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the Hebrides we find artificial cares constructed for the Kilfenora, &c., never recovered from this devastation. purpose; and when nature had provided one so deep and The bishopric of Ferns was left not worth one shilroomy as this, the rude inhabitants of the times would as
ling; Killala, the best in Ireland, was left worth only naturally graze their llocks and build their huts in its neighbourhood, as in latter days they raised their cottages 3001.; Clonfert, 2007. ; the archbishopric of Cashel
, under the shelter of a Norman castle. This idea will also
1001.; Waterford, 1001.; Cork, only 701.; Ardagh, receive confirmation from the name of the town Cluaine, 11. 1s. 8d. Cloyne, situated at a distance from the signifying a cave in the Irish language.
capital, an appendage to the neighbouring see of At Cloyne a branch of the Fitzgerald family, dis- Cork, and without head or guardian, had very little tinguished by the title of Seneschals of Imokilly, had chance of escaping in the general plunder. The outformerly two or three castles; they are the chief
lying estates were seized by the nobility near them ; proprietors of the adjacent district, from which indeed and the demesne of Cloyne itself passed, by a frautheir title was derived. The title was first bestowed dulent process, into the hands of the powerful family in 1420 by James Earl of Ormond, Lord-Lieutenant of the Fitzgeralds. of Ireland, on Lord Desmond, after whose death it In the reign of Charles the First, some steps were was assumed by the head of his descendants, resi taken to put a stop to the plunder of the Irish Church dent in the district. There is an account related of a by laymen, and even, to a certain extent, to compel skirmish which took place at Cloyne, between the
restitution. When Strafford went over
as lordSeneschal of Imokilly and Sir Walter Raleigh, and
deputy in 1631, he found the church in “a state of in which the skill and intrepidity of Raleigh were
ruin;" many of the bishoprics, as Ferns, Lismore, remarkable. Raleigh afterwards accused the senes
and Cloyne were entirely destroyed, and the revenues chal of cowardice on the occasion ; and such were
of the others reduced to a trifle, the churches pulled the manners of the times, that Lord Ormond and Sir down, or in a state of desolation, and the glebes and Walter more than once publicly challenged Sir John
tithes in the hands of laymen; so that one nobleman of Desmond and the seneschal, both of whom were in
in the western part of the kingdom, (the Earl of open rebellion, to decide the matter by single combat.
Clanricarde,) had no less than one hundred livings In the year 1601 the Lord Deputy Mountjoy, on his in his own possession ; and the Earl of Cork, in the return from the siege of Kinsale to Dublin, by way
south, besides all the landed estates of Lismore and of Waterford, went out of his road to pay a visit to
the college of Youghall, had impropriated all the Cloyne, where he slept on the 7th of March, and was livings belonging to both of them. received by Master John Fitz-Edmonds, who held
The cathedral of Cloyne is described as a small the town and manor house in fee-farm, and who heavy building, without any pretensions to orna“ gave cheereful and plentiful entertaynment to his
ment." Bishop Bennett, who was an eminent antilordship, and all such of the nobilitie, captaines, gen
quary, supposes it to have been built between the tlemen, and others as attended upon him;" when the
middle and the close of the thirteenth century; it lord-deputy, “as well to requite his perpetual loyaltie has no mouldings of the zigzag, nail-headed, or bilto the crown of England, as also to encourage others
letted kind, nor round-arched windows, which disin the like, did honour him with the order of tinguish what is called the Saxon, or rather Norman knighthood.”
architecture, before the introduction of the Gothic in St. Colman, the founder of the Bisopric of Cloyne,
the time of Henry the Third. was the son of Lenin, the chief bard of Acdh, King It is not evidently (says the learned prelate,) so late as of Munster ; he died in the year 604. There are
that time, nor, on the other hand, has it the splendid arch or few records of the see till after the arrival of the
oak-leaved ornaments, so common in the middle of Edward English. About the year 1327, it appears to have I should be inclined to fix the era of its building to the
the First's reign, therefore it is not so late as that period. oecome so impoverished, that King Edward the Third latter years of the first of these princes, or the beginning wrote to Pope John the Twenty-second, with the view of the reign of the last. The windows, though since of effecting an union between it and the see of Cork, altered, were evidently of that sort called lancet-windows, which was likewise at that time much reduced. The which were so common in the time of Henry the Third: attempt was at the time unsuccessful; but a century
see the grent west window and that of the south transept;
the latter on the outside, are additional arguments for ile afterwards, the two sees, happening to be simultane
date I have chosen; as is also the circumstance that, about ously vacant, were consolidated and granted to Bishop this time, three prelates out of four were Englishmen, in Jordan. This union continued until 1638, when a whose country monastic and cathedral architecture was in separate Bishop of Cloyne was consecrated by Arch- high estimation. bishop Usher. During the civil wars the see was for In the cemetery of this cathedral the tombstones some time vacant; but in 1660 it was again united are very numerous, owing, as Sir Richard Colt Hoare to Cork and Ross, and this second union lasted till says, to the attachment which the Catholics still bear 1678, since which period Cloyne has been a separate throughout Ireland to the ancient churches. Bishops bishopric. By the Act of 1833, however, relative to Johnson and Woodward are buried there. “ May the temporalities of the Church in Ireland, Cloyne is the heavens be his bed," exclaimed the poor woman to be reunited to Cork and Ross, as soon as the latter who showed Mr. Crofton Croker the interior of the sees become yoid.
church, on pointing out Bishop Woodward's monuAbout the time of the Reformation the see of , ment; " when he died, the poor lost a good friend." Cloyne suffered severely in its temporalities; in this Near it is a large and rather injured tomb of black respect it was not singular, every bishopric in Ireland marble, which originally belonged to the Fitzgeralds, being then exposed to similar injury. Ecclesiastical and has been converted by the Earls of Thomond to property in that kingdom was, to use the expression their own use since the decline of the Fitzgerald of Mr. Crofton Croker, “ in a manner annihilated." family. Bishoprics, colleges, and tithes were divided without In the year 1776, when the cross-wall at the enmercy amongst the great men of the time, or leased trance of the choir was erected by Bishop Agar, the out on small rents for ever to the friends and rela- workmen digging deep in the nave to lay the foundations of the incumbents, insomuch that “ there was tion, they discovered a row of graves of rather sinnot,” says Harris, " one bishopric in the province of gular construction, consisting of brick cells, each of Cashel that had not the print of the sacrilegious paw, which was exactly suited to the size and shape of the upon it.” Many Irish bishoprics, such as Aghadoe, body contained in it. Curiously enough one of these
bodies was found to end at the shoulders, and to be house. This remain of paganism consists of a rough unaccompanied by any of the skull bones.
and massive stone, twelve feet in length; one end therefore, not improbable," as Bishop Bennett sug- elevated about six feet from the ground by two gests, “ that the head of the owner may have been smaller stones, from which its name of Cromlech, fixed on Cork gates in the times of turbulence, as signifying a bending or inclined stone, is derived. they appear in the print given us in the Pacata Close by it is a smaller stone or altar, supported in a Hibernia, to be full of such kind of trophies." similar diagonal position by a single stone. There is
The chief object of interest, however, at Cloyne is a tradition, that nothing will grow under either of its Round Tower,--one of those singular monuments these altars, an opinion that originates from the total of antiquity, concerning the origin and use of which absence of verdure, incident to a want of sufficient there has been so much controversy among anti- light and air. The top of the larger altar was richly quaries. It is not our intention, upon the present covered with the plant familiarly called the Wood occasion, to give a general account of these remark Geranium, (Geranium Robertianum, or Robert's Crane's able structures, which are the only edifices of un Bill,) the light feathery leaves and delicate pink known date in Ireland deserving of notice as works blossoms of which formed a pleasing contrast to the of art, and, therefore, the only evidence of the skill solemnity and breadth of the altar. and knowledge of the early inhabitants of that The plantations of Castle Mary (says Mr. Croker,) are country. We shall content ourselves here with ob- venerable and extensive, arranged in the taste of the last serving that, as to the period of their erection, they century. Few situations can be more imposing or romantic
as ould as the hills” in the belief of the than that of the Druid's Altar, the descent to which is overpeasantry; and as to their use, they are variously
shadowed by some luxuriant ash-trees, of singularly beausupposed by different classes of antiquaries to have surprises the English traveller, and their long, graceful
tiful form and growth; the gigantic size attained by some been,--the abodes of solitary anchorites,--the recep-branches, reaching to the ground, produce an effect not tacles of a “sacred fire,” worshipped by the primi unlike the famed banyan groves of the east. Whilst Miss tive inhabitants of Ireland, after the fashion of the Nicholson was sketching the altar, a figure emerged from east,-places of temporary penance,—watch-towers
this depth of foliage, in costume which, had it been a tint erected by the Danes, steeple-houses, and belfries.
whiter, might well have passed for that of a Hindoo; but
the innocent deception was soon destroyed by the irresistible The Round-Tower at Cloyne stands in the street,
accent in which the following exclamation was uttered, after on the side opposite to the church, and, as usual, coolly surveying that lady's work, and the subject of it.near its western front. This singular structure sus • Och! fait and sure the darlint lady isn't pulling down tained considerable damage from lightning in the the ould stones may be! and as like as themselves it is, middle of the last century; its height is stated to be
long life to her! well to be sure, and a power of trouble to 92 feet, and the thickness of its wall 43 inches.
be taking—a wisha God help us ! Adjoining the town is the Bishop's Palace, a plain Another remarkable seat in the neighbourhood of edifice, which was built in the early part of the last Cloyne is that of Rostellan, belonging to the O'Briens; century by Bishop Crowe. It stands in a picturesque it is situated on the eastern shore of Cork harbour, deinesne, in which are the entrances to some of the of which it commands a noble view. The present natural limestone caverns abounding in this district.
house is built on the site of a castle of the Fitzgeralds, The ancient name of this spot was Monelusky, or
and contains a small armoury. " The sword of the “ Field of Caverns;" and the names of the neigh great Brian Boru, my lord's ancestor, King of Munbouring fields and grounds, says Sir R. C. IIoare, ster, your honour, and his fowling-piece! are there to “ speak the savageness of this place in former times." be seen," said one of the gate-keepers who accompaThus Knocknamodree is the “ Hill of the Gray Dog, nied Mr. Croker through the grounds, and seemed or Wolf;" Park na Drislig, the “ Field of Briars;' anxious to display the wonders of the place to Monecranisky, tie " Meadow of the Wild Boars," strangers. It is hardly necessary to remind the &c.
On the north of the town is a hill called reader, that fire-arms were not introduced into IreBohermore, or the “ Great Highway,” from a tradi land till some centuries after Brian Boru was in his tion that a road passed over it from the sea in the grave. But similar anachronisms are very common south to the sea on the north of the kingdom. in Ireland, where anything ancient, wonderful, or
In 1805 a curious discovery was made in one of curious, is without hesitation referred to Fion Mac the caverns in the neighbourhood of Cloyne. A Cuil, (the Fingal of Ossian,) St. Patrick, or Brian quarryman accidentally let his crow-bar fall through Boru. On an elevated terrace, near the water, is ą, a fissure in the limestone-rock; he widened the aper- statue of Admiral Hawke, “the position of which," ture and descended in search of the instrument into says Sir R. C. Hoare, " rather surprised me, as the a cavern, in which he was surprised to behold a
back of this celebrated warrior was turned upon the human skeleton, partly covered with exceedingly very element on which he had acquired such imthin plates of stamped or embossed gold, connected mortal honour. by bits of wire, and likewise several amber beads. I was told (he adds) that the following circumstance gave One of these plates was preserved, the rest of the rise to placing the figure in this position. Upon the defeat gold was sold and melted in Cork and Youghall. of the French fleet, commanded by Conflans, in the year The bones of the skeleton were eagerly sought after
1759, the city of Cork ordered a statue to be cast of the
English admiral, Hawke; but on its completion, some by the superstitious peasantry, who pronounced them to be those of St. Colman, and accordingly carried which the noble Inchiquin said, that he would pay for it,
objections were made to the expense by the citizens; upon them away for charms. There is said to be a tradi which he did, and, as a rebuke, placed the admiral's figure tion in the country, of a battle having been fought on a pedestal, with his back turned towards the ungrateful Dear the spot in a very remote period, and of four city. Mr. O'Brien, the present inhabitant of the place, kings having fallen in the conflict.
and who, on the death of the Marquis of Thomond, sucIn the neighbourhood of Cloyne are two seats
ceeds to the Earldom of Inchiquin, told me a most sindeserving of notice; one of them is Castle Mary, gular anecdote relating to this same statue, and which, in
a less enlightened age than the present, might have been formerly called Carrig Cotta, which is supposed considered as ominous: That ihe admiral's right arm, to be a corruption of Carrig Croith, or the Rock which grasped a sword, fell off on the very day that the of the Sun,-a name derived from a cromlech, or French landed on the coast of Ireland at Bantry Bay.' Druidical altar, still to be seen not far from the
CORONATION ANECDOTES. No. II. preceded by the tapers, cross, and swords, to
throne. Mass was then sung, and, at the offerte RICHARD I.
two bishops led the king to the altar, where he me In a moneth mirie, Septembre the gynnyng Baudwyn of Canterbirie com to coroune the kyng
an oblation, and the like was done after the bened Richard at Londoun, opon a Sonenday
tion. When mass was concluded, the king was led : At Westmynstre, tok the crown.
two bishops, preceded as before, to the choir, wher SUCH is Langtoft's brief memorial of a coronation, the having assumed a lighter crown and robes, he then we first of which we have anything like a full account in the to the coronation banquet. There the archbishops ancient chronicles. It will be seen, from the descrip-bishops, earls, and barons, ranged according to the tion, which we have compiled principally from Hoveden dignities, feasted sumptuously; and wine was supplied and Matthew Paris, that the forms and observances so plenteously, that it streamed down the floors and were nearly the same as those of more modern times. walls of the palace. Those who held lands by tenure
Duke Richard having made all necessary prepara- of services at the coronation were in attendance, and tions for his coronation, came to London, where he performed their duties. assembled the archbishops of Canterbury, Rouen, and These festivities were sullied by a sanguinary and Tours, who had given him absolution in Normandy disgraceful riot. Numbers of Jews had flocked to for waging war against his father after he had taken England in the reign of Henry II., where they were the cross as a crusader. The archbishop was also honourably protected by that liberal and enlightened present, with all the bishops, earls, barons, and nobles sovereign. Grateful for such unusual favours, they of the kingdom. When all were assembled in the pre- assembled at London to subscribe among themselves scribed order, the ceremony commenced. First, the in order to make Richard a splendid present on the archbishops, bishops, abbots and clergy, wearing their day of his coronation. Unfortunately Richard was square caps, and preceded by the cross and holy-water persuaded by some of the bigots who surrounded him, bearers and deacons burning incense, went to the door that the Jews were accustomed to practice magic on of the royal bed-chamber, and led the duke in solemn sovereigns during the time of the coronation, and he procession to the great altar in the church of West- therefore issued an edict, prohibiting any Jew from minster. Four barons marched in the midst of the entering the church while the ceremony was performed, prelates and clergy bearing four large wax tapers or appearing at the palace during dinner. Curiosity lighted; after them came two earls, one bearing the overcame prudence; several of the most considerable sceptre and cross, the other the rod and dove. Then Jews mingled with the crowd, and gathered round the came three earls bearing swords in golden scabbards gates of the palace. One of them, endeavouring to taken out of the royal treasury. They were followed force an entrance, was struck in the face by an overby six earls and barons, bearing a coffer (probably of zealous Christian; this signal roused the fanaticism of relics) over which, the royal mantle and restments the multitude: a general assault was made upon the were spread. Next followed the earl of Chester, Jews, who fled in confusion towards the city. Some bearing on high a golden crown, beautifully studded wretches, eager for plunder, raised a cry that the king with
gems. Next came Duke Richard between two had given orders for the extermination of the unbishops, over whose head four barons carried a silk believing Jews, and as this was by no means improcanopy supported by gilt-headed spears. When they bable, when the king was a crusader, it received imreached the altar, Richard swore in the presence of the plicit credit. The city mob, swelled by the multitudes clergy and people on the holy Gospel and the sacred who had come from the country, atttacked the houses relics, that he would observe peace, honour, and respect, of the Jews, which the inhabitants defended with all the days of his life, to God, holy church, and its great courage and obstinacy. The enraged populace, ordinances. He likewise swore that he would admi- when night came on, finding that they could not break nister justice in rectitude to his people, that he would into the houses, hurled brands and torches on the roofs abolish all evil statutes and customs, and that he would and through the windows. Conflagrations burst forth enact good laws.
in various parts of the city, which consumed not only His attendants then stripped him to his trowsers the houses of the Jews, but those of the Christians and shirt, the latter of which was left open between adjoining. The king, hearing of the disturbance, sent the shoulders on account of the anointing. Baldwin, Ralph de Glanville, the chief justiciary, and other archbishop of Canterbury, who wore rich buskins of noblemen, to disperse the mob, but they were unable cloth of gold, then anointed the king in three places to control the infuriate rioters, and were forced to fly on the head, between the shoulders, and on the right for their lives. Towards morning the rabble quarrelled arm. A consecrated linen coif and a cap of estate among themselves about the division of the booty, and were then placed upon his head, and he was vested mere weariness, together with anxiety to secure with the royal robes, the dalmatic and the tunic; the their plunder, induced them to disperse. Richard archbishop then delivered him a sword, to restrain the caused several of the ringleaders and most notorious enemies of the church. Two earls then buckled on his malefactors to be apprehended the next day; they were spurs, and invested him with the pall of state. After hanged as a terror to others, a proclamation was issued, which Baldwin conjured him in the name of God, taking the Jews under the royal protection, and the and forbade him to take the crown, unless he were tranquillity of the city was restored. Few persecutions firmly resolved in his heart and soul to observe all the were felt more bitterly by the Jews than this massacre, promises to which he had sworn.
as is manifest from the pathetic terms in which it is Richard replied that, relying upon the Divine recorded by Rabbi Joseph. assistance, he would perform all that he had sworn; “ And King Henry fell sick, and died of grief; for after which, taking the crown from the altar, he de- the Lord raised up evil from his own house, when he livered it to the archbishop, who placed it upon the was by the Castle Chinon. king's head, and also put the sceptre in his right hand, “ And he died, and his son Richard reigned in his and the rod in his left.
stead, in the year four thousand nine hundred and fifty, Thus crowned, he was led by the bishops and barons, which is the year one thousand one hundred and ninety;
NUMBER OF BONES AND JOINTS IN THE HUMAN
ind they put the royal crown upon his head in the
THE HOUSE I LIVE IN. city of London, in the royal palace, which was without
No. VI. the city. And there gathered themselves together in that place, much people from Yzarphat and from the isles of the sea. And also the Jews, the heads of the The cranium, or that part of the head which contains people, were among those who came to bring gifts unto the brain, consists of eight different bones. There the king. And the people murmured against them,
are fourteen bones of the face, besides thirty-two saying, “The thing is not right, that the Jews should teeth. Then there are four very small bones in each look at the crown wherewith the priests crowned him;' ear, and one at the root of the tongue. Thus the and they pursued them and reviled them. But the whole head above the neck contains sixty-three. The king knew nothing of it. And a report was heard in neck has seven ; but as these form the upper part of the city, saying, “The word came forth from the mouth the spine, they are usually reckoned with those of of the king to destroy the Jews. And they arose the body. suddenly against them, and pulled down their houses Here let us stop to comment on the simple, yet and their towers, and killed of them about thirty men. effectual, contrivance for increasing the security of And some of them slaughtered their children and the brain. Had the cranium, or brain-case, been themselves, that they might not abide that bitter day: composed of one entire bone, instead of several, there fell slain, Rabbi Jacob from Orleans, for the sake fractures would have followed almost every injury on of the holiness of his Creator, on that fearful day. But its surface, and such fractures as do occasionally take of all this King Richard knew nothing, till he heard the place, would probably be of greater extent and of voice of the multitude; and he said, "What is this to corresponding danger. day?" and the doorkeeper said, “ Nothing; only that pieces, called vertebre; and between these and the
The spine, or back-bone, contains twenty-four the boys rejoice, and are merry in heart.' And it came
lower extremities are four bones more. There are to pass, when he heard this great evil, his anger was much kindled, and his wrath burned within him. And twenty-four ribs ; that is, twelve on each side, and a he commanded, and they tied the doorkeeper to the breast-bone, or sternum, down the middle of the
tails of the horses, and dragged him, and cast him body, contains fifty-three bones. T
Thus, that which is commonly called the about in the markets, and in the streets, until his spirit departed, and he died. Blessed be He who giveth clavicle, or collar-bone, and scapula, or shoulder-blade,
The upper extremity, including the hand, arm, vengeance! Amen.”
consists of thirty-two pieces, or sixty-four on both After his return from captivity, Richard had the sides. Each lower extremity includes thirty bones ; ceremony of his coronation repeated, at the request of and thus both together make sixty, besides the small his nobles, who thought such a form necessary to remove sesamoid* bones. the disgrace of imprisonment.
Now, if we add together these several numbers, we John.
shall find that a complete human skeleton contains John ascended the throne, to the prejudice of the would suppose this, from a mere view of the human
no less than two hundred and forty bones ! Who hereditary rights of his nephew Arthur, by virtue of a form of election. The archbishops, bishops, earls, motion! We now see that it has a great many joints
figure, either while standing, or with the limbs in barons, and other the estates of the realm, being assem
within it, and of course a great many bones. At bled in the church of Westminster, May 27th, 1199, every part of the body where the bones meet, there Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, addressed them in is more or less of motion (excepting at the junction these memorable words:
of the several portions forming the head, face, teeth, “ Hear all men! It is well known to your wisdom, and hips), and these may all be moved, nearly at the that no man hath any right of succession to this crown, same instant. Thus there are in the human frame unless he be elected for his own merits by the unani- about a hundred and eighty joints. mous consent of the kingdom, with invocation of the We may, indeed, add to this number the small Holy Ghost; after the manner and similitude of Saul, sesamoid bones, which are found in the thumbs and whom God set over his chosen people, though he was great toes of older persons, and somewhat resembling neither the son of a king, nor sprung of a royal line; the knee-pan in shape, though very diminutive in and in like manner after him, David, the son of Jesse, size. Of these there are often two in each large the former because he was brave, and suited to the joint of the great toe, and as many in the large joint royal dignity, the latter because he was humble and of each thumb. Adding these, then, to the two pious. So that he who surpasses all within the realm hundred and forty, we shall have for the whole in fitness for royalty, should preside over all in dignity number of bones in the human frame, two hundred and power. But if any one of the family of the deceased and forty eight.
Some make the number about two hundred and sovereign should excel others, his election should be the more readily and cheerfully conceded. Wherefore, as
sixty; but in this fourteen sesamoid bones are
included. It should be remembered that the num. our late sovereign Richard died without issue of his ber of sesamoid bones greatly varies in differen body, and as his brother, Earl John, now present, is
individuals, though nearly all adult persons hav wise, brave, and manifestly noble, we, having respect
some of them, and some individuals have them in both to his merits and his royal blood, unanimously and other parts of the body besides those already menwith one accord elect him to be our sovereign.”
tioned. They are hardly ever larger than half a pea. This was the most decisive form of election since the In addition, it may be mentioned, that some indiConquest, and it is so commemorated in Langtoft: viduals have two or more supplementary bones in the The arsbishop Hubert of Canterbirie the se
skull, called ossa wormiana; these, when they occur, Com with gode hert to do the solempnitie
are of an irregular shape, and seldom larger than At Westmynster thorgh assent of erle & baroun To that I ore ment• Hubert gaf the coroun.
small Windsor bean. 'The people responded with shouts of “ Long live
Besides all these, the breast-bone, the ossa inno
• See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XI., p. 115. • To him I before mentioned.
BONES AND SHELLS.
minata, and many other bones of the body, are in mate acquaintance with the different branches of young persons composed of several pieces, and some Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology, is highly requisite of them are often not very strongly united even when for those to possess who undertake to cure or to they become older.
relieve the various “ills which flesh is heir to,” is Some few individuals are occasionally met with, admitted by all who are competent to form an opinion who have a still greater number of bones; but these on the subject. may generally be considered as diseased persons. A I will here take the opportunity of defining the bony or chalky substance is often formed in the flesh three words above-mentioned. By the word Anatomy, of those who have the gout, and some of the gristly is meant a knowledge of the structure and proporparts of the body-I mean the cartilages anů liga- tions of the human, or of any other animal body; by ments-occasionally become ossified, that is, converted Physiology, is meant a knowledge of the functions into a substance resembling bone, as do also small which the various parts of the body perform during portions of the great arteries, or tubes which convey health ; and by Pathology, is understood an acquaintthe blood. In some diseases, also, the bones become ance with all those changes and alterations in the soft, and readily bend, owing to a deficiency of the structure or functions which are effected by disease. earthy matter of which they are composed.
In these papers, it is my intention to describe a Occasionally persons are met with who have six little both of anatomy and physiology, but into fingers on each hand, or six toes on each foot, and pathology I shall not enter, as that will be unnecessary sometimes both; but these supernumerary fingers for the general reader. Heretofore I have treated and toes do not always have bones in them.
principally of anatomy; the remaining chapters will embrace a large proportion of physiology, combining,
as we proceed, the two subjects together, showing When all the bones of a human being, or of any the structure of a part, and at the same time pointing other animal, are put together, and fastened to each
out its uses, by which method, after what has before other by pieces of wire, the whole is called a skeleton. been explained, a tolerably correct idea of the subject
There is, too, another kind of skeleton, but it is will be acquired. not so commonly met with ; nor is it so convenient
It is made by stripping off all the soft parts BEFORE closing this chapter, I would observe that, of the body, excepting the ligaments; these are suf- although, except in very extraordinary cases indeed, fered to remain, and the whole is thoroughly dried. the bones of deceased human beings are left to decay This is called a natural skeleton, in contradistinction in the grave, the bony parts of the inferior animals to the former, which is called an artificial skeleton.
are turned to great account in the domestic and ANATOMY.
useful arts. The handles of common knives, and The study of the nature and structure of the bones
innumerable little articles in every-day use, are made alone, is called osteology; that of the muscles, myology, are obtained by the aid of chemistry. Ground bones
I , &c. But as most people who study these, go farther, make excellent manure for certain descriptions of and learn also the shape and structure of the heart, land, and thus not only become valuable to the farmer, the lungs, the brain, the blood-vessels, and, in fact, but furnish a beautiful illustration of the laws of all parts of the body, some more general name seems necessary for what they do.
Therefore we say
nature, by which the constituent elements of the those who study all parts of the human body, just animal frame are made to contribute to the growth as it appears when the soul leaves it in death, the of vegetables, upon which human existence so greatly bones, muscles, tendons, brain, nerves, heart, blood
depends. vessels, lungs, skin, &c., that they are studying of the elephant ; as is also that useful substance,
Ivory is another kind of bone, for it is the tooth ANATOMY.
whalebone, which is part of the structure of the PHYSIOLOGY.
enormous jaws of the whale. From the horns of Puysiology is something more than all this. It is animals, combs, lanterns, whip-handles, and many the study of the living animal ;-how the heart, the other articles, are made, while the covering of the brain, the eye, the ear, the muscies, the bones, and tortoise, and the shell of a certain species of oyster, every other part, acts. David, the inspired psalmist, furnish us with those beautiful substances, tortoise. felt this, when, meditating on the curious structure shell and mother-of-pearl. of his own body, he exclaimed, "I am fearfully and The shells and bones of animals not only serve as wonderfully made.” King David, however, had a support to the softer parts, but also as a firm deprobably never seen a complete human skeletou, or fence. What would become of the tender frame of even had much insight into the interior of the human the poor tortoise, the lobster, the crab, the oyster, frame; for in those days it was deemed improper and many other living things, if they were not to employ the bodies of men for the purposes of covered over, and protected, as with a shield, by a anatomical research, instead of which, the remains hard buckler of shell? The soft parts of the human of the brute creation, particularly dogs, and other body, which are most essential to life, are in many domesticated animals, were used. Hence many of instances well defended in the same manner by the the technical terms by which the various parts of our solid, unyielding materials which envelope them. As, complicated structure are designated, though now for instance, the brain, the spinal marrow, the lungs, appearing fanciful and erroneous, were at the time of the heart, and the liver. their invention more correct, and the analogy much Now a portion of the shell of every animal is more obvious.
formed of lime. There is not so much difference For many years past, we have been accustomed to between the bones of man and the shell of the torconsider it not only as allowable, but highly proper, toise, or the lobster, as may be supposed, though the and even necessary, to examine and dissect the human colour is very different. A very large proportion of body after death, as it is by such means alone that the lobster-shell is lime; in the tortoise-shell the the true structure of the human machine can be quantity is much less; and horn contains but very understood and explained, and the knowledge of its little. Bones, as I have before observed, contain a various derangements acquired. That the most inti- large proportion of this earth.