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was over.


new king, as matter of right, in case the sec of CanterHenry, called Fitz-Empress, from his mother, and bury should be vacant. Roger, archbishop of York, Court-Mantel, from his having introduced the fashion also obtained a bull, granting him the privilege of of short cloaks into England, was crowned at West-crowning the king of England, as some of his predeminster on the Sunday before Christmas day, A. D. cessors had done, and of having his cross carried erect 1154, being the Romish feast of St. Ligerius, by Theo- before him through all the kingdom. The latter privibald, archbishop of Canterbury. Although his heredi- lege was restricted, however, to the archiepiscopal tary right was unquestionable, he was formally elected province of York by a subsequent bull, and Becket's by the clergy and people; they testified their assent by partisans maintained that the former had been tacitly loud acclamations, and Langtoft insinuates that his subjected to a similar limitation. Roger, however

, subjects were more anxious to have him for a king than was a privileged person; he was the papal legate for he was to acquire a kingdom :

Scotland, and therefore exempt from Becket's legatine To London thei him brought with grete solempnitie jurisdiction, and consequently he was the fittest prelate The popille him besouht ther kyng for to be

to consecrate the youthful sovereign. The day of St. Liger was Henry corouned king

The apparent slight to the princess Margaret arose Thebald of Canterber gaf him the coroune and the ryng. This Henry was Malda sonne, the erle wif Anjowe

solely from the necessity of keeping the exact time of The Emperice was wonneb and right heyre for to trowe the coronation secret, and thus frustrating the machiFor Henry dochter & his heyre thorgh sight",

nations of Becket. As soon as the ceremony was comNow comes hir sonne in pas, Henry hir heyr thorgh right. It is said that Henry was crowned again with his pleted, the king sent orders to provide a suitable

equipage for Margaret with all the ornaments necessary queen, A. D. 1159, but Mr. Arthur Taylor plausibly

to the state of a queen. Becket's conduct proves the conjectures that this report arose from his having worn | importance of this secrecy; he had sent inhibitions to the crown during the ceremony. Indeed it was usual

the archbishop of York and all the English bishops, for the English kings to have a kind of minor corona- forbidding them to officiate at the coronation, and bad tion performed at the great festivals, but this was procured bulls from the pope to the like effect, which, terminated, A.D. 1159, when Henry and his queen, however, the papal messengers were afraid to carry spending the Easter holidays at Worcester, entered the

into England. Roger, bishop of Worcester, undertook offertory in solemn procession, placed their crowns upon to convey the papal inhibitions to the English parliathe high altar, and vowed never to wear them again ment, but he was stopped at Dieppe by Richard du during their lives. Early in the year 1170, King Henry adopted what Hommet

, justiciary of Normandy, and an embargo laid

on all the shipping in the harbour, until the coronation was in England a very unusual measure, and which was manifestly pregnant with danger; he proposed to

At the coronation feast, Henry with his own hand his parliament to have his son Henry crowned titular served up a dish at the prince's table, but the arrogant king. Gervase of Canterbury insinuates that some of boy, instead of feeling grateful for the unusual honour the nobles were unwilling to comply with this proposal, conferred upon him, said to the archbishop of York, but that they feared to oppose the king's pleasure, lest who complimented him upon it, “ Assuredly it is not he should bring them to trial for various malversations

a great condescension for the son of an ear) to wait on and outrages during Henry's absence in Normandy. the son of a king." Prince Henry was crowned a The young prince was knighted by his father on the second time, in company with his wife Margaret, at morning of the 14th of June, being the second Sunday Winchester, A.D. 1172, by the archbishop of Rouen after Trinity, and the same day was crowned by Roger,

assisted by the bishops of Evreux and Worcester. archbishop of York, assisted by the bishops of Durham, The see of Canterbury was then vacant, and the king London, Salisbury, and Rochester, in the abbey church of France, for whose gratification the ceremony was of Wesminster. William, king of Scotland, his brother performed, insisted that neither the archbishop of David, and a greater number of nobles and prelates York, nor the bishops of London or Salisbury, should than had ever assembled at a like solemnity, performed

officiate at the coronation. fealty and homage to the young king on the following day, with a limitation, “ saving the fealty due to their lord the king, his father.” On this occasion Henry did not exhibit his usual

The voice which I did more esteem prudence, but seems to have been guided by passion

Than music in her sweetest key ; rather than policy. The ceremony of the coronation

Those eyes which unto me did seem was performed by the archbishop of York, without any

More comfortable than the day ; protestation to save the rights of the see of Canterbury,

Those now by me, as they have been, and the prince's wife, daughter to the king of France,

Shall never more be heard, or seen ;

But what I once enjoyed in them, was not crowned with him, according to the usual

Shall seem hereafter as a dream. practice when the king has a consort. The former of these circumstances was an intentional insult to the

All earthly comforts vanish thus ;

So little hold of them have we, archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas à Becket, then in

That we from them, or they from us, the midst of his fierce contest with the king, and every

May in a moment ravished be. precaution had been taken to make the injury more

Yet we are neither just nor wise, flagrant. The king, immediately after the death of

If present mercies we despise ; archbishop Theobald, got a bull from the pope, allowing

Or mind not how there may be made

A thankful use of what we had. — Wituer. him to have his son crowned by whatever prelate he pleased; but Becket contended, and probably with truth, that this licence was obtained to prevent the

LONDON: archbishop of York from pretending to consecrate the





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How" delightsome" are the associations connected groups of islands, is still, except by hearsay, as
with the Wye! yet how few amongst the great mass little known to many Englishmen as Polynesia,-
who have the means of making an annual excursion and Ireland, though rich in natural beauty of the
in search of health or recreation, are acquainted with highest class, is an absolute terra incognita ; we have,
it except by name. It shall be our object to give a however, undertaken the agreeable task of supplying
full and popular illustration of this romantic river, information on these subjects, and we refer to our
in a short series of papers, with such notices of the papers on Ireland, and other places, with peculiar
remarkable antiquities and highly-interesting country satisfaction.
through which it passes, within reach of the tourist, It has been well remarked by an ingenious writer,
as may tend to render the subject complete. We in contrasting the scenery of Great Britain with that
trust that we shall thus diffuse information amongst on the continent of Europe, that magnitude is not
the body of our readers, which many of them may essential to beauty, and that sublimity is not always
be able to turn some day to pleasant account.

to be measured by yards and feet. A mountain
Our opening remarks may be widely extended. may be loftier, or a lake longer and wider, without
Notwithstanding all the advantages of cheap tra- any gain to that picturesque effect which mainly
velling and steam-boats, how slight is the acquaint- depends on form, combination, and colouring. In
ance of the majority of our countrymen of the the peculiar nature of its scenery, too, England mav
middle, and often of the higher, classes, with the be said to stand alone.
wonders of nature and art that abound in their

Corn-waving fields, and pasture green, and slope native land. To our mind the first duty of a man And swell alternate ; summits crowned with leaf, who possesses the means of travelling, should be to Grove encircled mansions,—the church, the farm, the mill, make a minute acquaintance with his own country.

And tinkling rivulet,Comparatively few amongst us are thoroughly ac- distinguish even the most uninteresting districts, quainted with England, -Wales, that stronghold of which sometimes make up for their deficiency in the picturesque, although very easily accessible, is the higher order of natural beauty, by more striking trodden but by a few,-Scotland, our northern hill. events in their history, or by monastic or castellated country, with its wild and romantic shores and I remains of a more attractive character. Nor must VOL. XII.


we lose sight of local and national attachment, which of Cardigan, and a dim outline of the coast of cast an indescribable charm over all. So inuch for Ireland. After a copious fall of rain, the cataracts the “picturesque" or topographical side of the sub- which descend with headlong fury down the sides of ject. Our limits will not permit us to attempt even the mountain, add considerably to the grandeur and a bare enumeration of the wonders of art, which wildness of the scenery. This “hill king" of Camhave elevated this country to the highest rank bria is best known, however, as the parent of no less amongst nations, else we could dwell at length on than five streams or rivers, whence is derived the the field presented to the traveller in search of in name Pum, five, and Luinon, springs, or fountain. formation, -on the manufacturing and commercial | The most important of these is the Severn, which establishments, the dockyards and arsenals, ports, rising in the north-east of the same group of mounmines, canals, bridges, railroads, and other public tains, (for Plynlimmon consists properly of three works, which contribute to our prosperity, and are mountains piled together into one gigantic mass,) eminently calculated to instruct the inquiring mind. after a course of about two hundred miles, pours its

Having thus slightly glanced at the profitable waters into the sea below Bristol. The Wye, or Gwy, nature of home tours, let us proceed to our immediate which in Celtic signifies a river, issuing from the subject, and request the reader to accompany us to southern side of the mountain, falls in a narrow the source of the “ sylvan Wye."

streamlet several hundred yards nearly perpendicular,

till gradually increasing by the union of several small PART I.

springs, the overplus of the surrounding morasses, it PLINLYMMON-SOURCE OF THE WYE-LLANGURIG soon forms a cataract, rolling with amazing rapidity RHAYADYR.

over a rocky channel. The other rivers, the Rheidal,

the Llyffnant, and the Fynach, though considerable Thou sylvan Wye, since last my feet Wandered along thy margin sweet,

streams, are of minor importance. I've gazed on many a far-famed stream, -

The Wye, (says Gilpin,) after dividing the counties of

Radnor and Brecon, passes through the middle of HereBut none, to my delighted eye,

fordshire; it then becomes a second boundary between the Seemed lovelier than my own sweet Wye,

counties of Monmouth and Gloucester, and falls into the Through meads of living verdure driven,

Severn a little below Chepstow. The exquisite beauty and "Twixt lills that seem earth’s links to heaven; grandeur of the scenery which in many parts adorn its With sweetest odours breathing round,

shores in almost endless variety, is scarcely to be equalled. With every woodland glory crowned,

Such is the sinuosity of its course, that between Ross and And skies of such oerulean hue,

Chepstow, a distance not exceeding seventeen miles in a A veil of such transparent blue,

direct line, the water passage is thirty-eight. Along the That God's own eye seems gazing through.

whole of this distance, the poet Gray truly observes, that

its banks are a succession of nameless beauties. THE“ pleased Vaga," as the Wye is poetically termed

The beauty of these scenes arises chiefly from two cirby Pope, takes its rise from a spacious hollow near cumstances; the lofty banks of the river, and its mazy the summit of Plynlimmon, a dreary mountain course; both of which are accurately embodied by the which attains an altitude of 2463 feet, on the borders poet', when he describes the Wye as echoing through its of the counties of Cardigan and Montgomery, about

winding bounds. It couli not well echo, unless its banks fifteen miles from that fashionable watering-place,

were both lofty and winding .. Aberystwith. The lower parts of the mountain are Let us now commence our matter-of-fact tour. covered with soft mossy turf, and stunted heath, but The progress of the Wye from its source to LLANoften broken with rugged and extensive bogs, which GURIG, a distance of about ten miles, is through a render the ascent dangerous and difficult *. In other naked and dreary country, with undulating hills in places the surface is entirely overspread with large the background. Mr. Roscoe observes, in his deloose stones, or white-coloured rocks, which give it a lightful Wanderings, that the village is honoured in singular appearance on approaching its base. The all travellers' note-books with the cognomen of summit consists of two peaks, on each of which are

“ wretched.” There is only one very indifferent piled a pyramid of loose stones, called in the language house of entertainment, but now that there is a of the country, Carnedd, or Carneddau. Similar heaps prospect of the Upper Wye Tour becoming appreciated of stones are common on the neighbouring mountains, as it ought, we agree with Mr. Roscoe that Llanand in many other places in Wales. It has been gurig will no doubt at an early period afford superior supposed that they are sepulchral monuments erected accommodation. Poor as the village is, the scenery by the Britons in honour of their military heroes, is wild and extremely magnificent, so much so, inbut it seems more probable that those on Plynlim deed, that Nicholson speaks of it as exceeding the mon were formerly used as beacons, as they might powers of description.' The hamlet stands on the have been seen from ten counties. In 1401, the re north bank of the river, surrounded by towering nowned chieftain, Owen Glendower, posted himself mountains, the lower portions of which are partially on this mountain with a small body of men, awaiting covered with wood, and relieve the hitherto monothe arrival of his vassals and friends from various tonous tone of the landscape, the eye having preparts of the principality, and from whence he fre viously been accustomed to dwell chiefly on the sullen quently descended and harassed the adjacent country. and savage sterility of Plynlimmon. The entrenchments he threw up may still be traced. The scenery from Llangurig to Rhayadyr, espeThe blade of a British spear or pike made of brass, cially on approaching the latter, is highly interesting; was found in a bog near this spot some years ago.

the river being confined by close rocky banks, and The views from the summit in clear weather embrace having a considerable declination, the whole is a suca wild and extensive range of landscape; exhibiting cession of rapids and waterfalls. The Nanerth rocks, mountains rolling, as it were, over each other in the for nearly three miles, form a fine screen to the north most sublime forms and beautiful hues. In the north bank. The trees and shrubs which overhang the appears Cader Idris, and the lofty region of Snow. eddying pools and rapids in many places, add condonia; the hills of Salop and Hereford may be seen siderably to the picturesquc character of the scenery. to the cast and north-east; and on the west the bay RHAYADYR, a straggling, but rather a curious At a small roadside inn at Eisteddfa Gurrig, a guide can be

specimen of a Welsh town, has little to recommend obtained, and from whence the mountain is generally ascended.

+ Pope. #Gilpin's Observations on the river Wye.

it, save its beautiful situation. It stands on elevated from sacred history that the earliest altars were made ground on the east bank of the Wye, which, after of unhewn stone : indeed, the Chaldee word for altar, leaving the Nanerth rocks, makes an easy bend signifies literally, “ stones orderly erected," and God under woody hills. The view from the bridge, which himself directs Moses, “ If thou wilt make me an has a very fine arch, is singularly grand, the river altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: here falling over a ledge of rugged rocks and form for if thou lift up thy tool upon it thou hast polluted ing a magnificent cascade, from which the town it.” (Exod. xx. 25.) This reverence for unhewn derives its name Rhayadyr Gwy; Rhayadyr, signi- stones led to their being used as idols. We read of fying a cataract, and Gwy, a river. There is excel

the children of Israel in the age of their corruption, lent fishing above Rhayadyr, the river abounding that "they set them up images and groves in every with fine trout, and in the Summer season it is high hill and under every green tree.” (2 Kings xvii. much resorted to by the lovers of the piscatory art. 10.) Here the Hebrew word Matzebah, which our The town is divided into four streets, intersecting translators have rendered "image," properly signifies each other at right angles, a plan common in most

a stone pillar.” So also in the Levitical law : “ Ye of the old Welsh towns. In the reign of Henry shall make you no idols nor graven image, neither rear the Eighth, the quarter sessions were held here, but you up a standing image, neither shall ye set up any were soon afterwards removed, chiefly on account of image of stone in your land to bow down before it : the inability of the place to afford necessary accom

for I am the Lord your God.” (Levit. xxvi. 1.) Here modation for the judges. In the centre of the town

the word Matzebah, rendered " standing image,” sigstands the hall, a square building erected about nifies simply a stone pillar. In consequence of these 1768. The castle, which stood on a nook of the perversions, the erection of the Matzebah was entirely Wye, at the extremity of Maes-bach, a small common prohibited, when Moses recapitulated the law to the in the neighbourhood, was anciently of considerable children of Israel. importance. Of the superstructure nothing now

The worship of stone pillars was very common in remains. It is said to have been erected by Rhys, the East ; Clement of Alexandria declares that rude prince of South Wales in the time of Richard the stones were the object of adoration in those lands First, and afterwards burnt in 1231 by Llewellyn ap

where the art of statuary was not understood; PauJorwerth.

sanius mentions several such pillars in Baotia, where they were probably introduced by the Phænician

colonists; and Arnobius declares that the pagans of CHAPTERS ON CORONATIONS.

Northern Africa consecrated pillars of stone for idols No. II.

so late as the fourth century of the Christian era. THE REGALIA.

Superstition connected stone seats with the admiAmong the Regalia of England there is no article pos- nistration of justice, which was regarded as a right sessing more historical interest than King Edward's delegated to rulers by the gods. This custom lasted or, as it is commonly called, St. Edward's Chair, to a very late period; a marble bench anciently stood in which the sovereign is seated when the crown is

at the upper end of Wesminster Hall, where the placed upon his head. It is in shape similar to the king in person, and at a subsequent period his chief high-backed chairs which were fashionable in England judges, heard the pleas of those who complained of about a century ago; its height is six feet seven injury, and hence the chief criminal court of the inches, its depth twenty-five inches, and the breadth realm is now called the Court of King's Bench. of the seat measured withinside is twenty-eight

The Irish stone of destiny appears from the ancient inches. At the height of nine inches from the ground records of Ireland to have been an altar, an idol, and there is a ledge which supports the celebrated Stone the throne of the kings; and it was therefore viewed

A remarkable prophecy of Destiny, which Edward I., or Longshanks, brought with three-fold reverence. from Scotland as a memorial of his conquest of that identified its fortunes with those of the royal line of country. This stone was originally the royal seat of the Scots, which is thus given in the old monkish the kings of Ireland; they called it Liafail, or “the rhymes :stone of destiny," and attributed so much importance

Ni fallat fatum, to it, that they named the island in honour of it,

Scoti, quocunque locatum

Invenient lapidem, Innisfail, or “ the island of destiny.” According to

Tenentur regnare

ibidem. the monkish legends, this was the identical stone

That is: which served Jacob as a pillow when he saw the miraculous vision in Bethel ; they tell us that it was

Or Fate is false, or where this stone is found, brought by Gathol, king of the Scaths, or Scots, to

A king of Scottish race will there be crowned. Brigantia, a city of Gallicia in Spain, and that it was It was on account of the importance attached to this removed from thence to Ireland by Simon Brech, the prophecy that Kenneth removed the stone from Dunleader of a body of Scots, about seven hundred years staffnage to Scone, where, for more than four hundred before the birth of Christ. From these invaders and fifty years, it was used as a throne at the coroIreland received the name of Scotia, which it retained nation of the Scottish kings. Its removal to Enguntil within a century of the English invasion. Fer- land was felt by the entire people of Scotland as a gus, a descendant of Simon Brech, being compelled national humiliation, and they stipulated for its to leave Ireland in consequence of civil wars, led a restoration at the treaty of Northampton, A.D. 1328. body of emigrants to Argyleshire, and brought with Writs for sending it back were issued by Edward him the stone of destiny, which he deposited at the Third, but from some unexplained cause they Dunstaffnage, about three hundred years before the were never executed. birth of Christ. All his descendants were installed When James the First ascended the throne of on this stone seat, and it was believed that when the England great importance was attached to this fulfilrightful heir took his seat, the stone emitted loud ment of the prophecy connected with the stone of and harmonious musical sounds, but that it remained destiny, and so deep was the impression thus prosilent whenever a pretender attempted to be crowned. duced on the minds of the Scottish people, that in the

The real history of the stone is scarcely less curious | reign of Queen Anne it reconciled many to the Union, than that ascribed to it in the legend. We learn who would otherwise have opposed that measure.,

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and jar were delivered to him by a holy man, to whom the place of its concealment was divinely revealed. He gave it to the most noble Prince Edward, commonly called the Black Prince, who deposited it in the Tower of London.

It was enclosed in a box secured with more than ordinary care ; but the box itself by some accident was put astray, so that the holy oil could not be used at the coronation of Richard the Second. In the year of grace 1399, Richard the Second, having made an inquisition into the treasures bequeathed to him by his ancestors, found the eagle and jar, together with a manuscript in the handwriting of "St. Thomas of

Canterbury," containing the prophetic description of KING EDWARD'S CHAIR.

all the advantages and blessings that the kings of

England would derive from being anointed with this A close examination of the stone induces us to holy oil. He was so struck with the enumeration, believe that it is a block of red sandstone, containing that he wished the ceremony of bis coronation to be a more than ordinary proportion of ferruginous repeated, and applied to the archbishop of Canterbury matter; it certainly is not an aërolite, as several for the purpose. The prelate obstinately refused, authors have asserted. Its dimensions are, twenty- declaring that unction was a sacrament, which, like two inches in length, thirteen in breadth, and eleven the sacrament of baptism, could not be administered in depth. At each end are two short iron chains.

a second time. Richard took the eagle and jar with The chair itself was anciently decorated with him when he made his unfortunate voyage to Ireland, carving, gilding, and painting, but its beauty has been and on his return resigned them to the custody of long since effaced. At modern coronations it is the archbishop of Canterbury at Chester, saying, “ It covered with cloth of gold, but we could wish that is manifestly the will of God that I should not be the decorations of this very interesting relic of anti- anointed with this holy oil ; that solemu sacrament is quity should be restored as nearly as possible ac

reserved for some more favoured monarch." The cording to the ancient pattern.

archbishop kept these precious treasures until the The Ampulla, or Golden Eagle, in which the holy usurpation of Henry the Fourth, who was the first oil for anointing the kings is preserved, is a vessel of English sovereign anointed with this precious oil. pure gold, in the shape of an eagle with expanding wings, nearly seven inches in height, and weighing of the French kings is still more extraordinary. It

The legend of the Ampulla used at the coronation about ten ounces. The old historian Walsingham, is said to have been brought from heaven by a dove in his account of the coronation of Henry the Fourth, to St. Remy, when he was performing the ceremony connects the use of this Ampulla with a very singular of the coronation of Clovis. Hincmar, in his life of legend :-Henry the Fourth, according to the histo: St. Remy, thus narrates the legend :rian, was anointed with the identical holy oil which

And behold a dove, fairer than snow, suddenly brought the blessed Virgin gave to St. Thomas the Martyr, down a phial in his mouth full of holy oil. All that were archbishop of Canterbury: that is, to Thomas à present were delighted with the fragrancy of it, and when Becket, whose extreme pride and insolence form so ihe archbishop had received it, the dove vanished. remarkable a part of the history of Henry the

Another historian, quoted by Menin, is rather more Second. Becket received this extraordinary boon particular in his relation : when he was in exile, and the Virgin assured him,

When he that bore the chrism was absent and kept off that whatever kings of England should be anointed by the people, lo! suddenly no other doubtless than the with this oil, they would become merciful rulers and Holy Spirit appeared, in the visible form of a dove, who distinguished champions of the church. It may be carrying the holy oil in his shining bill, laid it down becurious to remark, that Walsingham, or, as he is more tween the hands of the minister. frequently called, "the worthy monk of St. Alban's," The oil of this mystic vessel was declared by the is not very scrupulous respecting the purity of the Romish priests to be undiminished by use, and this language he attributes to the Virgin, for the word was gravely put forward as a standing miracle until which we have rendered "champions,” literally sig- the time of the French Revolution. At the coronanifies boxers, or heroes of the prize-ring,-a kind of tion of Charles the Tenth, the priests had the folly to champions not very well suited to the defence of the proclaim in the public papers that a pbial containing church.

some of this invaluable unction had been preserved This oil, preserved in a golden eagle and stone jar, from the destruction of the rest of the Regalia, to was long lost, but it was at last miraculously brought anoint the head of a monarch so devoted to the to light. While Henry, the first duke of Lancaster, interests of the Romish church. was waging war in foreign parts, the aforesaid eagle The original Ampulla given to Thomas à Becket

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