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was not destroyed with the rest of the Regalia in the of purple velvet, lined with white taffeta, and turned time of the Commonwealth ; but it was renovated for up with ermine, like that of the imperial crown. the coronation of Charles the Second, and at the A queen-consort wears a circlet proceeding to her same time a new spoon was prepared into which the coronation, and is crowned with St. Edgitha's oil is poured by the consecrating prelate. The spoon, CROWN; which is so named in honour of Edgitha, like the eagle, is of chased gold, and is adorned with th consort of Edward the Confessor. four large pearls in the broadest part of the handle.

Kings were anciently anointed on the head, the bowings of the arms, on both shoulders, between the shoulders, on the breast, and on the hands. There are only three distinct anointings in modern coronations, on the head, breast, and hands, which were said by Becket to indicate glory, holiness, and fortitude. Great importance was attached to this unction, for Shakspeare represents Richard the Second declaring on the invasion of Bolingbroke:

Not all the water in the rough rude sea,

Can wash the balm from an anointed king.
The rich IMPERIAL Crown of gold with which the
monarchs of England are crowned, is still called St.
Edward's crown,

though it was actually made for the coronation of Charles the Second, the more ancient

QUEEN'S CROWN

QUEEN'S CIRCLIT. crown having been stolen and sold in 1642. It is embellished with pearls and precious stones, as dia The queen's circlet of gold is richly adorned with monds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires, and has a large diamonds, and has a string of pearls round its mound of gold on the top, enriched with a fillet of upper edge. The cap is purple velvet, lined with gold embellished also with precious stones. Upon white taffeta, and turned up with ermine richly pow. the mound is a cross of gold garnished with jewels, dered. and three very large oval pearls, one fixed on the top, The queen's crown, or the crown of St. Edgitha, and two others pendent on the ends of the cross. was originally manufactured for Catherine, the conIt is composed of four crosses pattée, and as many sort of Charles the Second. It is a rich imperial

crown of gold, set with very valuable diamonds, in

termixed with other precious stones and pearls. It 2 2017 is composed of crosses and fleurs de lis, with bars

and arches, and a mound and cross on the top, like

the crown of St. Edward, only smaller and lighter. TAYOTTE

The cap is of purple velvet, and turned up with

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ST. EDWARD'S CROWN.

CROWN OF STATE.

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fleurs de lis of gold, all embellished with precious stones. From these crosses arise four circular bars or arches, which meet at the top in form of a cross ; having at their intersection a pedestal, on which is

QUEEN EDGITHA'S CROWY. fixed the mound already mentioned. The cap within this crown is of purple velvet, lined with white taffeta, ermine, or minever pure, richly powdered. The and turned up with ermine. On the day of corona- crown of St. Edward is used solely for the coronation tion the jewels and precious stones belonging to the of a sovereign queen, and cannot be worn by 'a queen Crown of State, so called because it is worn by every consort. sovereign coming in state to parliament, are taken The Saxon kings of England wore crowns like out, fixed in collets, and pinned into the imperial those of other nations, which were at first only simcrown: their places are supplied by mock stones, ple circlets of gold. King Egbert first adorned the when the ceremony of the coronation is concluded. fillet, or circle, with radiant points, similar to the

Since the time of Charles the Second a very rich crowns worn by the emperors of the East; and crown of state, to be worn by the sovereign only at King Edmund, surnamed Ironside, tipped the points the coronation dinner in Westminster Hall, is pre- with pearl. William the Conqueror surmounted the pared for every succeeding king or sovereign queen. circle with points and leaves, the points being much This is very rich, being embellished with several large higher than the leaves, and each of them was tipped diamonds, and a great number of pearls ; but it is with three pearls'; on the top of the cap, or tiara, most distinguished by a very large ruby, set in the was a cross pattée. William Rufus adorned his middle of one of the four crosses, and estimated at crown with points only, which were all tipped with the value of ten thousand pounds, and also by the pearls. The crown of Henry the First was adorned mound's being one entire stone of a sea-green colour, with fleurs de lis only; these fleurs de lis appear to known by the name of an aquamarine. The cap is have been originally designed to represent the heads

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of lances, and to have been borrowed from some placed on the circle itself all round. The cap and tassel military decorations of the ancient Germans. Maud, are the same as before. Coronets were first assigned to

viscounts in the reign of James the First. The coronet of Queen of England, enriched her crown with leaves and points alternately, the leaves being higher than distances; before the reign of Charles the Second barons

a Baron has only six pearls set round the circle, at cqual the points; and this custom remained unvaried until

wore simply a crimson cap, turned up with white fur, but the accession of Edward the Third. He enriched that monarch assigned them coronets, and at the sanie his crown with fleurs de lis and crosses pattée. time issued warrants permitting the peers of Scotland and Edward the Fourth was the first English monarch Ireland to use coronets similar to those worn by noblemen who wore a close or arched crown; it was decorated

of the same rank in England. with fleurs de lis and crosses pattée, and arched with four bars. Henry the Seventh and Henry the

MATERIALISM. Eighth had their crowns composed of fleurs de lis Tae doctrine of the materialists was always, even in and crosses pattée, with two arches, embellished with my youth, a cold, heavy, dull, and insupportable pearls and precious stones; and this form has been doctrine to me, and necessarily tending to atheism. since continued.

When I heard with disgust, in the dissecting rooms, The ancient French crown was a circle of gold the plan of the physiologist, of the gradual secretion enamelled, of eight fleurs de lis, encompassed with of matter, and its becoming endued with irritability, eight arched diadems, bearing at the top a double ripening into sensibility, and acquiring such organs fleur de lis, which is the crest of cognizance of as were necessary, by its own inherent forces, and at France.

last rising into intellectual existence, a walk into the The Spanish crown was a circle of gold, richly green fields, or woods, by the banks of rivers, brought decorated with jewels and precious stones, and back my feelings from nature to God. I saw in all adorned with eight leaves. It was not closed with the powers of matter, the instruments of the Deity : arches until the marriage of Philip the Second with the sunbeams, the breath of the zephyr, awakened Queen Mary of England, when four arches were animation in forms prepared by Divine Intelligence to added, being double the number of those in the receive it; the insensate seed, the slumbering egg, English crown. Those of Bohemia, Poland, Den- which were to be vivified, appeared like the new-born mark, and Sweden, are similar to the Spanish ; but animal, works of a divine mind; I saw love as the no foreign crown has the velvet tiara or the ermine creative principle in the material world, and this love of the English crown.

only as a divine attribute. Then, in my own mind, The crown of Hungary, worn by the emperors of I felt connected with new sensations and indefinite Austria, is double: the lower crown is similar to the hopes, a thirst for immortality; the great names of Spanish; the upper is composed of sixteen plates of other ages, and of distant nations, appeared to me to gold, from which two arches arise, having in the be still living around me; and even in the funeral centre a cross, richly decorated at the extremities monuments of the heroic and the great, I saw, as it with pearls. The sixteen plates are enamelled with were, the indestructibility of mind, busts of Jesus Christ, the evangelists, and the apo These feelings, though generally considered as poeti. stles ; so also is the flat part of the arches, the whole cal, offer a sound philosophical argument in favour of being enriched with pearls, diamonds and precious the immortality of the soul. In all the habits and instones.

stincts of young animals, their feelings or movements Before concluding this part of the subject, it may be as

may be traced in intimate relation to their improved well to describe the crowns or coronets worn by the princes perfect state ; their sports have always affinities to of the blood and the English nobility. The crown of the their modes of hunting or catching their food, and Prince of Wales, when there is an heir apparent to the young birds even in the nest show marks of fondthrone of Britain, is a circle of gold, surrounded with four ness, which, when their frames are developed, become crosses pattée and as many tleurs de lis, set alternately: signs of actions necessary to the re-production and From the two centre crosses an arch arises, adorned with pearls, and surmounted by a ball and cross: within the preservation of the species. The desire of glory, of coronet is a cap of crimson velvet, lined with white sar

honour, of immortal fame, and of constant knowcenet, and turned up with ermine. The Prince of Wales ledge, so usual in young persons of well-constituted has also another distinguishing ornament, viz., a simple minds, cannot, I think, be other than symptoms of coronet, surmounted with a plume of three ostrich feathers, the infinite and progressive nature of intellectand having the motto, Ich Dien," that is, This cognizance was first assumed by Edward, Prince of hopes, which, as they cannot be gratified bere, belong

to a frame of mind suited to a nobler state of Wales, commonly called the Black Prince, after the battle of Crecy, A.D. 1346, where, having killed John, king of existence.—Sir HUMPARY DAVY. Bohemia, he took from his head such a plume, and put it upon his own.

The proper study of mankind is man..Pope. The CORONET of the Princes of the Blood-royal is composed of a circle of gold, richly chased, having on the edge If the proper study of mankind is man, it is proper only so two crosses pattée, two strawberry-leaves, and four fleurs far as it may conduce to our own advancement in rigintede lis. Within the coronet is a crimson velvet cap, lined ousness, by making us acquainted with that weakness and with sarcenet, and turned up with ermine. On the top of corruption of our nature, which self-love is for ever the cap there is a rich tassel of gold and spangles.

labouring to conceal. Should we forget to apply to our own The coronet of a Duke is a circle of gold, richly chased, individual cases, the observations which we make in the having on the edge eight strawberry-leaves, which most case of others, our knowledge will not only be barren of probably were originally lance-heads, all of equal height: improvement, but may even serve to engender a censorious within is a crimson velvet cap, topped by a gold tassel, and spirit; and increase that pride and presumption which we turned up with ermine of one row. The coronet of a Mar- know too frequently attends the mere possession of specuquis is a circle of gold, set round with four strawberry- lative knowledge. Our own personal improrement is the leaves, and as many pearls, on pyramidal points of equal centre towards which all reflections upon the nature and !eight, alternately. The cap is the same as that of the actions of man should converge; and whatsoever tends to duke. An Earl's coronet has eight pyramidal points, with unfold and bring to light any weakness lurking in the as many large pearls on the tops of them, placed olternately heart, should be received on our parts with all the readiness with as many strawberry-leaves, lower than the pearls. and impartiality which becomes creatures who are consciThe cap and tassel are the same as before. Coronets were ous of iheir responsible condition, and of that higher and first assigned to earls in the reign of Ilenry the Third. eternal destiny which is to succeed this probationary life'. The Viscount bas only pearls, without any limited number, --J. S. M. ANDERSON.

CHIEF OF LAUORE.

RUNJEET SINGH,

Allard by name, one of the officers of the old inperial army of Napoleon, and at the present time

commander-in-chief of the military forces of Runjeet If the revolutions nf barbarians have neither the im- Singh. portance nor the historical relations of civilized

About two years ago General Allard visited his countries, they are at least more frequent, and their native country, bringing with him his wife, a native perpetrators as blood-thirsty. When man has thrown of Lahore, and his children, for the purpose of aside the ties of religion and morality which bind placing the latter under proper tutors, so

as to him to society, he exhibits, in an awful manner, the be educated in the religion of their fathers, and achorrors of unrestrained passion; and, whether he hecording to the customs of civilized Europe. While savage or civilized, his motives for action are the

at Paris the general had an interview with the editor same, as well as their consequences.

of the Journal des Débats, and communicated to him Ambition and the lust of power prompt men to the following particulars :rebel : they unite under the guidance of some one General Allard is about fifty years old, of the powerful mind, the possessor of which sways the middle size, of a handsome figure: the expression of rebels to his own will, and by them serves his own his face is mild but dignified ; his language is short purposes. Such a man is Runjeet Singh, the present and precise, his voice agreeably modulated, his disChief of Lahore, whose history is altogether extra

course modest. He wears a long white beard and ordinary, as well as that of the individual who mustachios. His hair is gray, but his whole external mainly contributed to place that Indian chief in his appearance indicates the vigour of a mature age : present powerful position. The facts which we are

his eyes are bright and piercing : he is devoted to the about to detail are we believe quite new to English military profession, and seems formed for command. readers : they are obtained from the French news.

General Allard was formerly attached to the staff papers of a few years back, and their authenticity is of Marshal Brune. He quitted France at the downprobably unquestionable.

fall of Napoleon, with the intention of going to In the extensive continent of Asia, towards the the United States of America, and had already thirtieth degree of North latitude, and between paid for his passage on board one of the frigates of British India and Persia, there is a country, con the Union, when he met with an Italian officer, who, cerning which little is known, although it is extensive, like himself, was about to seek his fortune in a rich, and has a large and industrious population. foreign clime, and was induced by the Italian to give The form of this country is that of a delta, by the up his American trip, and go into Egypt. He did junction of the rivers Indus and Sutledge : the north so; and met with but a cold reception from the of this country is bounded by part of the Himalayah Pacha, and no employment. He then went into Permountains ; the population is warlike and enter- sia, and at Ispahan he was heartily welcomed by prising, and the country is called the kingdom of the Abbas Mirza, who conferred upon him the title Lahore.

of colonel, and treated him as such : he promised About forty years ago Lahore had no existence as him the command of a regiment, but failed in his a kingdom. A number of petty princes, who lived promise. Fortunately for Allard there was at the by pillage and rapine, but independent of each other, court of Ispahan an old king of Cabul, whose brother divided among themselves the provinces of this beau- had usurped his throne and deprived him of his tiful country.

They were constantly engaged in sight : this king, an experienced old man, told Allard mutual war, and conquering and being conquered in that in Cabul he would be sure of welcome and emquick succession, the peaceful arts could find neither ployment. Cabul is situated between Persia and introduction nor encouragement amid the horrors of the principality of Cachmire. Allard went there, and this rude warfare. This rich country, therefore, | found in fact that there was a king who could well situated so admirably between two great empires, in appreciate the services of an European officer. But the centre of a vast continent, with numerous navi- scarcely was Allard established in Cabul, when he gable streams, and natural frontiers, was torn with learnt that there dwelt, two hundred leagues further internal dissensions, and incapable of assuming any on, a skilful and bold chief, who was employing all political importance, for want of some tie which his energies and resources in founding a kingdom. would unite its discordant elements; for want, in This was the kind of chief that Allard desired to fact, of a chief, or even of a usurper, who could con serve: he went therefore to Lahore, and found Runquer the whole of the country, and govern it when jeet Singh, who was then a rajah. Allard met with conquered.

welcome and employment from the rajah, whose At the present time this country has a chief, who confidence he soon obtained : he placed under Allard has blended into one kingdom all the dissentient a few men, who, being disciplined according to states which formerly composed it. This country is the military system of France, became the nucleus or now a kingdom with about twenty millions of inha. the rajah's future army. Next, Allard disciplined a bitants: it has a considerable and well-disciplined hundred men, who were thus instructed in the army, numerous founderies and arsenals, a regular duties of military officers. Then he organized a regigovernment, finances in a flourishing state, and ment; then a brigade ; then a division; his repuits importance is such that it is the friend and tation increasing with the number of his soldiers, and ally of the British government in India. *

the confidence of the rajah keeping pace with the This kingdom owes its origin and its present growth of his army. This army soon became the state of wealth and power chiefly to two of those terror of the neighbouring princes, who disputed extraordinary men who from time to time appear with Runjeet Singh the sovereignty of the kingdom among the scenes of human affairs, and so materially of Lahore : they were all in succession beseiged influence the condition of mankind. One of these in their fortresses, attacked in their retreats, beaten

en is Runjeet Singh, King of Lahore and Cachmire, in open field, or vanquished in the defiles and the conqueror of all the petty sovereign princes fastnesses of their mountains. At length none resisted; who formerly harassed the whole country between the and at the end of a few years Runjeet Singh was the Indus and the Sutledge ; the other is a Frenchman, only king of this country. It was the triumph of

* See Malte-Brun's Universal Geography, vol. iii., p. 52. discipline over the rude warfare of the barbarian, and

women

means.

Allard was loaded with honours and with wealth : he his ministers, some of whom belong to the faith had a palace at Lahore, a crowd of servants and of Mohammed, rise up in the midst of the council, slaves, and a regiment for his escort. He married a interrupt their master, and retire to the extremity of princess, a relation of the king, and was finally the hall, in order to perform some ceremony, due to named commander-in-chief of the armies of the king- a particular hour just arrived. The king never makes dom : he became, next to Runjeet Singh, the most any remark, but waits with admirable patience until important, powerful, and absolute personage in this such orisons are finished. extensive country. Such is the fortune of General Runjeet Singh has many expensive tastes, one of Allard.

which, if fully gratified, would ruin any other than After an absence of sixteen years, Allard wished to an immensely rich man. He is attached to the revisit his country. His wife did not accompany him chase, as conducted in the East. He has an ardent to Paris : she remained at Saint Tropez, a sea-port of passion for precious stones and fine horses. He the Mediterranean, on the coast of France. This lady learnt one day that there was a very fine horse in one was shocked at French customs and manners : she of the neighbouring provinces, in a part of the kingthought it highly. indelicate that French

dom of Cabul not yet brought under his dominion. should allow their faces to remain unce

ncovered, and Spies were sent out in order to inform the rajah of constantly expressed a strong desire to return to her the existence of the horse, and the exact spot where native country.

it was to be found. These two points being ascerThe condition of the women in Lahore is nearly tained, a troop of ten thousand men were sent to seize the same as in Mohammedan countries generally. the animal : they traversed many provinces, spent They are brought up in an entire ignorance of all much money, fought their way to the stable of kinds of useful knowledge : most of them do not even the horse, and did not rest until it was added to the know the use of the needle. They live in an abso- stud of the rajah. He also obtained possession of lute seclusion, and never see the sky, but from the probably the finest diamond in the world by similar flat roofs of their houses ; or, when they ride out,

A neighbouring petty king was said to be through the open tops of their palanquins, which are the possessor of a diamond, which had belonged to enclosed on all sides ; so that, as General Allard says, the Great Mogul, the largest and purest that was ever they never see the horizon. They pass their time at known. This of course was coveted by Runjeet the toilette, arranging their black hair, and adorning Singh, and accordingly he invited the prince to their persons: they tinge their hands and feet with a his court, and being master of his person, he dered dye. Within doors they wear no covering for manded his diamond. The king pretended to resist ; the feet : their slippers are made of silk, embroidered but after many maneuvres he yielded possession. with gold; these they leave at the door of the The delight of Runjeet Singh was extreme; he gare apartment, which is covered with the richest carpets it to a lapidary to mount it; but what was his surin the world.

prise and fury when the man informed him that this The children receive no mental instruction : they pretended diamond was only a piece of crystal ! learn neither reading nor writing. Their knowledge Runjeet Singh caused the palace of this king to of gowd and evil is left to natural instinct. This sys- be invested his soldiers ransacked it from top to tem probably explains why it is that Lahore is bottom. Their researches were all in vain for a long overrun with robbers and bandits. At eight years time : at length a slave of the king having sold the of age the boys are taught to ride on horseback, to secret of his master, the diamond was found among guide an elephant, and to fire the musket ; and in a the ashes of a fire. Runjeet Singh has ever since few more years they are excellent recruits for General

worn it as a trophy of victory, set in a bracelet of Allard.

gold. On state days he wears, in chaplets round his Runjeet Singh is not more learned than his head, many other diamonds of extraordinary size and subjects; he does not value knowledge for its own beauty. It is said that the jewels of Runjeet Singh sake; but he has the sense and discretion to appre are the richest and finest in the world, and the ciate and apply for his own advantage that of others. riches and magnificence of his court and palace, the He is a man about fifty-six years of age ; very ugly, splendour of his travelling equipage, and of all his blind with one eye, robust, active, dissipated, warlike, equipments, exceed probably all that we hear of of tried courage, and of wonderful endurance. When among oriental princes. General Allard wished to quit Lahore, in order to We will devote a second paper to our account of visit France, the king was altogether dissatisfied: he this extraordinary person and his dominions. long resisted the wishes of his favourite. at least detain thy children,” said he at length to the general, “and then I shall be sure of thy re

THE GLOW-WORM. turn,” "My children!” exclaimed Allard: “it is

When on some balmy-breathing night of spring on their account that I wish to visit France; for

The happy child to whom the world is new,

Pursues the evening moth of mealy wing, there only can they be educated in the knowledge and Or from the heath-bell shakes the sparkling dew, practice of my own religion." 'At these words the He sees before his inexperienced eye, king: no longer resisted. “Since thou speakest The brilliant glow-worm like a meteor shine to me. of thy religion," said he, I can no longer op

On the turf-bank, surprised, and pleased, he cries pose thy will: this belongs only to thy conscience,

“ Star of the dewy grass! I make thee mine."

Then, ere he sleeps, collects the moistened flower, and every one ought to follow the faith which he ap

And bids soft leaves his glittering prize unfold. proves, and he is bound to obey its commandments.

And dreams that fairy lamps illume his bower; Thou mayest depart." Whilst he pronounced these

But in the morning, shudders to behold words, he became greatly moved. He remained His shining treasure viewless as the dust; in deep thought for some time, as if he hesitated to So fade the world's bright joys to cold and blank disgust. give the general the farewell embrace : then casting

CHARLOTTE Suith. himself into his arms and weeping violently, he

LONDON: dismissed him, saying, “ Farewell, go in peace !"

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. Runjeet Singh is not therefore altogether a bar PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MOXTILY PASTI, barian. General Allard states that he has often seen

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsreaders in the Kingdom.

« Let me

PRICE SIXPENCE.

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Cloyne is the name of a small town in the south of which there might once have been a communication from Ireland, situated in the barony of Imokilly, and the Cork harbour to the sea; and this eminence might have county of Cork. It stands at a short distance from the water partially drying up, by a deep bog, and at pre

been an eminence surrounded by water, and afterwards, on the eastern shores of Cork harbour, and is described sent by rich and, in general, well-improved meadows, to as straggling and miserable; it consists principally which the plantations about the church and see-house, of one street, the houses of which are of an inferior with the round-tower, appearing everywhere above them, description. It is a place of considerable antiquity, give a good effect

. On this spot St. Colman, before the as is likewise the bishopric of which it is the seat, its year 600, is supposed to have founded his church; and the cathedral having been founded by St. Colman, in the security of it must have received no small addition from

the circumstance of a cave, which is on the most elevated sixth century. The old name of the town is Cluaine, part of it, extending in various branches under ground to which signifies in Irish “a cave," and it is supposed a great distance. In those unsettled and barbarous ages, :o have been thus called, in consequence of the caves of this sort were resorted to by the natives on the number of natural caverns and subterranean passages first appearance of an enemy, and the invaders seldom existing in the limestone-rock, of which the district being able to make a long stay, the wives and children of is composed.

the peasants, and perhaps even their cattle, would remain

in tolerable safety, till the country could assemble in their The town of Cloyne is situated on a small limestone defence. It is certain that places of refuge of this sort enuinence, gently rising in the midst of the valley, through were looked upon as of so much necessity, that on some of VOL. XII.

384

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