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RUNJEET SINGH,

firmly, but most respectfully, that they were ready to CHIEF OF LAHORE,

obey him in every thing that related to the military No. II.

service : but that they could not and would not

accept his law and decision in a matter of conscience RUNJEET Singh knows nothing of reading, nor concerning their religion. This, of course, was not do his sons. He is nevertheless the chief admi: to be resisted, and the widow was burnt. nistrator of justice in his kingdom and General Allard

General Allard was present at one of these sacristates that his judgments are on all occasions just fices. The victim was a young and beautiful woman. and prompt. The civil state is thus organized : each She approached the pile, tranquil in appearance; but village has a chief or judge, who is empowered to de- her countenance betrayed the internal struggle becide minor questions ; affairs of greater importance tween nature and mistaken duty. She spoke a few are decided by a judge whose jurisdiction is more ex words which were greedily listened to by those around, tensive than that of the former. The next officer in and received as infallible oracles; being her last words, rank is the king himself: the king is easily accessible, norissima verba! She was splendidly dressed and and any one of his subjects can plead his own cause covered with jewels. She mounted the pile and before him. There is a guard at the gate of his ma stretched herself upon it in the midst of the joyous jesty's palace, who announces the suitors. If the shouts of the assistants, and the noise of loud instruking cannot receive them, he says, “ Come to-mor ments of music: but one of the pieces of wood which row.'

A child without a home, or a man without formed part of the pile, stood higher up than the bread, can prefer his request to the rajah, and never others; this incommoded her; she got up again, refail of his application, if he should appear to be a moved the carpet upon which she had been stretched, worthy object of the king's bounty. He exercises put the wood in its place, and again extended herself wonderful judgment and sagacity in deciding between on the pile. A large mass of fagots was placed man and man, and he is rarely, if ever, deceived in upon her, oil was poured upon them, and thus they his judgment.

were ignited. General Allard contemplated this According to the laws of the country the punish- horrible and strange scene from the back of his ment of death is never inflicted. A criminal some elephant. He saw this unhappy woman perish, and times has his nose or his ears cut off, but never his she did not utter a cry. The spectators appeared head. It is also not uncommon to cut off the highly edified with the scene. criminal's hands. In serious cases, and where the Another object of superstitious regard in this culprit has again committed the crime for which he country is the Fakirs; who, in order to preserve has been already once punished, the tendon of during their whole lives the attitude of prayer, tie their Achilles* is cut through. General Allard saw an arms to the branches of a tree, and remain in this unhappy wretch who was condemned to this punish- posture during six months, until the muscles become so ment. This was a robber, who had had his two hardened and dried, that they can no longer change hands cut off for highway robbery. Thus mutilated, the position of their arms. Such men are esteemed this man did not the less continue the exercise of a holy, and are respected and fed by every one, so that propensity which was irresistible with him. To his they soon become fat. Some of the Fakirs preserve right arm a lance was firmly tied, and the bridle of the use of their arms, and carry about with them his horse to the left arm : thus he went on the

a matchlock, whereby they plunder the travellers. highway, and robbed almost as successfully as before. The French traveller Jacquemont (many of whose He was at length arrested and conducted before the relations have been confirmed by Allard), complains king, who inflicted the punishment upon him which bitterly of these Fakirs, by whom it seems he was we have already noticed. Thus doubly mutilated, more than once robbed. the robber was compelled to rest satisfied with

It is an extraordinary fact that General Allard has the pension which Runjeet Singh allows to all the made the army of Lahore almost entirely French. unhappy wretches whom justice has put out of a

Its uniform, weapons, military schools, and even its condition of gaining their livelihood except at the flag, are almost precisely those of the French army expense of others.

in the time of Napoleon. It has also its grenadiers, Runjeet Singh has not abolished the frightful hussars, dragoons, and infantry; and even the words custom whereby the women burn themselves after of command are given in French t. the death of their husbands. Runjeet Singh is a very Every recruit enters the army freely, and of his courageous man; but he has not the courage to op

own accord : but the people being warlike, and the pose himself to this shocking superstition of his occupation of soldier being the best of all occupasubjects. In Lahore the women allow themselves to tions, recruits abound. The only difficulty the be burnt upon the funeral pile of their husbands, as recruiting officers have, is to know when and how to was a few years ago the custom throughout Hindco- refuse the numerous offers made to them. So that, stan ; until, to the immortal honour of the English, when the king of Lahore wishes to augment his this custom was abolished. In Lahore the women army, he has only, we may almost say, to clap his think it an honour thus to be immolated. This is hands, or to strike his foot upon the carth, and, a superstition which we fear will long resist all thanks to his general, there come out battalions ready attempts to abolish it ; since it renders of no avail the for the field. most powerful instinct of human nature, that of The system of victualling the army is extremely self-preservation and the love of life.

simple: the government has nothing to do with it. General Allard has in vain attempted the abroga. | The soldiers are paid so much per month, with which tion of this custom. Hearing one day that the wi- they are obliged to provide their own food, and forage dow of one of his officers had resolved to burn herself for their horses. If they are at war, they are folwith the body of her husband, he sent for her and tried to shake her resolution ; but in vain. He then + Jacquemont visited General Allard at Lahore. The latter enthreatened to oppose with an armed force this wicked particularly of the surprise and delight which he experienced one

tertained the traveiler in a sumptuous manner. Jacquemont speaks and senseless suicide. The next day all his officers day, when seated at dinner with his host, at the sight of what met in a body at his house, and represented to him appeared to be a French regiment, which surrounded their dining:

hall, and performed a variety of evolutions at words of command The sofw which connects the heel of the foot with the leg. spoken by the native officers of Lahore in the language of France.

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THE ESCULENT SWALLOW.

lowed by a band of merchants and of dealers of coloured nests are soaked in warm water, they beevery description, who travel at their own cost, and come much whiter in their appearance; but the sell on their own account, without being responsible to natives themselves are strenuous in the belief of their the officers of the army; except that the latter exert a being built by two different species of swallows. sufficient authority to preserve order in these travel. Marsden, froin personal observation, believes that ling caravansaries. The horse-soldiers have servants the white nests are more recent than the other sort, mounted like themselves, who provide forage for the and that in this the whole difference lies. horses. The facility with which an army of many thousands of men arriving in a country, which appears to offer no resources, and where human creatures would appear likely to perish for want of provisions, finds itself well victualled in a few hours, is, according to the recital of General Allard, an astonishing thing to behold; but, this it is, that has enabled the troops of the king of Lahore to undertake such extraordinary excursions, and to march into lands almost entirely unknown to the geographer, without ever experiencing those privations, which in other countries, so completely destroy military discipline.

The only essential difference between the costume of the troops of Runjeet Singh and those of France is, that the former still wear the turban, with their long hair interlaced with folds of cachmire. The men pride themselves upon their hair ; they connect with it the idea of strength and power. They also greatly respect the beard; a man is not thought to be such without it: young or old the beard must descend in streams of ebony, or of silver, upon the breast. General Allard has a long beard, which, when he was in France, he turned back behind his ears during meals. His uniform is that of a French general; his head-dress, a light helmet with loops of

In the small island called the Cap, near Sumatra, gold, of an elegant and commodious form.

two caverns were discovered by the embassy of Earl Duelling is not known in the army of Runjeet- Macartney, which contained an immense quantity of Singh; the soldiers settle their disputes with their these nests; they were composed of very delicate fists,-a brutal, and equally unchristian, method of filaments, united by a transparent viscous substance, adjusting differences.

much resembling the remains of those jelly-like aniAfter a few months' stay in France, General Allard mals, the medusæ, which are frequently found on the

The nests adhered to each other as well set out on his voyage back to Lahore, taking his wife sea shore. with him, and leaving his children to be educated in as to the sides of the caverns, and were placed in the land of his fathers.

uninterrupted ranks. An esculent swallow, appaBefore concluding, we should do well to opserve, rently of another species, is also found in great abunthat the foregoing account does not contain the first dance in deep caverns at the foot of the highest instance of European skill and science, effecting great mountains in the interior of Java. This swallow is changes in the condition of any particular part of said to occupy two months in the preparation of its the world. The sovereign of Cochin-China, who had nest. The inhabitants of Java, who employ thembeen dethroned by a party of his own subjects, in selves in collecting these nests, (which, on account of the year 1747, was enabled, by the assistance of the situations in which they are found, is rather a Adran, a French missionary, to form, in the Euro- dangerous employment,) never begin their work pean style, a fine army and fleet, with which he not without having in the first instance sacrificed a buffalo, only recovered his own kingdom, but subdued those and repeated a number of prayers; they then anoint of his neighbours, southward of the empire of China. their bodies with a sweet-scented oil, and after per

forming other superstitious ceremonies at the entrance

to the cavern, they prepare for their descent. The THE ESCULENT SWALLOW,

fact of these caverns being situated in the centre of

the island of Java, and not on the sea-coasts, seems (Hirundo Esculenta.)

to militate against the opinion that the birds collect The esculent swallow is found in China, where it the substances of which they form their nests on the builds its singular nest in the rocky caverns on the shore; their nests are placed in these caverns in sea coast ; its nest has the appearance of hardened horizontal rows, from 50 to 500 feet in length. jelly or isinglass, and is esteemed by the natives of Near some of these caverns a tutelar goddess is China, and other parts of Asia, as a great luxury; it worshipped, whose priest burns incense and lays his is employed by them in the preparation of soups and protecting hands on every person prepared to descend other made-dishes. Marsden, in his History of into the cavern. A flambeau is carefully lighted at Sumatra, says there are two sorts of nests; the white, the same time, with a gum which exudes from a tree which are less common, and the black or dark in the vicinity, and is not easily extinguished by the coloured, which are more frequently met with. Some subterranean vapours. persons, however, believe that the difference in colour arises from accidental causes, such as the mixture of

LONDON the dark-coloured feathers of the bird with the sub JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND, stance of which the nest is composed; and this belief PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE One PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PADS is partly borne out by the fact, that if the dark

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.

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L’RICE SIXPENCE.

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FORT ON THE RIVER, NEAR CANTON.

THE HONGS OR FACTORIES.

open space before most of the others forms the quarter

deck,' where, every evening, the European residents take The word Hong is used by the Chinese to designate a com- their limited walk. mercial establishment or warehouse; and by this name the Mr. Abeel gives a very entertaining description of the European factories at Canton have been designated. The appearance which the open space in front of the factories hongs extend along the bank of the river between seven presents, at different hours of the day. He says, that it “is and eight hundred feet; they extend backwards in depth a the rendezvous of multitudes of the natives, who assemble hundred and thirty yards, into a long narrow lane, on each daily, to transact business, gratify curiosity, or murder time. side of which are confined the abodes of foreigners. To the It is level for a short distance, beyond which it stretches over eastward, the line of factories is bounded by a narrow ditch a large pile of rubbish, deposited here after the desolating or inlet from the river, serving to surround a portion of the fire of 1822, and retained, notwithstanding numerous applicity-wall, and to drain that portion of the town. All the cations for its removal, as a lasting and growing nuisance factories communicate with the river by wooden stairs, from to foreigners. which the tea and other commodities are embarked; and “As the morning opens upon this scene silence retires, the space which they occupy is traversed by three thorough- and the ears of the stranger are assailed by a new and pefares, leading direct from the river,-namely, China Street, culiar combination of sounds. Human voices of harsh, New China Štreet, and Hog Lane,—the latter being a nar- drawling tones, cries of confined dogs and cats, screams of row filthy passage, inhabited by low Chinese,' who keep roughly-handled poultry, notes of feathered songsters, some spirit-shops, into which they entice the sailors, and rob of them admirably gifted and trained, with, at times, an acthem.

companiment of very unmusical instruments, all unite in “The range of factories or hongs belonging to different this inharmonious concert. The occupations of the tradesnations," says Mr. Bennett, “having flag-staffs, on which men are varied. Meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, drugs. the national colours are hoisted, from sun-rise to sun-set, manufactures; everything saleable is brought to this are fine buildings, more particularly those belonging to general market. A number convey their portable kitchens the East India Company, which are of greater extent than hither, and prepare such dishes as suit the palates and the whole of the others. Several weeping willows are purses of this promiscuous concourse. Others plant their planted about the open space near the river, in front of the barber's shop, or its necessary apparatus, in a convenient factories. The English and Dutch hongs have neat gar- place, and spend their leisure hours in lolling about and dens laid out for a promenade, in front of them; but the conversation. Those who frequent the place for trade are VOL. XII.

385

OLD CHINA STREET.

HOG LANE.

NEW CHINA STRECT.

probably less numerous than the groups of idlers, who pass ships of that empire to visit Canton for the purposes of trade, their time in listening to stories, witnessing juggling tricks, assigning as a reason, that Russia already carries on a trade attending the operations and lectures of empirics, gaping with them on the frontiers of their own country, and that at objects of novelty, and too frequently endeavouring to they cannot be allowed to trade in two parts of the Celestial obtain each other's money by gambling.

Empire." Mr. Holman gives the following list of these “When the sun is oppressive the crowd retires, with the establishments, with the intervening thoroughfares, in the exception of the hucksters, who intercept his withering order in which they appear to a person coming up the river. beams by temporary tilts. The erection of tents is a liberty

1. Creek Hong, Magniac and 8. Imperial Hong. not sanctioned by law, or, rather, contrary to the oral prohi Co.

9. Dent and Co. bitions of the petty officers who have the square in charge. 2. Dutch Hong.

10. American Hong. Consequently, when men of authority make their appear

3. Dutch Factory.
4. British Factory.

11. Hong Merchants. ance, the scene suddenly changes. From the moment of

12. French Hong. alarm there is the most hasty despatch until everything is 5. Chow-Chow Hong. 13. Spanish Hong. removed that militates against their orders; their exit 6. Hired Factory. appears to be regarded as the signal of re-erection, and all 7. Messrs. Russell and Co. 14. Danish Hong things speedily revert to their former state. Such a show of subjection, with real contempt for authority, when it op

COMMERCE. poses individual gain, is said to be a prominent feature of

“The Chinese, considered as traders," says Mr. Macculthe nation." It is during the latter part of the day that this place is loch, "are eminently active, persevering, and intelligent.

the general resort ; in the cool of the evening the crowd

notion that was once very generally entertained of their becomes most concentrated, and, as a consequence, the being peculiarly characterized by a contempt of commerce clamour is quite deafening. Yet, tumultuous as is the con

and of strangers, is as utterly unfounded as any notion can course, it is said to be very free from contention or breaches possibly be. Business is transacted at Canton with great of the peace. The least appearance of an unlawful commo- despatch; and it is affirmed by Mr. Milburn, and by most tion calls forth a public officer, who resides for the purpose of the witnesses examined before the late parliamentary in full view, and is exceedingly efficient in quelling a riot

committees, that there is no part of the world

where cargoes and scattering offenders. This functionary, if occasion should

may be sold and bought, unloaded and loaded, with more arise, summons to his aid one or two lictors, who, armed

business-like speed and activity." with scourges, and apparently vested with a large discretionary power in the use of them, soon compel the unruly to this :-"While our officers," he says, “ were at dinner with

An American writer gives the following illustration of make a precipitate retreat. The guilty are frequently Mr. Lattimer, Mr. L. left the table for a moment, and rechased, and when caught, dragged along to the hall of jus- turned so soon that he was scarcely missed. He informed tice by the pendant queue, which is cruelly drawn over the

his guests that he had made a sale while absent, of opium front of the head, and made to press the face towards the

to the amount of two thousand dollars, and assured them ground.

that the Chinese are remarkably expert in business. Shop“In surveying this mass of accountable beings," says the keepers, from whom you may buy de most trifting article, American Missionary, there are many points of great supply ships with cargoes,

worth two hundred thousand interest to the eye of Christian compassion and benevolence. dollars, and will contract to do so with all the necessary Independent of the associations which are common to all the heathen, there are facts of importance peculiar to this security, in the length of time he had been

absent from the

table. They will manage all the smuggling, if any be daily throng. Great numbers of them can read, and are attracted by every publication that meets their eyes. It is necessary; get all the chops for duties; and deliver the

articles on board the ship at Lintin, Whampoa, or Macao !" customary to paste up advertisements in the most public

Canton is very ill-suited to be the emporium of the Bri. places of the square and the streets, and the groups gene tish trade with China. In the first place the climate is rally found, through the day, gathered around them, show comparatively

hot, and secondly, the difficulties

of conveying their eagerness to catch at every piece of information. What

commodities thither from the interior of the country is very a place for the operations of the press, sacred to the cause

great. Two grounds are assigned for the policy which the of the Redeemer!"

native government have adopted within the last century, of The front part or entrance to the factories is near, and almost parallel to the bank of the river, and the interme

confining the trade to this port. One is the desire to keep

at a distance from the capital the danger of disputes arising diate space forms a general thoroughfare for persons who

out of intercourse with foreigners; and certainly Canton is require any communication with the hongs, as well as those

very nearly at the farthest possible distance from the capiwho have to embark and disembark at the different landing

tal. The other is a desire to obtain the largest possible places in front of them. There is no regular thoroughfare revenue from internal duties on the transit of goods; these from the suburbs to the river-side through the private

are known to yield a considerable sum. Sir George Staunhongs, for the doors at the end looking towards the suburbs

ton mentions a “very ingenious memoir," written by a genare locked day and night, and the front entrances are open tleman, formerly holding the appointment of Inspector of only during the day; but there are two intervening streets

Teas to the East India Company, in China; clearly showand a lane, inhabited by Chinese shopkeepers, namely, Old and New China Streets, and Hog Lane, which are the ing, upon an accurate and detailed comparison, between the

expense of conveying black teas from the country where general thoroughfares during the day, these, however, are

they are produced to Canton, and that of their conveyance also shut at night, according to the Chinese custom. from thence to the port of Fu-tcheou-foo, the capital of

Mr. Holman compares the foreign factories to a succession of private streets, with a few merchants residing in

the province of Fo-kien, that the privilege of admission to

the latter port would have been attended with a saving to each, whose stores are contiguous to their dwelling houses. the East India Company of £150,000 annually, in the pur“Each hong has its respective designation; for instance, chase of that description of tea alone, besides affording us the first you arrive at on your right hand on coming up the the advantage of another opening for the introduction into river, where there is a landing-place directly in front of it, China of our manufactures and productions. Fu-tcheou-foo is called Creek Hong, in consequence of being next a creek is but a short distance from the sea, in that part of the pro that communicates from the river to the heart of the city. vince of Fo-kien which lies opposite to the northern extremity This creek is a great nuisance at high water to the neigh- of the island of Formosa ; the largest Chinese vessels can bouring hong, for at such time it is covered with boats pass- ascend the river Mingho, almost to the very walls of the ing to and from the city, loaded either with merchandise city, which is built upon its banks. coming in, or offal &c., going out. Other hongs crowd the bank as you advance, and are generally distinguished by the

BRITISH INTERCOURSE WITH CHINA. names of the respective nations whose flags they display. The English factory is best known by the name of the British “As regards China," observes Mr. Auber, "we resort to a hong, and is the most considerable of them all. From the country in which we have not a foot of ground, and where we advantage of its position it can at any time stop the general are confined to one port, at which our permanent residence thoroughfare in front of the line of hongs: but this power is doubtful. The habits, manners, and customs are quite is never exercised, except when there is a dispute with the foreign to our own. The laws of China have been compared Chinese, in which case the gates are strictly guarded to to a collection of consecutive mathematical problems, with prevent the admission of obnoxious or turbulent persons. this additional circumstance of perplexity, that a just and There is no Russian hong nor will the Chinese permit any entire comprehension of each section individually, requires

a general knowledge of those that follow no less than those posed upon foreigners and foreign trade in China; in the which precede. Such laws are also frequently violated by lapse of years, however, several changes have taken place, those who are (appointed to be) their administrators and and though some of the objectionable regulations are stili guardians ; where their treatment of foreigners is prover subsisting in full force, the greater number have been, at bially contemptuous; and in their commercial dealings they different periods, either expressly repealed, suffered to behave no scruple at imposition, if circumstances favour the come obsolete, or modified in practice, “in a manner so practice. Such is the character of the people with whom judicious and beneficial," to use the language of Sir George we seek to maintain an intercourse.

China Staunton, “as to render their ultimate effect upon the trade has rejected every effort made by us, as well as by almost rather advantageous than otherwise." every other European state, to form a commercial intercourse with her, upon those principles which govern com

ITS EARLY HISTORY. mercial relations in other countries."

l'he Portuguese were the first Europeans who traded direct Sir George Staunton remarks, that upon the commence to China. They visited various ports of the country for ment of the present commercial intercourse of foreigners some time free from the competition of other nations; and in with the empire of China, nothing so much contributed to 1555 they appear to have concentrated themselves at Marender them odious, both to the government and to the peo cao, where they established a settlement. We hear of their ple in general, as their apparent disposition and tendency, ships frequenting the port of Canton in 1578, and trading upon almost all occasions, to a state of anarchy and disorder. along the coast of China; but in 1631, in consequence of The casual and unconnected adventurers who first traded some disputes which had arisen with the natives, they were to China, were entire strangers to the habits, customs, and restricted to their own settlement at Macao. language of the natives, as well as irreconcileably different Until the year 1637, the English trade with the Chinese from them in respect to all their national characteristics. It was carried on indirectly, at the factories which the East was obvious that to maintain order among such persons, and India company had established in other parts of the East. to regulate their intercourse with the natives, the ordinary In that year, Courteen's Association, which had recently rules and routine of Chinese justice would be, in most obtained a patent from the crown, conferring upon them respects, utterly inadequate. As far, also, as the Chinese were the same privileges as were enjoyed by the East India enabled to judge, these foreigners were wholly without any in company, seeking to distinguish themselves by extraorditernal government or system of control and subordination pe nary enterprise, sent out a large adventure, under the culiar to themselves, which might have been capable of supply management of Captain Weddell. On the 27th of June, ing the place, or at least, of coming in aid of the national laws; he arrived with several vessels off Macao, and transmitted and which might, accordingly, have been accepted by the to the governor a letter from Charles the First. The Porlocal authorities in China, as a sufficient substitute for those tuguese gave him a cold reception, complaining that the laws, in all cases in which their partial suspension or relaxa native authorities bad made them responsible, and imposed tion in favour of strangers was found unavoidable. Under a heavy fine on account of his unwelcome appearance. the existing circumstances, therefore, the Chinese govern Finding that they were not allowed to communicate with ment deemed it necessary to supply the deficiency by the Canton but by shallow straits, and were excluded from the enactment of various new regulations and restrictions; spacious channel of the Bocca Tigris, he determined to and these were framed, as might naturally have been trace out the latter passage for himself. He despatched expected, with little regard to the feelings or interests a pinnace with fifty men, which in forty-eight hours reached of individuals who were not yet sufficiently powerful the mouth of this estuary, and began to ascend. In and united to command respect, nor sufficiently guarded a few days they were met by twenty junks, with a great and blameless in their general conduct to overcome preju- mandarin on board, who called them into his presence, and dices and conciliate esteem. Thus, although the Chinese began roughly to expostulate on their thus “searching out government did not absolutely prohibit foreign commerce, the prohibited entrances" into the dominions of so great a they resolved to provide against every hazard of ill conse monarch. Yet, on their expressing friendly intentions, and quences from its toleration, by the adoption and enforcement an earnest desire to accomplish their object, they were of the most jealous and vexatious precautions.

allowed to proceed to the vicinity of Canton. There, howBy the strict letter of these regulations, the continued ever, the hoppo and some other chiefs persuaded them to residence of foreigners in China from year to year was return to Macao, making lavish promises, none of which totally forbidden; and during even the short period for were fulfilled; and the Portuguese having amused Weddell which they were allowed to remain on shore, for the neces till their Japan fleet had sailed, issued an absolute interdict sary purposes of their trade, they were required strictly to against his trading any longer there. Determined, however, confine themselves to the small district which was allotted not to be thus bafilled, he immediately weighed anchor with to them in the suburbs of the city of Canton. As a further his whole fleet for the river of Canton, and anchored in the security against turbulence and disorder, it was ordered that vicinity of a " desolate castle,” the extensive ruins of which, all foreign ships should be disarmed of their guns and other we are informed, may still be seen immediately within the warlike stores, and that such articles should be retained in entrance of the Bocca Tigris. The Portuguese, meantime, the custody of the government during the stay of the ships studiously infused into the mandarins the belief, “ that the in port, and restored only at the moment of their departure. English were rogues, thieves, and beggars." This, according This order, though it has probably been but seldom enforced, to Mr. Gutzlaff, was no difficult task; such a conviction in and that only at a very early period of the trade, appears, regard to every foreigner, being at all times rooted in the nevertheless, to this day, unrepealed upon the Chinese mind of the government. Under its impulse, they privily statute-books In a printed collection of the edicts of the conveyed into the castle forty-six pieces of cannon; and, when Emperor Këën-lung, (whose reign closed in 1795,) there is their preparations were completed, opened a fire upon one one which quotes this order; and after animadverting on of his barges. Weddell was not a man to submit to such an its neglect, directs that it may be duly enforced in future. outrage. He immediately caused his whole fleet to “berth

Instead of foreigners being allowed to engage in anything themselves before the castle," and commenced a formidable like a free trade and intercourse with the natives generally, fire, which the other party returned; but none of their the whole of the foreign trade at the port of Canton was shot "touched so much as hull or rope;" and when they saw specially limited to ten or twelve Chinese merchants; and the English boats, having on board a hundred men, making these merchants were required, in return for the licenses for the shore, the fort was speedily evacuated. They forthgranted them, to undertake, jointly and severally, the most with opened a communication, requesting a deputation to extensive responsibility to the government, not only for the be sent to Canton ; and when Mounteney and Robinson, due payment of all the duties and port-charges to which two supercargoes, repaired thither, the authorities threw the the foreigners might render themselves liable, but also blame on the Portuguese, granted permission to trade, and generally for their orderly behaviour and good conduct. even to fortify any position outside of the river. These Besides these licensed merchants, a few other persons were gentlemen agreed to pay 10,000 reals in duties, and, withpermitted to attend upon foreigners in the capacity of out further negotiation, began to load their vessels. The linguists (interpreters), or compradores (victuallers); but storming of the castle, however, rankled in the mind of the with the exception of these persons and the individuals in natives, who soon repented of this good treatment. Seven their immediate employ, the natives in general were with- / fire-junks were sent down the river, to destroy, if possible. held, by the denunciation of very severe penalties, from the English tleet; which, however, avoided their attack, but eitber frequenting the houses of foreigners or holding any the supercargoes were thrown into prison and almost starved. species of intercourse with them.

Mounteney determined to extricate himself, set fire to his Such are the restrictions and disabilities originally im- apartment, threatening to burn the city; and having thus

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