. 1500 years B.C., the Princess Europa, we are told, was The former generally had no sails, but were impelled by carried off from Phænicia to Crete, by Jupiter, who had oars, and were of great length; so that long ships was a assumed the form of a bull: the credible version of which term equivalent with ships of war. The latter were of a story is, that Asterius, King of Crete, whose wife she rounder shape, and were mainly propelled by sails. afterwards became, went to her father's court, prevailed upon The people most distinguished for naval warfare before her to elope with him, and conveyed her across the sea in a the Christian era, were the Phænicians, Carthaginjans, vessel having the sign of the bull at its head, and the shrine Greeks, and Romans. One illustration of their war-ship of Jupiter at its stern. The chariot with winged dragons, in and mode of fighting applies to all; as each one seenis to which Medea fled from the vengeance of her husband, was have been tutored by its predecessor in political existence. only a ship with sails. The Elder Pliny tells us of a boy, War-ships were chiefly rowed with oars, that they might who was carried by water some miles on the back of a be able to tack about, and approach the enemy at pleasure. dolphin to school; the vessel, in all probability, having a The number and appointment of oars became more nume



rous, as navigation improved. There were, according to In the event of an engagement, everything was put out the size of the vessel, rows, tiers, or banks of oars; not of the vessel which would not be wanted in battle. If the placed on the same level, but having the seats fixed at the ship had sails, they were furled and put away; and it is to back of each other in the manner of stairs. The most be observed that the ancients always avoided fighting in usual number of these rows was three, or four, or five. stormy weather. The order of battle was generally that There were, however, many vessels, which had more tiers ; of a half-moon, the best men and ships being stationed and the ship's class was determined by this property. The at the horns, or wings, for the purpose of breaking the first long ships were rowed, we are told, with fifty oars, in enemy's line by beaking. Sometimes the semi-circle was the thirteenth century B.C., and the notion of them was directed convexcly towards the enemy; at other times conderived from Egypt. The size of this species of vessel, as cavely. Upon some occasions the fleet was drawn up in depending upon the extent of the rowing-banks, became, a circle, as with the Peloponnesians; at others, in the form we read, after many ages, enormous.

of the letter V, for the purpose of penetrating the body of In the reign of Ptolemy Philopater, King of Egypt, about the adverse squadron. 200 years B.C., a ship of forty tiers of oars was constructed, Prayer and sacrifice preceded the battle, accompanied each tier containing one hundred rowers. This ship carried, with the exhortations of the admiral. The signal for enmoreover, its complement of sailors and soldiers, and was gaging was given by sound of trumpet, which was repeated called the Isis. Astill more wonderful vessel was constructed round the fleet, as also by hanging out a gilded shield, or about the same time by Archimedes, at the command of banner, from the admiral's galley, which vessel was moreHiero, King of Sicily. This ship had in it banqueting-rooms, over distinguished by a red flag. The battle continued as galleries, stables, baths, and fish-ponds; it had also a temple long as the shield, or banner, was elevated. A pæan, or of Venus, the floors and sides of which were painted with war-song, to Mars was chaunted by the party which made scenes from the Iliad of Homer. There seems to have been a the attack; and a hymn to Apollo was sung by the rage at this time for constructing these huge machines, which victors. the deficient nautical skill of the times could not apply The admiral's galley would begin the engagement by to any useful purpose. They resembled tloating islands, endeavouring by a sudden, close, and parallel movernent, and, indeed, we are told that these, and such like fabrics, to break, or sweep off, the whole set of bars on one side of were too unwieldy for use, and served merely for show and a hostile vessel, which would thereby be disabled from perostentation. In a word, if there be no exaggeration, which forming any further manœuvres; or they might seek to is much suspected, and we be under no misapprehension, disorder the enemy's line by attacks with the beaked prow, which is much feared, respecting these accounts, they serve, while the soldiers assailed their rivals with slings and at least, to show that human nature often impotently darts, and eventually with swords and spears. In fact, the attempts to outdo itself. The most usual size for vessels, latter part of the battle would more nearly resemble a land. in the more perfect condition of ancient navigation, allowed fight; for, when the ships came to close quarters, one party five tiers of oars, holding three hundred rowers, above or the other would throw out iron grapnels, by which the whom were two hundred fighting men. The oars of those vessels were locked together, and

the weaker prevented who were at the lower part of the vessel, and, consequently, from escape. This plan was usually resorted to by the nearer the water, were shorter than those of the rowers party which was the inferior of the iwo in naval tactics. above, whose oars increased in length proportionally as they we find boarding-pikes mentioned by Homer as being used ascended. We are not well informed of the manner of ap- in naval encounters. plying the oars from so many tiers as we have here men To enter more into detail of this sort would lead us intioned, or even more; and how the mechanical force, ne- sensibly from our subject. We may remark, however, that cessary for working the upper and longest oars, was effec- if the country which a fleet was sailing to, was hostile, or tively brought into play, but such we see on several coins if there was no good harbour, they would draw their ships and other fragments of antiquity. Two large holes at the on land and form a naval camp. prow of a vessel, occasionally used for oars, were called the The naval business of Athens had very great reference ship's eyes. It has been noticed by voyagers, that in the to war; but as conquest and the extension of dominion fishing-boats of the Society Islands, these eyes are made of was the sole object proposed by the Romans in their as shells. To bear up into the wind, Acts xxvii. 15, means, sumption of naval tactics, all the proper business of naviwhen literally translated, to present its eyes to the wind, gation, from the master to the rower, was allowed to lie in in modern nautical language, to loof up against the wind. the hands of slaves, or of the lowest classes. Hence the

Ships of war had at the prow a wooden projection, covered Romans make no figure in maritime history. with brass, termed a beak; the use of which was to dash violently against an enemy's vessel, and sink or shatter it. Pieces of wood, placed on each side of the prow of a vessel, to ward off or counteract the force of the enemy's beak, were termed the ship's ears. The Romans, having defeated the Carthaginians in several naval encounters, carried home as prizes the beaks of the enemy's ships which they had captured. These they hung up in the Forum, about the tribunal from whence the public orators harangued the citizens. This pulpit was, therefore, called the rostrum, which is the Latin for beak. Hence, a person about to speak publicly, is said to mount the rostrum.

Over these vessels were certain raised platforms; at their sides were projecting stages, and on their forecastles were towers, on which the soldiers stood and levelled their missive weapons with greater force and certainty against the enemy: whereas the rowers, by their position in the hull of the vessel, were always secure from damage. Sometimes an attempt was made to sink the enemy by discharging a heavy weight of stone or lead into his ship. In the case o a siege on the sea-side, ships were connected together, along the circuit of water surrounding the walls; on which ships high towers were erected at intervals, to enable the besiegers to annoy the townsmen, and perchance to scale the walls, (see p. 40.) The besieged would, by means of a long lever, invented by Archimedes, lift the invading ships up out of the water; and suddenly letting them go, dash them to pieces. Towers made so as to be quickly raised, or let down, were used also in general naval engagements.

BARS AND EYES OF THE ART Many ships had coverings of hides or skins, to protect all who were in the vessel from the darts of the enemy. The shields of the soldiers were usually hung upon the railing (see p. 40) which begirt the ship, and above which the stages appeared,


We have now to make a few remarks on the trading | shores of the Mediterranean, the first civilized portion of vessels of the ancients; premising that, in natural order, the West, be still the limits with.in which the naval art was this should have come first: as marine vessels originated practised. in the necessity for transport, either of person or goods. When a voyage was contemplated, the ships, whico nad Piracy, or robbery by sea, deemed to be an honourable in all probability been hauled up on dry land, were pushed employment in the infancy of a nation, was excited and into the sea by the shoulders of the mariners, or by levers ; encouraged by the convenience thus afforded ; and then or latterly, by means of a rolling-machine called a helix, followed naval war.

invented by Archimedes, about 200 years B.c. The oval form of the merchant ship is, of course, to be A fleet, or number of ships, being, therefore, about to referred to the accommodation of passengers, and the set sail, every proceeding connected therewith became stowing away of baggage. It seems to have been flat- matter of religious parade and solemnity. Sacrifices floored, broad, and of small draught of water, not very having been performed, and each ship committed to the dissimilar to the Chinese junk seen in our day, which is care of some deity, omens and prognostics were observed, thought by the best reasoning to be only a counterpart of and the trivial nature of some of them is such as to create the ancient ship of commerce. The length of the trading a smile. The perching of a swallow on the mast, or the vessel was four times its breadth, while the war galley was sneezing of any person to the left; would so perturb the eight times longer than broad. As the war ship, which minds of these enterprising sailors, as to delay the deparhad a mast, was distinguished by a helmet thereupon, and ture till the following day. When, however, nothing had a banner at its bow, so a basket, emblematic of its nature, occurred to mar the resolution of the voyagers, the ships was suspended from the mast of the trading ressel. were unmoored, and departed with oars or sails, or, perhaps,

The common burden of their best and largest trading- both, decked with flowers and garlands, and attended with vessels seems to have been fifty or sixty tons, though much prayers to Neptune and the other gods, from the voyagers larger ones are alluded to; to the accounts of which there and their friends remaining at home. When they had got is attached the same uncertainty as we previously spoke a little out to sea, doves were let loose from the ships, which of in the case of the rowing-galleys. An obelisk of fifteen flying back to land, were hailed as omens of the sate return hundred tons' weight was brought from Egypt to Rome, of the crew. The ship of the commander usually sailed and placed in the Circus by Constantius, where it now on foremost, conspicuous for its gaudy ornaments: the stands. The same vessel carried, we are told, more than others followed in order, and, when fairly out at sea, sailed eleven hundred tons of pulse, placed at one end of the three or more abreast, or alongside of each other, unless ship to balance the stone at the other. Such vessels as the weather grew rough and the sea unsteady; in which these, called Ætnas, or moving mountains, were not valued case they would keep off from one another, in order that for ordinary use, being too cumbrous and unmanageable, the manœuvres of each vessel might not be hindered. Merchant-vessels having to pass from one country to another, Excepting under very favourable circumstances, they did ivere chiefly governed by sails, as mere transports were towed not continue sailing through the night, but anchored in along the banks of rivers by cords.

some cove or sheltered spot; or they drew up their ships We are not well informed what convenience the ancient on the beach, that all in the vessel might repose until the mariners had for sleeping in their ships. Berths, for the returning dawn. If they actually got out of sight of land, convenience of passengers on board the foreign trading- it was with the view of directing their course towards some ships, seem to have been made at the sides of the vessel, as headland, which they knew to lie in a certain direction. with us; see Jonah i. 5: but we infer that the resting In the progress of ages, as the knowledge of astronomy places of the sailors themselves were of a chance-like advanced, and various observations of the heavenly bodies nature, and no wonder that it should be so, as ancient were made and collected, the situations and bearings of navigation did not permit vessels to be long out at sea, or places were, by these means, naturally attempted to be surfar from land. Ulysses, we read in Homer, slept on skins mised. To navigate safely, and to trust oneself with conat the stern, and thë rowers who, in the course of time, fidence upon the pathless ocean, it is necessary to have were selected from slaves or malefactors, reposed upon the always ready at hand, a safe and uninterrupted guiủe to henches where they had toiled. Any superior accommoda- | the relative situations of places. Though it appears that tion seemed likely to deteriorate the hardihood of the sailor; the general principles of the loadstone were well known and Alcibiades the Athenian commander, Plutarch tells us, many ages before the Christian era, yet the polarity of a was censured for having on board a bed hung upon cords ! suspended needle was never dreamed of among the active

nations on the western side of the ancient hemisphere, AN ANCIENT VOYAGE.

until within the last five hundred years. The early mis

sionaries to China found that the compass had long been Having hitherto confined ourselves, in great measure, to in use in that country* ; but that curious people seem to the vessel and its detail, we pass on to the consideration have been the first to attain, in ancient times, a certain point of the ship, or fleet of ships, when making way over the of civilization, beyond which they have never since advanced. waters; so that the observations which we shall here make So that the ancient sailor, who had the greatest skill and will not relate to any particular order of shipping, unless means which his art afforded, could look only to the heaso far as shall be specified at the time

vens for assistance; and they, oftentimes, in the midst of The invariable time for sailing was that of Summer, his greatest difficulties, were obscured. To navigate in when the heavens were genial, and the light of day ex such circumstances would be similar to walking with the ceeded the darkness of night; the means and experience eyes shut; it was natural for him, therefore, to cling to the of the ancient mariners did not permit it to be otherwise. coast, and scarcely venture off from the earth by night. Even with a smooth sea and fair wind, they could not for But, after awhile, in addition to the motions of the sun and ages venture out of sight of the land, lest, in the apparently moon, it had been observed that certain stars towards the interminable waste of waters, they might be drifted about north never sunk below the horizon, but seemed to move for ever: their voyages, therefore, to which they were continually round a definite point. The ancient Greeks tempted by trade and commerce, were a continual coasting; noticed the constant revolution of the seven conspicuous and vessels were, in certain circumstances, eren towed stars, forming the hinder part of the Great Bear; but it along : being also often necessitated to land for provisions, appears that the commercial Phænicians had already they would not be long at a time out at sea, a thing which more closely tracked up the northern point of the sky by even the superstition of the sailors would have forbidden. | directing their attention to a set of stars, which kept on Superstitious fears seem to have haunted sailors from the revolving in smaller cireles than those observed by the earliest to the present time; but these are, we trust, fast Greeks. This was the constellation called the Little Bear; fading before the cheering light of the Divine Word. at the tip of the tail of which animal is situated a star, now

It was an article of belief among the ancients, that a soul called the Pole Star. This is the nearest plainly visible which had departed from a body unhonoured with the rites star to that point which is in a line with the pole of the of sepulture, was condemned to wander in sorrow for a hun- carth, infinitely extended northward. When the use of dred years on the banks of the infernal river Styx, ere it these observations had been made familiar by practice, the could be admitted to a resting-place of bliss; being, there- nautical art advanced considerably, and various schemes of fore, in their landskirt voyages, at the mercy of the people enterprise were formed, and effected with more or less of the coast, and impatient at -the close confinement and restriction of the ship, having also their religious dread of It has been well observed that it is a distinctive feature the unfathomable and heaving deep, we need not be surprised that ages upon ages should pass away, and the

Sce Saturday Magasine, Vol. III., p. 115.



in modern Navigation, as compared with that of the lander captain of our times buys of the wise women a ancients that the method of conducting a ship now from quantity of this necessary material for navigation. We are place to place, as depending upon definite and distinct rules, told that Ulysses, having procured a bag of wind, was is much more safe and simple, and requires, perhaps, less returning home to Ithaca with a prosperous sail. When training and study, while it effects much more than the his native isle was just in sight, and the hero had fallen method of the ancients. The naval officers particularly asleep through fatigue, the bag was opened by the sailors, offering themselves to our notice by their official variation who suspected that treasure was concealed in it: wherefrom the moderns, are the master of the rowers, and the upon the winds rushed forth with awful violence, and drove pilot. It was the business of the former to attend to the the ship backward a distance of ten days' sail. rowing department of the vessel, to assign their places to At the termination of a voyage, the vessels were usually the rowers, to encourage them in their labours, and to keep stranded by urging them stern foremost towards the land, time to the motion of the oars, by the strokes of his mallei, when the crews drew them up out of the water by main or the musical intonations of his voice. The other officer, force. who especially claims our attention, is the pilot, or master The notion of light-houses seems to have been geneof the ship; to whom belonged the duty of navigating the rally adopted about the time of the Christian era from the Vessel, and who was consequently responsible for the safety Egyptians. The small island of Pharos, in the bay of of the ship, and all on board. His place was at the stern; Alexandria, bad been joined to the continent by a causeand to excel in his vocation, he had to possess an exact way of a mile in length, about 284 B.C. At the extremity knowledge of his art

, which consisted chiefly in skill in of this mole was built a white maşble tower, at the top of steering, in managing the sails, and in the use of other which a fire was kept constantly burning, visible, we are nautical appurtenances, together with a knowledge and ex- told, at the distance of one hundred miles; but this would perience of the winds, of the heavenly bodies, as indicating make it to have been somewhat more than a mile in height ihe seasons, portending the weather, and directing the from the surface of the earth, unless, indeed, it were visible course of the ship, and of the site of commodious ports and from some eminence a hundred miles distant. This part harbours; when rocks and quicksands were to be dreaded, of the account seems apocryphal, and even the site of the and how they might be avoided. The ancients retired into celebrated Pharos is a matter of dispute. The pride of harbour when they saw the Winter signs begin to rise; man has doubtlessly exaggerated the facts of many ancient where they remained till the constellations of Spring invited narratives; and from this, perhaps, as well as from many other them upon the waters. It was not usual, therefore, for classical stories, we must make considerable deduction them to prosecute their voyages long after the Autumnal but, at any rate, we have accounts of various erections of Equinox. The gales which then prevailed in the Medi- this nature, and they seem at the later period of ancient terranean, formerly called Euroclydons, or Tuffoonest, but navigation to have been not uncommon, when ample expenow Levanters, or Michaelmas flows, being hazardous to rience had made nocturnal sailing less formidable. We shipping, made them lie by for the Winter. The necessity find them accordingly erected at most of the harbours and of this is alluded to in Acts xxvii. 9, The Jewish fast of naval stations which ships frequented; places where nature expiation, which is there meant, was on the 25th of Sep had been assisted by art, and where the larger-sized tember. It was also necessary for the pilot to understand ships rode at anchor, secure from the swell of the seas and explain the signs and prognostics which offered them around. selves from the sea-birds, the fishes, the surge, the billows The ancients generally, as well as the barbarians of dashing upon the shore, and the waving of the woods on modern times, carried their idols with them on a voyage, the impending heights. A seaman, unapt in the solution thinking thereby to ensure the safety of the ship. Vows, of any novelty of this sort, could not attain to the reputation therefore, which had been made previously to, or during of a good pilot.

the voyage, were now discharged, and especially was due It was also expected that this personage should have pro reverence paid to Neptune, whose peculiar dominion they cured an ample supply of favourable winds; as the Lap-had just safely left. Those who had landed in safety after

a storm, or any other of the manifold hazards of a seavoyage, hung up in one of the numerous temples surrounding the port, a picture of their disaster, together with the garments in which they had escaped it. This, with a multitude of other Pagan customs, has been exploded by time in most of the countries of the world; but we learn that this act of piety is still practised on the coasts of the Medi. terranean, where the people profess the Roman Catholic faith. Happy would it have been for the human race, if no heathen custom more questionable than this, had received the sanction of the teachers of Christianity in the ages succeeding the times of the Apostles !

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When Spain first acquired dominion over Naples, THERE are few kingdoms in Europe which have the latter country, notwithstanding recent wars, was undergone so many vicissitudes as that of Naples; wealthy and populous; and its position afforded a and the chief source of its calamitous changes was reasonable prospect of increasing prosperity, for it the preposterous claims of the popes to dispose at possessed the finest ports in the Western Mediterratheir pleasure of the crown. After the overthrow of nean, then the great high-road of commerce. Spain, the Hohenstauffen, a dynasty remarkable for its un

on the other hand, was exhausted by long wars compromising hostility to the papal usurpations, the against the Moors, the recent discovery of America sovereignty of Naples was bestowed upon the house had seduced a large portion of the population to emiof Anjou ; but this French race of princes soon grate to the new countries, and the gold and silver became unpopular, and after many changes and con- imported from Mexico and Peru did not compensate vulsions, the Neapolitan dominions were annexed to for the abstraction of cultivation from the land, the the kingdom of Spain, then rapidly rising into the emigration of the most industrious, and the conseforemost rank of European states. It remained quent cessation of domestic improvement. Under quietly subject to Spain for nearly 150 years, until in these circumstances the Spanish government regarded the year 1647, a poor fisherman raised a revolt, its Neapolitan territory as a kind of reserved treasury which entailed upon it additional misery. The by which all the pecuniary deficiences of Spain might history of this extraordinary revolution is so very be supplied and the chief object of their administrainteresting, and so very instructive, that we shall tion was to drain as much money from their Italian relate it at full length, especially as some of the most subjects, as they could obtain by fair means or by foul. important details have been hitherto hidden from Naples, of course, was governed by viceroys; the English readers. To understand the causes of the only object contemplated in the selection of these revolution, it will be necessary to give a preliminary officers was their skill in extortion, and if they sent sketch of the Spanish tyranny over the Neapolitans. home money in plenty, no objection was made to any VOL. XII


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