Obrazy na stronie

refinement of cruelty was practised. A crowd of which daily fetched its load from the royal fountains wretched fugitives were forced into the church of for the court at Manheim. the Holy Ghost, and there detained, whilst their

per Charles Philip, dying the 31st of December, 1742, secutors set fire to the roof above them, and taking Charles Theodore, of the house of Sulzbach, undera demoniacal pleasure in their distress, released them took the government, the 1st of January, 1743. only for fresh torments when the danger threatened to Twenty years elapsed before this Elector visited the become positive destruction. At length, when scarcely crumbling halls of his predecessors, when, charmed an article was left to plunder, nor a human being to with its regal grandeur and romantic beauty, he destroy, the whole town was given over to the flames. | determined to repair a portion for a temporal resiAll that now remained was the castle, which, surren dence. Again, though from a different quarter, were dering in a few days, fared no better than its unfor- the plans of restoration frustrated; that very night tunate neighbour. The valuable furniture was stolen a thunder stormr broke over the ruins, and a flash or destroyed, the graves of the electors broken open, of lightning taking effect, reduced the castle to the and their bones scattered ; at the same time, the state wherein we now see it. chief towers and fortifications, surviving the previous On Charles Theodore's death, Maximilian of Bastruggle, were undermined and blown up, the Otho varia assumed the Palatinate; but under the division Henry's building burnt to the shell it now presents, of Europe by that arch king-maker and deposer, and in short, every species of destruction adopted Napoleon, it was allotted to Charles Frederic, Grand which tyranny and brutality could suggest. On the Duke of Baden, then a man of seventy-two, who news of the destruction of Heidelberg, and the devas- directed that every care should be bestowed in pretation of the Palatinate, reaching the French capital, serving the beautiful ruins, and appointed the laying Louis the Fourteenth, the pride of modern chivalry, out of the gardens in the style they now present. In and model of every gallant, ordered a public Te 1811, he was succeeded by his grandson Charles, Deum in the principal churches, and caused a medal who dying in 1832, his eldest son, Leopold, a prince to be struck with the ruins of Heidelberg, with of the highest worth, was unanimously declared sucthe inscription, Rex dixit, et factum est.-(The king cessor. The charge of preserving the castle is vested said it, and it was done.) - General Heydersdorf, in the hands of the Heidelberg corporation, who, alwhose cowardice or treachery had involved such sad though doubtless worthy citizens and excellent memconsequences, was summoned by his countrymen bers of society, were the last men fitted for such a trust. before a council of war, and condemned to death. Big with self-importance, and guided neither by love of The Emperor, however, granted him his life, but antiquity, or feeling for the picturesque, they have conbanished him from the Austrian and Suabian circle, tinued year by year ofliciously picking at the castle, beyond the barriers of which he was transported in endeavouring to make old new, and crooked straight, a butcher's cart, with every mark of ignominy. In till much that had survived the violence of its foes, 1697, peace was signed at Ryswick, and the Palatinate has fallen before the scarcely less destructive civilities again began to raise her fallen head; the town of its friends. Such was the extent of the subter emerged from its ashes, the various public buildings ranean cellars, groined passages, chambers and duncommenced erecting, and the University, which had geons, that it were hard to say whether the castle existed but as an empty name around the ruins of its occupied most space above or below ground. The schools, at the beginning of 1700, once more became writer had personally explored this portion, and the resort of the youth of Germany

regretted the destruction of some of its most inte. John William was succeeded, 1716, by his brother resting compartments ;-now, by a late corporation Charles Philip, who took up his residence at Heidel- edict, all the entrances to this lower world have been berg, and directed his attention to the restoration of beaten down or filled up, and thus it will probably the castle ; and financial records which still exist, remain, till the plough of some future generation show that much was laid out in repairing the again lay it open to the light of day. Further, the damages of this ancient palace. Not satisfied with gorgeous pillars, and architectural ornaments interthese necessary preliminaries, this elector entertained spersed in the building, and especially in the suite of magnificent plans for its further embellishment and apartments called the Knights' Hall, have been sawn increase, which, had they been prosecuted, would in pieces, and used for different purposes, and many have doubtless preserved it to this day, as the a wooden bench in the surrounding gardens, is supproudest of royal residences. But a fatality seemed ported upon a capital, whose exquisite elegance to attend all efforts for its re-instatement, and those reminds us, that its form was dictated by the taste of naturally most interested in its preservation, proved a Raphael. its greatest enemies. Among the improvements pro Nevertheless, Heidelberg Castle still offers, and jected for the town, it was proposed to fit up the must for centuries offer, a powerful attraction to all church of the Holy Ghost, (which then, and to this true lovers of antiquity and beauty, and among the day, by means of a trumpery partition-wall, serves for thousands who yearly throng through its empty both Catholic and Protestant services,) entirely for portals, not a few imbibe an impression of symmetry, the former worship; the Elector promising to erect strength, gorgeousness, and grandeur, which in its stead a new church for the Reformed portion never be effaced. of the community. This, however, necessitating a trifling alteration in the Heidelberg catechism, and interfering with some old German dogmas, the Bur He that does not know those things which are of use and ghers made every opposition, and Charles Philip, in necessity for him to know, is but an ignorant man, what

ever he may know besides. -TILLOTSON. a fit of disgust, removed his residence to Manheim, and employed the enormous sums appointed for Heidelberg, in the erection of a palace, and in EXCELLENCE is never granted to man, but as the reward making extensive additions to that city. Too late

of labour. It argues, indeed, no small strength of mind did the citizens repent their shortsighted obstinacy; l of perceiving those advantages which, like the hands of a

to persevere in the babits of industry, without the pleasure the workmen were withdrawn from the castle, and clock, whilst they make hourly approaches to their point, nuch traffic from their town; and the solitude of the yet proceed so slowly as to escape observation. Sir ruined walls was alone interrupted by the water-cart, Joshua REYNOLDS.



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THE BONDAGE OF THE ISRAELITES IN EGYPT. to the ear, not to the breast as was usual with the The interval between the death of Joseph and the Greeks and Romans; consequently, their bows were birth of Moses, was marked by an important change in the constitution of the Egyptian government, concerning which our authentic information is remarkably indirect and scanty. Several very able writers have laboured with more or less success to elucidate this very obscure period, and the following summary will be found consistent with the Scripture narrative, the Egyptian monuments, and the fragments of Manetho preserved by Josephus.

After the Israelites had settled in Goshen, they were engaged in active hostilities with the nomade tribes of Syria and Palestine. A singular record of these wars is preserved in the book of Chronicles, where we find enumerated among the sons of Ephraim, “Zabad his son, and Shuthelah his son, and Ezer and Elead, whom the men of Gath that were born in that land slew, because they came down to take away their cattle.” (1 Chron. vii. 21.) From this interesting passage we obtain information respecting the condition of the Hebrews in Goshen, previous to their being reduced into slavery, which we find nowhere else recorded. We find that they loyally fulfilled the conditions of the tenure by which they held the land of Goshen, namely, checking the incursions of the eastern nomades; they not only did so, but carried the war into the enemies' country, and swept the plains of Palestine even to the distant city of Gath.

The bow was the favourite weapon of the Egyptians, and is so represented on the monuments. It deserves more powerful, and their arrows better aimed than also to he remarked, that the Egyptians drew the bow those of other nations. It may be added that the



Israelites, after their settlement in Canaan, appear to The tyranny of Pharaoh commenced by his setting have neglected archery, for we read that, immediately “ task-masters" over the Israelites, “ to afflict them after his accession, David “ bade them teach the chil- with their burdens.” We find many representations dren of Israel the use of the bow.” (2 Samuel i. 17.) of these cruel task-masters on the monuments; they

From the brief narrative in the book of Chronicles, are armed with formidable whips. it seems that the Hebrews in Goshen enjoyed a quali “ The Egyptians made the children of Israel to fied independence; they made wars upon their own serve with rigour, and they made their lives bitter account, and retained all their pastoral usages. In with hard bondage, in mortar and in brick, and in all some of their expeditions they were unsucce

ccessful, and manner of service in the field; all their service perhaps subjected to very severe reprisals.

wherein they made them serve, was with rigour." Manetho now becomes our sole guide ; he informs (Exod. i. 13, 14). The manufacture of bricks was us in substance, that a nomade race, settled on the so very toilsome and painful an employment, that it north-eastern frontier of Egypt, invited the Hyksos, was usually the work of slaves and captives. Among who had been anciently overcome and expelled, to the monumental paintings, we find representations of return into Egypt, and that these barbarians obeyed different races of people employed in this degrading the summons, subdued Lower Egypt, and reduced the labour. Some of them being bearded, and otherwise inhabitants to slavery. Many circumstances recorded pourtrayed with characteristics strikingly different in Scripture, lead us to believe that the Pharaoh who from those of the Egyptians, it can hardly be doubted tyrannized so cruelly over the Egyptians, belonged to that the Jews are meant, and such paintings may, this intrusive dynasty of the Hyksos; he is described therefore, be taken as historical records of the state as "a king who knew not Joseph,” consequently, he of bondage of the Jews in the land of Egypt. These must have been a stranger unacquainted with the representations, too, are the more worthy of note, benefits which Egypt had derived from the enlight- because, we see some native Egyptians, also comened administration of that patriarch, for it is scarcely pelled to endure the same toil, whence the picture credible that any native Egyptian could have been may fairly be regarded as the memorial of a time, ignorant of those circumstances. This Pharaoh also when both the Israelites and the native Egyptians asserts, “the people of the children of Israel are more were forced to become the slaves of a foreign conand mightier than we;" which is scarcely credible if queror, just as both the Arabs and the Fellabs of it be understood of the whole body of the Egyptian modern times were equally subjected to the tyranny nation, but it is very possible, nay very probable, that of the Turks. the savage race of conquerors may have been inferior The clay before being wrought was tempered with in number to the smallest division of the races which water, and broken into small particles by an instruinhabited Egypt. At this very hour, the Turks are ment resembling the hand-plough, described in a the least numerous part of the Turkish population, former article of this series. This process was and the jealousy with which they consequently regard equally painful and unwholesome under the burning all the other races subject to the Sultan, is the greatest sun of Egypt, where the moist exhalations from obstacle to the regeneration of their empire. Finally, humid clay have always been found very deleterious. one of the tasks which this monarch imposed on the When the clay was properly tempered, it was Hebrews, was the erection of treasure cities, that is, moulded in a shape, as is still the practice in the fortresses to secure the plunder which had been wrested modern manufacture of bricks. Indeed it is scarcely from the native Egyptians. When Joseph, under a possible to avoid remarking, how very similar the native Pharaoh, had received all the money of Egypt processes of the necessary arts of life, represented on in exchange for corn, we do not find that he was the Egyptian monuments, are to those which we see compelled to erect any fortresses for its security; every day around us. It does not appear that the such a precaution was necessary only under the iron Egyptians burned their bricks, though, as we shall rule of a barbarous foreigner and conqueror.

hereafter see, they were acquainted with the use of


kilns. They preferred drying them in the sun, a brain seemed to be oppressed, and whose mental ray custom not wholly disused in Britain, though the was probably dimmed, if not extinguished, by the same lower temperature of our climate renders it far less cause that had produced his physical blindness. efficacious than in Egypt. The piling of the bricks, I next proceeded to an apartment belonging to the and the mode of their transport, are represented in Shoemakers, some of whom were learning their craft the accompanying engravings.

from superintendents appointed for the purpose; while the majority showed a readiness and execution which were perfectly astonishing. A strong well-finished

shoe was placed in my hands, which I thought would A VISIT TO

have served any gentleman's foot this wet wintry day; THE SCHOOL FOR THE INDIGENT BLIND,

while the smiling artist, whose name, if I remember IN ST. GEORGE'S FIELDS, SURREY.

right, is Wallenger, had the fellow to it on his lap,

nearly completed. It is an old and common remark, that places and The impression being fresh upon my mind, I objects of interest which we have constant opportu now venture, at the hazard of wearying some of my nities of visiting, frequently remain unseen, and are,

readers, to mention the Mat-room, where all sorts of therefore, unknown to us, except from the reports of brown and white rope door-mats, fine bright mats, others. It is equally true, that in order to form a bordered with coloured worsted, worsted rugs for just estimate of many of the admirable institutions hearths and carriages, were being carried on in such a with which this country abounds, it is necessary to regular and business-like style, that if, for a moment, make a personal inspection of them. The quantity in admiration of the articles, I ceased to remember of accurate information which is thus derived from

the condition of those who wrought them, I was the fountain-head, cannot but be improving to the instantly reminded of this truth, --" That where one mind; nor does it fail to increase the materials for

sense is defective, another is generally more perfect." profitable and engaging conversation. But we are So delicate is the touch of these blind persons, and not ashamed to own, that a far better result is, or

so strikingly do they illustrate that wonder, to which ought to be produced, by such scenes as we will now public attention has recently been called in a remarkendeavour to describe. The heart is touched : every

able manner,—the wonder of the human hand! benevolent feeling is called into play: with pity for But it is time to say a few words respecting the the distressed is mingled the joy at witnessing the female part of this excellent Institution. The girls mitigation of their sorrows: a sentiment of gratitude were all assembled in a large airy room, and employed arises to the Giver of all good, for the several com

in knitting stockings, in needle-work, and in preparing pensations He has granted in special cases of infir

household linen, and linen for the scholars. A few mity, as well as for our own positive blessings: and, of them were as busy as bees, in platting a singularlyabove all, the effect on the kind and thoughtful visiter constructed patent sash-line, clock and clothes-lines, will be a desire to aid, according to his means, in on a machine adapted to the use of the blind. I was the glorious work of Christian charity.

informed, that since the first manufacture of these These remarks have been suggested by a survey different kinds of line, a very material improvement I have just made of the School, established in 1799, has taken place, and that the sash-line, thus made, for the support and instruction of the Indigent has been approved by eminent builders. Blind. The object of this Institution is to teach the from a review of this slight sketch of the steady inmates a trade, by which they may be qualified to

career of industry within these walls, the reader will provide, either wholly or in part, for their own sub learn with more gratification than surprise, that the sistence. Applicants who have a greater degree of articles made in the year 1836 by the hands of the sight than will enable them to distinguish light from

blind persons, were sold for 17901. 17s. 6d. darkness, cannot be placed on the list of candidates for admission. Of the description of persons totally the females were assembled, I was pleased to hear

On passing through a gallery to the room in which blind there are now sixty males and sixty-two females

the sound of sacred music growing more and more in the school, some of whom were born blind; others, whose claim on the compassion of their fellow-crea- the 149th Psalm, beginning,

clear; till, on entering, I distinguished the words of tures is stronger, and more affecting, from their having once possessed the precious gift of sight, and

O praise ye the Lord, lost it by illness or accident.

Prepare your glad voice! After passing through the rooms of the new which was well sung by the blind girls in the midst building, which is a very handsome fabric, calculated, of their work. One of them,—who was pointed out when finished, to accommodate an increased number to me by my benevolent guide as a very good girl,of pupils, I entered a large apartment in which the afterwards, on being requested, threaded her needle males, ranged at intervals along each side, were busily much more easily, as I told her, than I could have occupied in making baskets, of different degrees of done. She smiled, and modestly answered, that she texture, large hampers, cradles, &c. It was impossible had been for some time in the school. Another not to be struck with the air of cheerfulness which young woman, whose sight had been destroyed, about pervaded the forms as well as the faces of these three years since, by the shameful heedlessness of a persons; so that seeing them active and industrious fellow-servant in firing a large pistol at her, unconover their respective tasks, one might easily forget, scious of its being loaded, assured me, that God had for a time, their peculiar privation. The predominant been very good to her; that she was entirely reconexpression, however, in their physiognomy is repose, ciled to her lot, and contented in the station which or tranquillity of features, owing, probably, to their she now filled. This declaration from her own lips regular habits, and freedom from a variety of those was peculiarly gratifying, because I remembered her disturbing causes which necessarily operate upon the forlorn and desponding condition at about the time many, particularly in the busy pursuits of a large the accident occurred, when she thought she never and crowded city. In the basket-room I noticed only should have been happy again. one painful instance of unfitness for even the easiest I was now shown some books, printed in embossed branch of work. It was that of a poor youth, whose types, for the use of blind persons, and designed

to be read by the touch. The letters in the several

From Chaos sprang the teeming Earth, specimens were of various character ; but of all the

At the Divine command; different plans, the simplest struck me as the best.

And the untiring Sea had birth, This was Mr. John Alston's, the Treasurer of the

'Neath the Almighty hand.

But darkness lowered upon the deep : Glasgow Asylum for the Blind, who has recently

Creation's first, long, silent sleep added to that Institution a fount of types and a

Still hid the world in night: printing-press, and has completed the whole of the

Till, with a voice that pealed through space, Four Gospels in relief, in two large quarto volumes,

From His most high and holy place, at 9s. 6d. per volume. The teaching of the blind to

God said, “ Let there be light." read has engaged the attention of the benevolent for

" And there was light !” and with it grew some time past: and Mr. Alston's plan, which consists

The glory of the day :

The vast, the wonderful, the new, in using the common Roman capitals, sharply-formed,

Were seen bencath its ray. has proved the most successful; the children, if

Not hidden was the meanest root, tolerably apt scholars, learning it in a very short

The lowliest flower, the humblest fruit, time. Thus, though “knowledge is, by one entrance,

All burst upon the sight: quite shut out," they are instructed in the inestimable

For unto each, as if to prove truths contained in the word of God.

His universal care and love,

The Lord had yielded light.
Their hands can read, their fingers trace
The page of Truth and Love;

Praise be to God! another ray,
And thus they joyfully embrace

Not less divinely given,
The message from above.

Points, through his blessed Son, the way

To happiness and heaven. The most affecting part of the visit, however, yet

And thus your boundless charities remained. I well knew the taste for music possessed

Have spread before our sightless eyes, by blind persons generally; indeed it has frequently

Locked in eternal night, been a pleasure to me to reflect, that such a delightful

That holier radiance, mild and pure, resource should have been placed so completely

Which makes our soul's salvation sure, within their reach, “ The Hymn of Eve” was played

The glorious Gospel light!

We and sung correctly, and with considerable feeling.

e cannot thank you as we ought,

But were our hearts laid bare, After a short pause, one of the girls was desired to recite

You'd see each fond and grateful thought that beautiful chapter of Isaiah, beginning,—“llo,

Pour'd out in silent prayer. every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and

And when we meet before the throne he that hath no money; come ye, buy, and eat; yea,

Of Him to whom all deeds are known, come, buy wine and milk without money and without

How shall we hail the sight price." As soon as she had ended, one of her compa

Of the pure glory, that will bind nions repeated with just emphasis, and in a pleasing

The brows of those, who taught the blind

To seek the living light! tone of voice, the 8th chapter of St. Paul's Epistle to

M. the Romans; and certainly two portions of Scripture more consolatory, or more abounding in passages of deep and universal concern to all, be their outward

AMUSEMENTS IN SCIENCE. circumstances what they may, it would be difficult to

No. V. select. The 18th verse sounded uncommonly affect

ARITHMETIC.- Part 2. ing :-—" For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the We all know that if a cipher be added to any number glory which shall be revealed in us." All, or nearly of figures, the effect is the same as if they were multiall

, the female pupils, as I was informed, know the plied by 10: if two ciphers be added, the same as if Psalms, (the prose version, used in our Liturgy,), multiplied by 100. On the same principle, to multithroughout, and some can repeat any part of the ply by 11, place a cipher at the end of the number Four Gospels. Listening to the inspired passages, to be multiplied, and the original number itself immemy mind stretched onward to the period, when diately under ; then add them together, and the anthis mortal shall have put on immortality, and to swer is obtained. For example, to multiply 368,426 that city which hath “no need of the sun, neither by 11, do thusof the moon to shine in it; for the glory of God


368426 doth lighten it, and the LAMB is the light thereof;

or thus,

369426 for there shall be no night there." In that perfect


4052686 day, thought I, shall not this desolate being, who walks by faith now, be gifted with a clear view of NUMBERS which increase by what is termed ariththe Divine majesty; whilst many of those, who, metical progression, for instance, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, each humanly speaking, are walking by sight, and whose succeeding term increasing by 2 ; or 2,5, 8, 11, 14, inward gaze of a future world is dimmed and uncer in which the terms increase by 3, or any other numtain, shall be pronounced blind? Yes; although, ber, possess some curious properties. independently of their privations, these sad objects In every arithmetical progression, the sum of the doubtless have their trials; yet, removed as they are first and last terms is equal to that of the second and from the temptations of a densely-peopled and vicious last but one, and to that of the third and last but metropolis, brought up in regular habits, taught two, &c.; or to the sum of the two middle terms, when to read and to pray, they possess privileges, they the number of terms is even ; or to double that of enjoy advantages, the value of which it is diflicult the middle term when the number of terms is odd. to calculate. With such reflections, I listened with For instance, if the number of terms are even, as pleasure to the following lines composed by one,

1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, who, if I mistake not, was formerly an inmate of 16 and 1 are equal to 17, and the two middle terms, 7 the School, and addressed to the friends of the Insti- and 10, are also equal to 17: if the series is uneven, as tution. I never can forget “ the deep, the low, the

1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, pleading tone,” in which they were recited. And 19 and 1 are equal to 20, and twice 10, the middle with these I shall conclude my narrative,

term, produces the same amount. In the last series the

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