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EASY LESSONS ON CHRISTIAN EVIDENCES. 1 by Pagans and Mohammedans, but also (to our shame No. XIII.
be it spoken,) by Christian nations; and still remainMODERN Jews.
ing a distinct people, though without a home.
One of the most remarkable points relative to these ONE of the difficulties with which the minds of some predictions respecting the Jews, and their present Christians are perplexed, is, that Jesus Christ should condition, is this; that the judgments spoken of by have been rejected by the greater part of his country- Moses, were threatened in case of their departing from men, the Jews; and that they who had been, accord- the law which he delivered, and especially, in case of ing to our Scriptures, for so many ages, God's their worshipping false gods; and yet, though in forfavoured and peculiar People, should be now, and for mer times they were so apt to fall into idolatry, they above seventeen centuries, without a country, and have always, since the destruction of Jerusalem, steascattered as outcast strangers through the world. dily kept clear of that sin ; and have professed to be
Their present condition and past history are indeed most scrupulous observers of the law of Moses. And something very extraordinary, and quite unlike what what is more, all the indignities and persecutions that has befallen any other nation. But though we may any of them are exposed to, appear to be the consenot be able to explain all the circumstances relative quence of their keeping to their religion, and not of to this wonderful people, it will be found on reflection their forsaking it. For a Jew has only to give up his that they furnish one of the strongest evidences for religion, and conform to that of the country he lives the truth of the very religion which they reject. in, whether Christian, Mohammedan, or Pagan, and
You know that when the Jews received the law | lay aside the observances of the law of Moses, and he through Moses, they were promised success and immediately ceases to be reproached as a Jew, and an prosperity as long as they should obey the Lord; and alien, and is mingled with the people around him. So that heavy judgments were denounced against them that the Jews of the present day seem to be suffering in case of disobedience. It was foretold that they for their observance of the law, just the penalties should be defeated by their enemies, driven from their threatened for their departure from it. country, scattered abroad, and continually harassed At first sight this seems very hard to explain; but, and oppressed. These threats are set forth in various on reflection, you will find the difficulty cleared up, parts of the books of Moses, and most particularly in in such a way as to afford a strong confirmation of the twenty-eighth chapter of Deuteronomy. “Thou your faith. First, you should observe, that the Jews shalt become an astonishment, a proverb, and a by- themselves admit that a Christ or Messiah was proword among all the nations whither the Lord shall mised them; and that to reject Him on his coming lead thee. The Lord will make thy plagues wonderful, would be an act of rebellion against the Lord their and the plagues of thy seed, even great plagues of God. Moses foretold that the Lord should raise up long continuance. And the Lord shall scatter thee from among them a Prophet like Moses himself; and among all people, from the one end of the earth even “whosoever should not hear that Prophet,” God unto ihe other.”—v. 37, 59, 64.
" would require it of him ;" and “ that he should be And the same is to be found in various parts of destroyed from among the people.”—(Deut. xviii. the writings of several of the prophets, who lived 15—19; Acts iii. 22, 23.) This is generally undersome ages after, In particular, there is one in Eze- stood (as it is applied in the Acts) to relate to the kiel, which agrees most remarkably in one very curious Messiah, or Christ; whom the other prophetical particular, with the state of the Jews at this day; writers of the Old Testament (as both Jews and namely, where he declares that they should, in the Christians are agreed,) more particularly foretold and midst of their sufferings, remain a distinct people, described. Now we hold that the Jews have been unmixed with, and unlike other nations; although guilty of this very act of disobedience, in rejecting it appears that in his time, they were very much dis- the Christ. And though they, of course, do not conposed to unite themselves with the rest of mankind, fess themselves thus guilty, because they deny that so as to become one of the Gentile nations, and to Jesus of Nazareth was the true Christ, yet they so lay aside all the distinctions of their own race. “That far agree with us as to acknowledge that the rejecting which cometh into your mind shall not be at all, that of the true Christ on his coming would be such a sin ye say, We will be as the heathen, as the families of as would expose them to the judgments which Moses the countries, to serve wood and stone." (Ezekiel threatened. xx. 32.)
To us, therefore, who do believe in Jesus, this Now we find in the Old Testament, that, in several affords an explanation of their suffering these judginstances, these judgments did fall on the Jews; and ments. especially when they were carried away captive to But, secondly, besides this, you will perceive on Babylon. And some persons may suppose that these looking more closely, that the Jews of these days do instances were all that Moses and the prophets had in not really observe the law of Moses, though they view. But whatever any one's opinion may be, it is a profess and intend to do so. They have, indeed, kept fact, of which there can be no doubt, that the Jewish to the faith of their forefathers; but not to their nation are actually suffering, at this day, such things as religious observances. For, the chief part of the Moses and the prophets predicted. Whether Moses Jewish worship consisted in offering sacrifices disand Ezekiel had in view what is now taking place, or tinctly appointed by the Lord Himself, in the law not, may be a matter of opinion; but it is a matter of delivered by Moses. There was a sacrifice appointed fact, that what is now taking place, does agree with to be offered up every day, and two on the Sabbath; their predictions. Jerusalem and its Temple were besides several other sacrifices on particular occasions. taken and burnt by the Romans, about forty years Now, the modern Jews, though they abstain from after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. The Jews were certain meats forbidden in their law, and observe driven from their country, and never allowed to settle strictly the Sabbath and several other ordinances, yet in it again. Hundreds of thousands were sold as do not offer any sacrifices at all; though sacrifices slaves; and the whole people were cast forth as wan, were appointed as the chief part of their worship. derers among the Gentiles; and they have ever since The reason of this is, that they were strictly forremained a nation of exiles, unsettled, harassed and bidden to offer sacrifices except in the one place oppressed in many instances most cruelly, not only which should be appointed by the Lord for that pur
pose. And the place last fixed on for these offerings
THE EEL. having been the Temple at Jerusalem, which was ALTHOUGH the Eel is a fish with which we are so destroyed about seventeen hundred years ago, and has familiar, and one which comes so frequently under never been restored, the Jews are now left without any the notice of most people, until of late years very place in which they can lawfully offer the sacrifices little was known of its habits and general economy. which their law enjoins.
Mr. Yarrell has thrown much additional light on the The Jews, accordingly, of the present day, plead that history of the Eel tribe; and in the following account it is not from wilful disobedience that they neglect we have borrowed largely from his splendid work on these ordinances, but because they cannot help it. British Fishes. According to this naturalist, there are But to say that it is not their own fault that they do three well-ascertained species of fresh-water Eels, to not observe the ordinances of their religion, is quite a
which he has given the following names,—the Sharpdifferent thing from saying that they do observe nosed Eel, (Anguilla acutirostris); the Broad-nosed them. They may explain why they cannot keep the Eel, (Anguilla latirostris); and the Snig, (Anguilla law of Moses; but they cannot say that they do medirostris); the Grig is also considered a separate keep it.
species by Baron Cuvier. In addition to this there is Now Christians hold that the ceremonies of that the Conger Eel, which inhabits the coasts of the sea. law were not originally designed to be observed by
The form of the Eel, resembling that of the serpent, all nations, and for ever; that “the law had only a
has long excited a prejudice against it, which exists in shadow of good things to come,” (Heb. x. 1,) that is,
some countries even to the present time; and its similarity of the Gospel; and that it was designed that the to snakes has even been repeated by those, who, from the sacrificing of lambs and bullocks should cease at the advantages of education, anu their acquirements in natural coming of the Christ. A Jew, on the contrary, will history, might have been supposed capable of drawing not allow that these were designed ever to cease:
more accurate conclusions. There is but little similarity in he cannot deny that they have ceased, and that, for
the snake and the Eel, except in the external form of the above seventeen centuries. Let a Jew explain if he and the character of the skeleton, are most decidedly
body; the important internal organs of the two animals, can, how it is, that, for so long a time, Providence different. has put it out of the power of the Jews to observe Eels are, in reality, a valuable description of fish; their the principal part of their religion which they main- flesh is excellent as food; they are very numerous, very tain was intended to be observed for ever.
prolific, and are found in almost every part of the world. And this is also very remarkable; that the religion
The various species are hardy, tenacious of life, and very of the Jews is almost the only one that could have
easily preserved. In this country they inhabit almost all
our rivers, lakes, and ponds; they are in great esteem for been abolished against the will of the people them the table, and the consumption in our large cities is very selves, and while they resolve firmly to maintain it; considerable. The London market is principally supplied their religion, and theirs only, could be, and has from Holland, by Dutch fishermen. There are two combeen, thus abolished in spite of their firm attachment panies in Holland, having five vessels each; their vessels to it, on account of its being dependent on a par
are built with a capacious well, in which large quantities of
Eels are preserved alive till wanted. One or more of these ticular place,—the Temple at Jerusalem. The Chris
vessels may be constantly seen lying off Billingsgate ; the tian religion, or again, any of “the Pagan religions, others go to Holland for fresh supplies, each bringing a could not be abolished by any force of enemies, if cargo of 15,000 to 20,000 pounds' weight of live Eels, for the persons professing the religion were sincere and which the Dutch merchant pays a duty of £13 a cargo for resolute in keeping to it. To destroy a Christian his permission to sell. Eels and salmon are the only fish place of worship, or to turn it into a Mohammedan
sold by the pound weight in the London market. mosque, (as was done in many instances by the Eels are not only numerous, but in great request in Turks,) would not prevent the exercise of the Christian many other countries. Ellis, in his Polynesian Rereligion. And even if Christianity were forbidden searches, says, by law, and Christians persecuted, (as has in times In Otaheite, Eels are great favourites, and are tamed past been actually done,) still if they were sincere and fed until they attain an enormous size. The pets are and resolute, they might assemble secretly in woods kept in large holes two or three feet deep, partially filled or caves; or they might fly to foreign countries to with water. On the sides of these pits they generally reworship God according to their own faith; and Chris
mained, excepting when called by the person who fed them.
I have been several times with the young chief, when he tianity, though it might be driven out of one country,
has sat down by the side of the hole, and, by giving a shrill would still exist in others.
sort of whistle, has brought out an enormous Eel, which And the same may be said of the Pagan religions. has moved about the surface of the water, and eaten with If it happened that any temple of Jupiter, or Diana, confidence out of his master's hand. or Woden, were destroyed, this would not hinder the The habits of Eels induce them to make two miworshippers of those gods from continuing to worship grations in the course of the year, one in Autumn, to them as before, and from offering sacrifices to them the sea, and the other in Spring, or the beginning of elsewhere.
Summer, from the sea. The Autumn migration is But it was not so with the Jews. Their religion performed by the adult Eels, and is supposed to be was so framed as to make the observance of its ordi
for the purpose of depositing their spawn; and it is nances impossible, when their Temple was finally said that these fish never return up the river: the destroyed. It seems to have been designed and con- Spring migration is supposed to consist entirely of trived by Divine Providence, that as their law was to
young Eels. Mr. Yarrell is inclined to think there is be brought to an end by the Gospel, (for which it an error in the belief that the old Eels do not return. was a preparation,) so, all men were to perceive that
The passage of countless hundreds of young Eels has it did come to an end, notwithstanding the obstinate
been seen and described as occurring in the Thames, the rejection of the Gospel by the greater part of the Severn, the Parrett, the Dee, and the Ban. I am, however, Jews. It was not left to be a question and a matter of opinion, that the passage of adult Eels to the sea, or of opinion, whether the sacrifices instituted by Moses rather to the brackisha water of the estuary, is an exercise were to be continued or not, but things were so
of choice, and not a matter of necessity; and that the ordered, as to put it out of Man's power to continue
parent Eels return up the river with the young fry.
All authors agree ihat Eels are extremely averse to cold. them.
There are no Eels in the Arctic Regions, none in the rivers of Siberia, the Wolga, the Danube, or any of its tributary
THE SHARP-NOSED EEL.
streams. There is no doubt that fishes in general, and species ; at Cambridge, the skins of two are preserved Eels in particular, are able to appreciate even minute which weighed together fifty pounds; the heaviest alterations in the temperature of the water they inbabit. weighing twenty-seven pounds, the second twentyThe mixed water they seek to remain in during the colder months of the year, is of a higher temperature than the
three pounds. pure fresh-water of the river, or that of the sea. It is a well known law in chemistry, that when two fluids of different densities come in contact, the temperature of the mixture is elevated for a time in proportion to the difference in the density of the two fluids. . Such a mixture is constantly taking place at the mouths of rivers that run into the sea, and the mixed waters maintain a temperature two degrees warmer than that of the river or the sea. This elevation in the temperature of the water of estuaries and the mouths of rivers, is, I have no doubt, one reason why they in general abound with young fish.
The Broad-nosed Eel is distinguished from the During the Winter, the Eels remain imbedded in the mud twelve or sixteen inches deep, by the side of last by its broad head, flattened on the summit; the the channel of the stream they frequent.
eye is placed rather in advance of the angle of the
mouth, Great doubt has existed as to whether the Eel produces its young alive, or deposits its spawn in the same manner as other fishes; but the observations of Mr. Yarrell and others, have gone far to prove that Nature does not step out of her regular course in the case of the Eel; that is, that the Eel produces its young in the same way as the rest of the class of fishes. Singulai notions were entertained on this subject by the ancients and by some of the moderns. Aristotle believed they sprung from the mud; Pliny, from fragments which were separated from their bodies by rubbing against the rocks. Helmont believed they came from May-dew, and might be This is the Grig, or Glut, Eel, of Pennant, who obtained by the following process.
says “ they have a larger head, blunter nose, and Cut up two turfs covered with May-dew, and lay one thicker skin than the common sort.” The term grig upon the other, the grassy sides inwards, and thus expose is applied near London to the small-sized Eel, whose them to the heat of the sun; in a few hours there will spring from them an infinite quantity of Eels.
The reason why Eels have been considered viviparous, has arisen probably, from their being infested with numerous intestinal worms, which have been mistaken for young Eels. The sudden appearance of Eels in places where they were known not to have existed previously, has added a little to the mystery head is shown in the engraving; but the fishermen of their mode of production. But there are many in the London river, call all small Eels which do not well-authenticated accounts of the manner in which exceed eight or nine inches in length, Grigs. this is most likely effected. The Eel in warm and The fourth species of Eel frequenting fresh water, moist nights, has been known to quit the water and is the Snig. This seems to be very rare, Mr. Yarrell travel a considerable distance through the wet grass. One instance of this occurs in Dr. HASTING's Natural History of Worcestershire.
I will here mention a curious confirmation of the opinion in favour of the overland migration of Eels. A relative of the late Mr. Perrot was out in his park with his keeper, near a large piece of water, on a very beautiful evening, when the keeper drew his attention to a fine Eel quietly ascending the bank of the pool, and with an undulating motion making its way through the long grass ; on further observation, he perceived a considerable number of Eels quietly proceeding to a range of stews, nearly at the dis- having only seen two specimens, both of which were tance of a quarter of a mile from the large piece of water taken from the Avon, in Hampshire, where it is confrom whence they started. The stews were supplied by a sidered distinct from the common and well-known rapid brook, and in all probability, the instinct of the fish Eels. led them in that direction, as a means of finding their way to some large river from whence their ultimate destination, the sea, might be obtained.
IRRESOLUTION.-In matters of great concern, and which There is no doubt, however, that Eels will breed in must be done, there is no surer argument of a weak mind fresh-water ponds which have no communication with than irresolution; to be undetermined where the case is so the sea or river.
plain, and the necessity so urgent. To be always intending The Sharp-nosed Eel is that most commonly met
to live a new life, but never to find time to set about it;
this is as if a man should put off eating, and drinking, with in the markets ; as its name implies, the snout is and sleeping, from one day and night to another, till he is much more pointed than that of the other species ; starved and destroyed.—Tillotson. the head is flattened on the sides, and the eye is placed immediately over the angle of the mouth. In
LONDON: streams of pure water the belly of this Eel is clear JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. and bright; it is then called a Silver Eel. This Eel is PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS found of a larger size than either of the other
Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.
THE OHIG EEL.
THE SNIG EEL.
EAST VIEW OF HEIDELBERG CASTLE, FROM A DRAWING MADE IN 1619. The Regent dying in 1572, was succeeded by his preserved. As far as regards the eating, drinking, nephew Frederic the Fourth, who added much to and hunting routine of the day, it doubtless is a his residence, and one of the finest and most perfect faithful, and, therefore, interesting picture; but we portions, built in a style of florid architecture, cor- obtain from it no information, either local or historical, responding with the erections of Otho Henry, and concerning the Castle. Dying in 1610, he was sucembellished with the most gorgeous statues of the ceeded by his son Frederic the Fifth, subsequently electors, remains a monument of his taste. This king of Bohemia, who, from his alliance with Elizastructure, which forms the south side of the great beth, daughter of James the First of England, from Tournament Court, was devoted to the purpose of a his prominent position at the commencement of the chapel, with a fine ball-room above, and still hears thirty years' war, of which his cruel fortunes first the name of Friederich's Bau, or Frederic's Building. fired the fatal spark, and from the train of afflictions, The magnificent stone balcony overlooking the town public and domestic, which hunted him to an early was also the work of this period: here all travellers grave, has obtained a mournful celebrity in the are taken to see an indentation somewhat resembling annals of the Palatinate. With regard to the imthe impress of a human foot, in one of the flag- provement of the Castle, also, his name and that of stones; concerning which, the legend goes, that a his high-minded consort stand equally forward, and young princess who, in her ardour to join her lover, though its strength and importance declined with his leaped from a three-story-high window above, and fortunes, and never entirely rallied again, yet we being, we conclude, more nimble than the gentleman must not forget that he it was who raised it to that was dexterous, descended with such violence, as to splendour which still lingers over its ruined halls. imprint the shape of her foot in the solid pavement. Animated alike by a natural taste for magnificence, The thousands of curious feet, great and small, which by a highly cultivated mind, and, above all, by the have since measured their length in this place, have most ardent passion for his English bride, he spared maintained its shape, and swelled it to colossal di- no pains in rendering his Castle worthy her abode. In mensions. Whether the lady gave rise to the story honour of her, a palace in the Elizabethan style of of the stone, or vice versd, we leave our readers to architecture, and furnished on the model of English decide; we tell the tale as it was told to us.
comfort, quickly arose, and by the simplicity and But to return to Frederic the Fourth. In the lightness of its proportions, remains strikingly distinct University library, part of a journal kept by this from the massive gorgeousness of the surrounding Pfalzgraf between the years 1596 and 1599, is still I walls. Nothing could surpass the varied attractions of Vol. XII.
the gardens, of which an elegant archway, still exorbitant levies exacted, the state-papers purloined, called Elizabeth's gate, formed, and yet forms, a &c. These acts, however, were only introductory conspicuous ornament;, while De Caux, architect to to the succeeding ravages, which commenced by the king of France, employed in these additions, the arrival of a company of French miners, who taxed his invention in the erection of grottoes, obelisks, pounced with the weapons of destruction upon fountains, &c. Our print of the Castle, is copied from the proudest portions of the castle. At the same a drawing taken in 1619.
time, the surrounding suburbs and villages were Scarcely were these improvements completed, and fired, and, as if they had only waited for this beacon the first years of happy royal wedlock flown over, to let loose the demons of carnage and plunder, when the election of Frederic to the crown of Bo- Heidelberg now became the scene of all the horrors hemia called this interesting couple from their beloved attending a town taken by storm. The approach of Heidelberg; and, as it subsequently proved, from all a body of German troops seemed only to sharpen permanent happiness and distinction. The dignity every diabolical purpose, the Town-house, the Marstall
, of a crown was but short-lived; a few years saw and every building of importance, was reduced to them fugitives and pensioners in a foreign land, while ashes-the windows at the Castle were smashed, the their proud patrimonial castle and lands suffered all ornamental stuccoes knocked to pieces—all the wine the horrors of siege, famine, and spoliage, under the that was not poured out in licentious excess carried devastating influence of the thirty years' war. Our off to Manheim, and finally, before their evacuation, present royal family of England derives its descent as if to complete the sum of wanton destruction, the from this same Elizabeth Stuart, Countess Palatine, Exchequer house, the Neckar-bridge, and the so-called and queen of Bohemia, through Sophia, the youngest splendid Thick-tower were remorselessly blown into of her numerous and ill-fated family, who became fragments. At length, on the 2nd of March, 1689, wife to the Elector of Ilanover, and mother of George the invaders left the regions they had converted into the First.
a desert, taking with them, however, several persons Frederic the Fifth died in obscurity at Mayence, in of distinction as hostages. The castle was then 1632, and on the 7th of October, 1649, after a period occupied by an imperial and allied garrison, under of unexampled horror and public calamity, Charles the command of General Heydersdorf, and some Louis, his eldest son, was reinstated in the ruined show of reparation commenced. In the mean time, balls of his fathers. His first acts were to repair the Philip William had retired to Vienna, where he breaches of war and plunder, and although his lands died of apoplexy, in 1690, and was succeeded, or, at still groaned beneath their effects, he contrived to least, nominally so, by his son John William. Heicarry on his plans with solidity and expedition, and, delberg was now little more than a heap of stones; at the same time, to recruit the broken fortunes the new Elector, therefore, took up his residence at of the Palatinate. His only daughter, Elizabeth Düsseldorf, and merely visited the scene of the late Charlotte, he bestowed in marriage on the Duke of struggle to receive the fealty of the surrounding Orleans, and thereby unconsciously laid the foundation country. But the measure of affliction was not yet of that fearful struggle which once more laid his full—the vials of destruction not yet emptied over towns and villages in ashes, and gave the finishing the devoted castle and town. Although stationed in blow to the downfall of Heidelberg Castle. His only quality of protector to the town's-people, General son, by his royal consort, Charles Louis, studied, Heydersdorf scrupled not to extort money, and other and received a doctor's degree, at the University of supplies from them, and finding his protection but Oxford, a ceremony which was followed by the pre- another name for plunder, many families emigrated sentation of the order of the Garter from his cousin from the homes which no longer ensured their safety. Charles the Second. Receiving during his sojourn in Happy were they in comparison with those who still England, in 1680, tidings of his father's demise, he clung to the place of their birth! hastened home and assumed the sovereignty. This On the 17th of May, 1692, a body of thirty thouprince also busied himself in the work of reparation. sand French troops, with General Melac at their
The favourite amusements of this Elector consisted head, marched direct upon Heidelberg, and summoned in theatrical and military spectacles, and a curious the town to surrender. On the 20th, fresh forces work still exists of the pageants and ballets performed arriving, General Melac mounted the hills above the at the castle. Having over-exerted himself, however, castle, took possession of the old ruined fortress, at a mock siege, a tedious illness was induced, which and dispersed his men on the adjacent mountains. terminated his life. Here the Palatinate line expires, Other divisions gathered round the town, cutting Charles Louis leaving no issue, and henceforward the fosses and throwing up embankments, to the no small history of the castle presents only a successive picture embarrassment of the German commander. Unapof treachery, violence, and final desolation.
palled by these preparations and the strength of their Philip William, of the house of Neuburg, was the foes, the garrison, composed of a motley group of first to claim and assume the seat of authority at citizens and soldiers, determined to defend the walls Heidelberg. Two antagonists, however, soon appeared to the last; but, whether paralyzed by fear, or disin the lists against him, in the persons of Leopold, armed by a foreign bribe, General Heydersdorf gave Count of Veldenz, and Louis the Fourteenth of France, such contradictory orders, spiking, for instance, the alliance of whose brother, the Duke of Orleans, twenty-three of his own cannon, and withdrawing with the late Elector's sister, we have already noticed. his troops from the most important posts, that it The pretensions of Veldenz were quickly satisfied, or became manifest what his intentions were. compromised; France proved a weightier foe, and Indignant at his treachery, the officers under him not finding the channel of political menace and ne used every exertion in counteracting his influence, gotiation successful, deluged the devoted land with a and animating the soldiery ; but their enemies had hostile force, and military resistance proving useless, gained too much ground—the suburb was taken, and the castle and town capitulated on the 25th of Octo- | the occupation of the town soon followed. This time ber, 1688, but upon honourable conditions. No not even the semblance of humanity was shown ; sooner, however, were the French in possession, than and the pillage of the town was granted to five they began to abuse all authority, and to violate regiments, who too well availed themselves of the every treaty. The town's people were maltreated, barbarous licence. Mingled with grosser acts, every