« PoprzedniaDalej »
naturally interested her in the progress of a work so , and nobles,—then the trumpeters,—then all the beneficial to the advancement of learning. It appears heralds in array, “my Lord Mayor, holding the from a letter written by Sir Thomas Pope, that the Queen's sceptre, riding with garter,” and Lord Pemnew college often formed a subject of conversation broke bearing the Queen's sword. Then came her between him and his illustrious charge.
grace on horseback, apparelled in purple velvet, with The princess Elizabeth, her grace, whom I serve here,
a scarf about her neck; the serjeants of arms being often askyth me about the course I have devysed for my about her person. Immediately after the Queen rode scollers: and that part of myne estatutes respectinge studie Sir Robert Dudley, (afterwards Earl of Leicester,) who I have shown to her, which she likes well. She is not only was her Master of the Horse; and then the guard gracious but most learned, as ye right well know.
with halberds. There was great shooting of guns," Elizabeth resided at Hatfield during the rest of the artillery in the Tower firing continually for almost Mary's reign; she spent there four years, which, as half an hour; so that“ the like was never heard beWarton observes, were by far the most agreeable fore.” In certain places stood children, who made part of her time during that turbulent period; for, speeches to her as she passed ; and in other places although she must have been often disquieted with was "singing and playing with regals." Thus," with many secret fears and apprehensions, yet she was here great joie and presse of people, of whom all the streets perfectly at liberty, and treated with a regard due to were full as she passed, declaring their inward reher birth and expectations. In the mean time, to joisings by gesture, words, and countenance,” the prevent suspicions, she prudently declined interfering Queen entered the Tower. in any sort of business, and abandoned herself en At the Tower Queen Elizabeth remained until the tirely to books and amusements. The pleasures of 5th of December, when she removed a little nearer to solitude and retirement were now become habitual to Westminster,—namely, to the Strand House, or her mind, and she principally employed herself in Somerset House, “going by water, and shooting the playing on the lute or virginals, embroidering with bridge, trumpets sounding, much melody accompanygold and silver, reading Greek, and translating Italian.ing, and universal expressions of joy among the peoShe was now continuing to profess that character ple." On the 23rd she went to the palace at which her brother Edward gave her, when he used to Westminster, where she kept her Christmas, and call her his sweet sister Temperance! But she was resided for some time. soon happily removed to a reign of unparalleled The 15th of January had been appointed for her magnificence and prosperity.
Majesty's coronation; and we are told that in ChristQueen Mary died on the 17th of November, 1558, mas week, “scaffolds began to be made in divers about eleven or twelve o'clock. Soon afterwards the places of the city for pageants against the day the lady Elizabeth was proclaimed queen by divers Queen was to pass through to her coronation, and heralds of arms, trumpets sounding, and many of the conduits to be new painted and beautified.” On the chief nobility present, as the Duke of Nor the 12th of January the Queen removed from Westfolk the Lord Treasurer, the Earls of Shrews minster to the Tower,--a change preparatory to her bury and Bedford ; also the Lord Mayor and his passage through the city. She went by water, and brethren the Aldermen, with many others. In the was attended by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen in afternoon the bells in all the churches of London their barge, and all the citizens, “with their barges were rung in token of joy, and at night bonfires were decked and trimmed with targets and banners of their made, and stalls set out in the streets, " where was mysteries." “The bacheller's barge of the Lord plentiful eating and drinking, and making merry." Maior's companie, to wit, the mercers, had their barge The next day, being Friday, a fasting day, there were with a foist trimmed with three tops, and artillery no public rejoicings, but on the Saturday, Te Deum aboord, gallantlie appointed to wait upon them, shootLaudamus was sung and said in the churches of the ing off lustily as they went, with great and pleasant metropolis. “ Thus," says Strype, “ the satisfaction melodie of instruments, which plaied in most sweet generally conceived by the people for this new queen, and heavenlie manner." Her grace shot the bridge superseded all outward appearances of sorrow for the “about two of the clocke in the afternoon, at the still loss of the old one."
of the ebbe;" and landed at the privy stairs at the Elizabeth was at Hatfield when her sister died, and | Tower wharf. she remained there for some days afterwards. On the Our engraving presents a view of old Somerset 23rd of November she removed to London, attended House, such as in all probability it appeared from by "a thousand or more of lords, knights, gentlemen, the water in the reign of Elizabeth. This structure ladies, and gentlewomen ;" at Highgate she was met was erected in the reign of Edward VI., by his uncle, by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs, who con the protector Somerset, who very unscrupulously deducted her to the Charter-house, then the residence molished several buildings, some of them ecclesiastiof Lord North.
cal, as well to make way for his new palace as to proIn which removing and coming thus to the citie, it might | vide materials for the same. The architect of the well appeare how comfortable hir presence was to them that edifice is sapposed to have been John of Padua, the went to receive hir in the waie, and likewise to the great "deviser” of buildings to Henry VIII. ; and it furmultitudes of people that came abroad to see hir grace, nished one of the earliest specimens of the Italian shewing their rejoicing harts in countenance and words, with heartie prayers for her Majesties prosperous estate and style in this country. It passed to the crown upon preservation; which no doubt were acceptable to God, as the attainder of the protector ; and doubts have been by the sequel of things it may certenlie be believed.
expressed whether Somerset was not beheaded beThe Queen remained at the Charter-house until the fore its completion. Great alterations were made in 28th, when she removed to the Tower. All the streets this palace by Inigo Jones, in the reign of James I., through which she had to pass were new gravelled. in order to fit it for the reception of Prince Charles
Our en“She rode through Barbican, and, entering the citie at and his bride, Henrietta Maria of France. Cripplegate, kept along the wall as far as Bishopsgate, graving, however, shows the building as it appeared when she turned off to Leaden Hall, passed through before those alterations. In the river is introduced Gracechurch Street and Fenchurch Street, and turning part of a royal procession on the Thames, from down Mark Lane, into Tower Street, reached the authorities referring to the reign of James I., and, in Tower.” Before her rode many gentlemen, knights, all probability equally applicable to that of Elizabeth,
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY. No. XIV.
TRIUMPH OF THE ISRAELITES IN THEIR Nations shall hear and tremble greatly,
Terror shall seize the dwellers in Palestine;
Then the leaders of Edom shall be alarmed: After the children of Israel had been so signally. The mighty of Moab-them shall a shuddering possess. delivered from imminent ruin, by the destruction of All those dwelling in Canaan shall melt away; proud Pharaoh and his host in the Red Sea, Moses Upon them shall fall fear and terror: composed a hymn of triumph, which may be regarded By the might of thy arm they shall be still as a stone, as the earliest specimen of the sublime poetry of the Until thy people pass over, 0 Jehovah ! Hebrews. A more literal version of this noble hymn Thou shalt bring them and plant them in the mountain of
Until thy people pass over, which thou hast purchased. than that given in the authorized translation, will
thine inheritance, probably be acceptable to our readers :
The place for tly rest, which thou, Jehovah, hast made ; I will sing unto Jehovah because he hath been gloriously The sanctuary, O Lord, thy hands have established. exalted;
Jehovah shall reigu for ever and ever. The horse and his rider he hath hurled into the sea.
For the horse of Pharaoh went with his rider and his chariots My strength and song is Jah, and he shall be to me for into the sea, salvation;
And the sons of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of He is my God, and I will make him a dwelling;
the floods. The God of my fathers, and I will exalt him.
This magnificent hymn appears to have been imJehovah is mighty in war; Jehovah is his name. The chariots of Pharaoh and his hosts he hath cast into the mediately adopted as a national anthem; the initial
letters of the Hebrew words in the line sea; His chosen charioteers are sank in the sea of weeds*:
Who among the gods is like unto thee, O Jehovah ? Depths have covered them: they sank to the dark recesses
were inscribed on the standards of the Maccabees, like a stone. Thy right hand, O Jehovah, hath been glorified in power :
and, indeed, gave them their name. The moment it Thy right hand, O Jehovah, hath dashed the enemy in pieces. was uttered, the Jewish maidens sang the hymn of And in the greatness of thy Majesty, thou hast thrown down triumph, with all the joy and exultation which so those rising against thee.
wondrous a deliverance naturally inspired. Thou sentest forth thy burning : it consumed them like
Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel stubble ;
in her hand; and all the women went out after her with And by the breath of thy nostrils the waters were heaped timbrels and with dances. And Miriam answered them,
together. The floods erected themselves os a heap :
Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the
horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. (Éxodus The depths were congealed in the heart of the sea.
XV. 20, 21.) The enemy said,,I will pursue :- I will overtake :I will divide spoil : my soul shall be satiated upon them. The engraving at the head of this paper, taken I will draw my sword: my hand shall repossess them from the Egyptian monuments, shows us that the Thou didst blow with thy wind: the sea hid them.
triumphal . processions were generally formed by They sank as lead in the mighty waters. Who is like unto thee among the gods, O Jehovah ?
damsels, who danced in solemn measure, and acWho is like unto thee,-glorious in holiness,
companied themselves on the timbrels and cymbals. Exalted in power,--doing wonders ?
This was also the custom among the Israelites. Thou didst stretch forth thy right hand : the earth swallowed Thus when Jephthah won such a signal victory over them.
the Ammonites, and rashly vowed that he would Thou hast led forth in thy mercy the people which thou hast sacrifice to the Lord “whatever came first out of the redeemed.
doors of his house," his daughter presented herself, Thou hast guided them in thy strength to the dwelling of thy in her anxiety to head the choir of damsels who holiness.
assembled to celebrate her father's victory. Yani Suph, that is, “the Sea of Weeds,” is still the oriental name of the Red Sea
And Jephthah came to Mizpeh unto his house, and,
behold, bis daughter came out to meet him with timbrels hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil and with dances : and she was his only child; beside her spirit departed from him. (1 Sam. xvi. 23.) he had neither son nor daughter. And it came to pass, when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said, Alas,
The second figure to the right carries a lyre, which my daughter! thou hast brought me very low, and thou
was also a favourite instrument among the Jews, but art one of them that trouble me: for I have opened my which has been confounded with the harp by our mouth unto the Lord, and I cannot go back. (Judges xi. translators; it was generally, if not always, used as 34, 35.)
an accompaniment to vocal music, and hence we These dances were not only customary on festive find the harp, or lyre, so constantly mentioned in occasions, but they were also consecrated to the the psalms. service of religion, as appears from the words of The instrument in the hand of the third figure is David, in the psalm which he composed to celebrate a viol, which was played with the fingers like the the removal of the ark.
modern guitar. It was an instrument particularly They have seen thy goings, O God; even the goings of used upon festive occasions, and hence Isaiah, demy God, my King, in the sanctuary. The singers went nouncing God's wrath against Babylon, declares, before, the players on instruments followed after; among Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of them were the damsels playing with timbrels. (Psalm thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms Lxviii. 24, 25.)
cover thee. (Isaiah xiv. 11.) In the last of the psalms we find that the cymbals And the prophet Amos, similarly proclaiming the were the instruments most frequently used on occa- punishments which God was about to inflict upon the sions of public thanksgiving, for the Psalmist repeats kingdom of Israel, connects the viols with the vocal his exhortation to their use with great emphasis: music :-" Take thou away from me the noise of thy “ Praise the Lord upon the loud cymbals, praise him songs, for I will not hear the melody of thy viols." upon the high sounding cymbals." (Psalm cl. 5.) The (Amos v. 23.) Psalmist also recommends the use of the sacred
The trumpet and the reed-pipe appear to have been dance: “ Praise the Lord with the timbrel and dance." the only wind instruments with which the ancient (Psalm cl. 4.) It appears from the Egyptian monu- Egyptians were acquainted. We see a double pipe, ments that the dancers and cymbal-players were of of very simple construction, borne by the fourth a lower rank than other musicians, and hence it was figure in our engraving, but we cannot determine that when Michal, the daughter of Saul, saw King the number of holes with which it was perforated. David “ dancing before the Lord," in the triumphal This instrument was chiefly used on joyous occaprocession which escorted the ark of the covenant sions; for it is particularly recorded, that when unto Jerusalem, "she despised him in her heart." Solomon was proclaimed, “The people piped with (2 Samuel vi. 16.)
pipes, and rejoiced with great joy, so that the earth The stringed instruments used by the ancient rent with the sound of them.” (1 Kings i. 40.) It Egyptians differed very little, if at all, from those appears, from a passage in the New Testament, that which we find mentioned in the Old Testament. The pipes were commonly used by children in their sports, most remarkable of them are represented in the for our Lord compares the oward generation of th following engraving. The figure to the right bears Jews to children, who would not dance when their a portable harp, which is without a fore-piece; but companions piped for them. (Matt. xi. 16, 17.) the harps used by male performers, and by females
The next figure carries a harp, or psaltery, of sin. when they were stationary, had very large fore-pieces, gular construction, on her shoulder. This instrument rising to the height of about one-third of the instru
was only valuable as an accompaniment, for we ment, and fancifully carved. The performers played find no example of it in the bands of an isolated them both sitting and standing; and the music was performer. so highly valued, that it was believed capable of The last of the musical train is keeping time with dispelling cares, and even curing mental diseases. her hands, a custom which seems to have prevailed When Saul was visited by an evil spirit after dis- in almost every nation. obeying the Divine command, we find his servants It is improbable that the Israelites, on their deparrecommending him to seek out a skilful harper, and ture from Egypt, could have brought with them all particularly pointing out David, whose attainments the musical instruments necessary for a perfect conin music were celebrated even in his early youth. cert; indeed, the timbrels alone are mentioned: but
And it came to pass, when the evil spirit from God was in later ages, especially in the reign of David, the upon Saul that David took an barp, and played with his national hymns of thanksgiving were accompanied
by the music of a greater variety of instruments | the crystalline lens is brought nearer to the pupil than we have described.
than in its natural state it ought to be. The ciliary It deserves to be remarked, that the cymbals which apparatus and that belonging to the iris is over. were so highly valued in the earlier part of the worked, and hence arises derangement of the funcJewish history, seem to have fallen into contempt tions of the different parts. Extreme caution reafter the Roman invasion; for St. Paul compares quires to be exercised in the use of these instruthe worthlessness of a man, destitute of charity, to ments; the eye should be alluwed long intervals of “ sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal.” (1 Cor. repose, and much will depend on the state of the xiii. 1.) But while the Jewish kingdom flourished | individual's health generally. Above all things, we in its integrity, cymbals were so highly valued, that caution our young readers to beware of adopting that they were always introduced into public worship; for silly bauble, a quizzing-glass; for, even to shortwe are told of Hezekiah, that,
sighted persons its operation is bad, since it conHe set the Levites in the house of the Lord with tributes to render the adjusting powers of the two cymbals, with psalteries, and with harps, according to the eyes unequal ; and if the healthy eye persist in its commandment of David, and of Gad the king's seer, and use, a few years will suffice to bring the floating Nathan the prophet: for so was the commandment of the muscæ to the eye which so needlessly employs the Lord by his prophets. (2 Chron. xxix. 25.)
glass, as a prelude to disorders of a more serious kind.
It is a point of much importance in the choice of ON EMPLOYMENTS WHICH INJURE THE free from opaque impurities, and its surface from
spectacles, that the substance of the glass should be EYE-SIGHT.
scratches or indentations, because the existence of No. V.
either of those irregularities necessarily occasions an ON THE CUSTOMARY USE OF GLASSES.
unequal action of light upon the retina. Let us illus. In young persons, long-sightedness is occasioned trate this by an extreme case. Suppose an indiviby the flatness of the crystalline lens, and may be dual were constantly to wear spectacles, and that remedied by employing a convex lens, which prevents when one of the glasses had a black spot, an eighth the convergency of the rays beyond the retina, which of an inch diameter near the centre, the retina at otherwise occurs, by which vision is indistinct, for a
one particular spot spherically opposite to the opaque reason the very opposite to that by which short sight spot on the glass, would be deprived of the direct is produced.
rays usually impingent upon it, and would only The powers of the eye are so influenced by the receive those coming by oblique directions; the conemployments to which it is habitually subjected, that sequence of which would be, that the retina would we must, in many cases, refer acuteness or dimness be unequally acted upon, and so far from being beneof vision to the exercises fitted or unfitted to the fited by that spot being less excited, it would profunction of the optic structure. The short or the duce those unnatural effects, which always accompany long-sighted eye, provided the organism of the parts
the partial exercise of an organ to the exclusion of be healthy, have their comparative want of adaptive another part, which is generally an inflammation of power remedied, as we have seen by the assistance of the line of separation between the active and the a concave or convex lens; but no single lens will
inert portions. This being the case in an extreme confer on the landsman the perfect adjusting power
instance, we may expect effects somewhat analogous, to great distances of the seaman, to whose eye the but slighter, when the irregularity is smaller, indespeck on the extreme horizon, often invisible to the pendent of the dimness which is given to the images unaccustomed eye, appears in all the detail of a well
of objects on the retina. appointed vessel, the number of whose guns, her flag, than is necessary for absolutely distinct vision, or
Spectacles should always be chosen less powerful her masts, &c., are accurately detailed, while, on the other hand, the same long sight is inadequate to the the eye gets wearied and distressed by the use of detail of near and minute objects, which the short them, and what is perhaps as bad, the disease is sighted eve appreciates so well. But, however wise increased by the violence of the intended cure. The and beneficent is the principle which gradually adapts writer, speaking from experience, recommends nearan organ to its accustomed employments, provided sighted individuals to be content with vision a little they are not at variance with its legitimate use, the obscured, and to be thankful that science affords the same principle fails to explain the great superiority
means of attaining even that imperfect degree of in vision of sorne individuals, among the lower
visual perception. animals as well as in man, over others. The eagle
In concluding this article we may remark that our and other birds of prey possess remarkably acute object has not been to excite alarm by contributing vision for near as well as distant objects : soaring to the fears of the many, the employment of whose high in the air, so as to command an extensive range eyes furnishes them with daily bread. The several of prospect, they have the power, it is said, of pushing
trades and professions that we have named, and out the cornea to increase its convexity, and so in from which many of our illustrations have been clude a wider range of vision ; but it is probable that taken, may, we are convinced, be exercised with this superior vision, ascribed to a more complete and impunity, provided the exercise be attended with comprehensive power of adaptation, which theory
caution. Cleanliness, bodily exercise, and tempeonly assumes, and experience does not confirm, ought rance, are the main safeguards which will not fail rather to be ascribed to a superior sensibility of the
to prevent the evils we have cited, or to mitigate retina, since anatomy shows that the optic nerve in
their action if they have already begun. such aniinals is not only large, but ramified in a complete manner, such as is not found in man.
Those who have obtained the farthest insight into nature Let us now suppose that a healthy eye is constantly have been in all ages firm believers in God. —WHEWELL. employed in looking through optical glasses, such as watchmakers, engravers, naval officers, philosophical
No object is more pleasing to the eye, than the sight of a instrument-malsers, astronomers, &c., the adjusting to the ear, as the voice of one that owns you for his bene
man whom you have obliged; nor any musie so agreeable powers of the eye are being constantly taxed, that is, factor
Rufus, by Maurice, bishop of London, the archbishop No. I.
of Canterbury being out of the country. In every WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.
respect the forms of his coronation were the same as WILLIAM was very anxious that his conquest of England
those of the Saxon kings. But it appears from Langshould at least appear to be sanctioned by the consent of toft, that he was crowned a second time, by Anselm, the people, and he therefore gave orders that his new
archbishop of Canterbury, after his marriage with Masubjects should be invited to witness the ceremony of tilda, niece of Edgar Atheling, of the ancient Saxon his coronation, on Christmas day, 1066. Stigand,
line, or, as Langtoft calls her, “kyng & sire,” that is, a
sovereign in her own right. archbishop of Canterbury, refused to perform the ceremony, as some assert, because he looked upon the Nor
Henry wedded dame Molde that kyng was & sire;
Saint Anselme, men tolde, corouned him and hire man prince as an intruder ; but Langtoft * informs us
The corounyng of Henry & of Molde that may that Stigand was at the time suspended by the pope. At London was solemply on St. Martin's day. The passage in Langtoft is curious:
Ile afterwards married Adeliza of Lorraine, and had Fair grace William fond ; his chance fulle wele him satte
her crowned with the usual solemnities.
The coronation of Stephen, after he had sworn alleWer prived of thar office, of woulfes had renoun
giance to the empress Matilda, was viewed with great For lechorie that vice wer many als don doun.
anxiety, in an age when it was supposed that the The archbishope of York com with devocioun, Thorgh William praiere, com to London toun,
punishment of perjury was immediate and visible. The Bifor the barons brouht, he gaf William the coroun ceremony was performed by William, archbishop of To chalange was he nouht, Sir Stigand was don doun.
Canterbury; and it is said that a dreadful storm arose, After William had taken the coronation oath, to which threw all the parties into such confusion, that protect the church, prohibit oppression, and execute
the consecrated wafer fell on the ground, the kiss of judgment in mercy, Aldred put the question, “ Will ye
peace after the sacrament was omitted, and even the have this prince to be your king ?” the people answered final benediction forgotten. It was also remarked, with loud shouts, and the noise gave so much alarm to that the archbishop, and the false witnesses who dethe Norman garrison in the city, that the soldiers be clared that Henry I. disinherited his daughter a little lieving the English to have revolted, without waiting before his death, met a speedy and miserable end. In to make any investigation, immediately set the next consequence, probably, of these disasters, Stephen was houses on fire, which spreading and giving a general compelled to swear a new oath to the barons at Oxford, alarm, most of the congregation rushed out of the which is thus described by Langtoft: church, the English hastening to stop the fire, and the
Bot sen dis courounyng till Oxenford he fore, Normians to plunder. The bishops, clergy, and monks, Ther Steven the king bifor the clergie swore who remained within the church, were in such confu
That if a bishopriche vacant wer the se
The kyng, ne non of his, suld chalage that of fe. sion, that they were scarcely able to go through the
With wrong no with right, of non that from him cam office of crowning the king : William himself, who saw So help him God Alle myght, and that halidameb the tumult, and could not conjecture its cause, sat trem
A nother oth not lesse the clergie did him karke,
That wodes ne foreste, withouten palaised parke, bling at the foot of the altar, and though no great
The common folk sulu queme on“, & other in fere, mischief was done by the fire, it laid the foundation of The kyng no man suld demee in court for wild dere a long and inveterate enmity between the English and
Clerk? ne lewed 8 man for 110 wilde beste the Normans.
For common the folk it wand wou open and forest.
The third poynt thei wild i to swere he was dryven Matilda, William's queen, was crowned eighteen That the Danegeld for ever suld be forgyven months afterwards, by the same archbishop of York.
And of ilk k a hide two schillynges that he toke
Suld never eft betide, he swore that on the boke.
The three clauses of this oath are singularly characWilliam II. laid claim to the crown by virtue of teristic of the age; the necessity for the first clause a form of election; the nobles believing that he would
arose from the custom of keeping secs vacant, and be less inclined to control their usurped privileges applying their revenues to the use of the crown until a than his elder brother, Robert. He was crowned
new bishop was chosen, and it is also connected with at Westminster, September 27th, 1087, by Lanfranc, the question of lay investitures, which at that time archbishop of Canterbury, and the archbishop of York;
convulsed Christendom. In the second clause we eight other bishops, and many of the chief nobility,
find that the forest-laws, so rigidly enforced by the assisted at the ceremony. Besides swearing to ob
Norman kings, were a serious grievance; indeed, all serve justice, equity, and mercy, in all his conduct,
the old historians agree that the worst feature in the and to maintain the pence, liberties, and privileges of administration of Henry I. was the severity with which the church, he promised that he would follow the arch
he punished those who took venison in the royal bishop's counsels in all his administrations, and, as
forests, cut down wood, or committed any waste therein, Fabian says, “ he was well eyded of Lamfrank whyle he and under pretence of such trespasses he had heavily lyved, for he was dyvers and unstable of manners, so fined several gentlemen who had the reputation of that atwenc hym & his lordes was often dyssension." being wealthy. Danegeld was the name of the tax Langtoft specially mentions the ring in this coronation : imposed by the Saxon kings to defray the expense of
To William the rede kyng is gyven the coroun,
the armaments necessary to defend the coast of Eng
land against the Danes; its continuance under the HENRY I.
Normans, who were themselves of Danislı descent, was The coronation of Henry I. was performed in a felt to be an insulting and galling badge of slavery. hurried manner, on the fourth day after the death of
a Maiden. b The Virgin Mary. « Charge. • Langtoft, an Augustin friar, who about the commencement d Take pleasure on. Doom, judge.
! Clergyman. of the fourteeuth century wrote a chronicle of England in verse. Layman.
- Procured. Required.