Obrazy na stronie

leather on his legs, and a shepherd's crook in his | telescope of the profound astronomer.

The convex hand; but though thus plainly dressed, he was spectacle-glasses of the flattened eye of age, and the conattended by his senators and nobles in their richest cave lens of the too convex eye of youth, are alike subrobes. When the procession approached, the peasant jects of import which we propose briefly to consider, called out, “Who is this that cometh hither with so But first it is necessary to remind the reader of the much parade and magnificence?" The attendants problems connected with vision by which the eye replied, “This is the prince who claims, as rightful takes cognizance of very distant objects, and has heir, the inheritance of the sovereignty over our good also a distinct appreciation of those within a few land, the province of Carinthia.” The peasant then inches. It is known that a telescope, microscope, inquired, “Is he just ? Doth he seek the welfare camera obscura, &c., all require to be adjusted before of the Carinthian peasants? Is he of free condition they can be employed, and that this adjustment and noble birth ? Is he worthy of honour for his past must vary according as they assist the eye to view conduct, and doth he desire to win honour by future near or remote objects: hence the question how is the exploits? Is he obedient to the laws, and attached to eye adjusted, or does it require adjustment at all ? the ancient usages of Carinthia? Will he be a de- This question we will answer as fully as the present fender of the pure and holy Catholic faith?" To state of our knowledge of the subject extends. this the duke's attendants replied, “ Such is he, and In the usual state of the eye it is so adjusted, such he will be.” After a long pause, the peasant by means of a power of which we are ignorant, as to renewed the conversation by asking, “ Has the lord perceive clearly objects at a very great distance; any right to remove me from this my place ?" To that is, the crystalline lens is placed as far back which question the attendants replied, “Our lord as the ciliary process will allow it to go, and in that hath purchased this ground for sixty deniers, and he position, parallel or nearly parallel rays meet in a granteth to thee the animals thou hast with thee, the focus on the retina. If from the distant object we robes which he wears, and immunity of taxes for look at something less remote, say a tower a quarter thyself and thine house." The peasant then de- of a mile distant, the crystalline lens is brought scended from the rock, and gave the duke a slight slightly forward, in order that the increased path slap in the face. The duke then mounted the rock, between it and the retina may correspond with the and brandished a sword in the form of a cross over increased divergency of the rays proceeding from the the multitude ; water was then brought to him in the latter object. crown of a peasant's cap, which he drank as a sym Suppose the eye be directed successively to several bol both of his moderation and humility. The duke objects placed at various distances, such as a hill, a then laid aside his peasant's dress, and having tower, a house, a tree, and a man, at the respective received his ducal robes, went and received the distances of ten, five, two, one, and one-half miles. sacrament in the church of St. Veit.

Now it is supposed by some that the healthy eye The stone on which the ancient monarchs of is adjusted once for all to very remote objects when it Ireland were inaugurated, was at a very early period is in a state of perfect repose, and consequently that removed to Scotland, whence it was brought to it las a clear view of these objects at different disEngland by Edward I. : it is now fixed in the seat of tances without a new adjustment for each. Others, the coronation-chair, and we shall describe it more again suppose that the distance between the crysparticularly in a future chapter.

talline lens and the retina is precisely proportioned to It only now remains to mention, that the recogni- each of these distances. Suppose then that such is tion, in the German forms of coronation, was always the case, and that we are ignorant of what these disconnected with the semblance of an election, as we find tances really are, we must be altogether unable by from the speech made by the archbishop of Cologne, any act of the will to adjust the lens. It must, therewhen he presented Otho, who was designated empe- fore, according to this hypothesis, be adjusted, and ror during the life-time of his father, to the general that with mathematical precision, by involuntary assembly of the German princes : “Behold, I bring, action, since, in order to get a clear view of those five you here Otho, chosen by God, and appointed by objects, the lens must be at five different distances his father, Henry our lord, and now made king by from the retina. This we think impossible. all the princes of the empire. If this election please Now the motive power of the lens, the adjusting you, do you signify the same by holding up your screw in short, by which it is advanced or sent back, hands to heaven." The people consenting, he was is thought to be the iris, which by its self-acting then anointed, and invested with the imperial ensigns. adjustment to light, influences the motions of the

lens, with which it is connected through the medium of the ciliary apparatus, so that when the eye is

transferred from the view of a near to a distant ON EMPLOYMENTS WHICH INJURE THE object, and vice versd, the pupil undergoes a change, EYE-SIGHT

which in its turn effects a change in the position of No. IV.

the crystalline lens, as a necessary consequence. The iris is connected to nerves possessing a high degree of irritability, and it is possible that the stimulant

property of light is sufficient, independently of the NEAR-SIGHTEDNESS-LONG-SIGHTEDNESS.

will, to produce the variations in its diameter, accordThe class of persons whose sight is affected by the ing as the light is abundant or not; but it appears habitual use of glasses, comprehends a very large that for short distances the iris has the power of number of professions, and presents to the scientific voluntary adjustment, that is, when near objects are mind points of high interest, while to the general to be seen, the crystalline lens is drawn forward by reader the subject is one of paramount importance, as a voluntary action, but we are ignorant of the extent it determines how far the eye is affected beneficially of this voluntary power ; and it remains to be shown or otherwise by the employment of optical glasses of whether the iris undergoes a change, and conseevery description, whether it be the quizzing-glass quently the crystalline lens, by the stimulus of light which the tyrant Fashion imposes on her votary, or otherwise, when the eye is transferred from one the sextant of the skilful navigator, or the reflecting distant object to another distant object, whose dis




tance however from the eye is less than that of the

THE USEFUL ARTS. No. XXXVII. first: it seems most likely, that by a combination THE CARPENTER AND THE JOINER, concluded. of voluntary and involuntary actions, the eye is The first and principal tools used by both carpenter and accommodated to varying distances, and that the joiner, are saws, of different sizes, for reducing the rough stimulus of light falling on the iris, or retina, or both, wood to the size adapted for the purpose to which it is to is the main cause of the adjustment of the eye. be applied. Small, fine-toothed saws, both long and thin

Let us now consider a near-sighted eye, or one in blades, termed spring-saws, are used for cutting out small which the crystalline lens is too spherical, by which holes in wood, and for analogous parposes, when precision the rays are converged too soon, and cross each other mounted in a frame on the same principle as that of the

and nicety are required; these spring-saws are sometimes before they reach the retina. Now suppose such an stone-mason's saw, formerly described but commonly, the cye is regarding a very distant object, and that the blade of the saw, of whatever size it may be, is only fixed lens is then as far back as it can go, but not far on a convenient handle, so that the whole blade of the saw enough back, in order that the focus may attain the may pass through the fissure it makes in the material. retina, the remedy then is, supposing the eye to be All saws are made of the best steel, highly tempered, so as otherwise healthy, a concave lens, by means of which to recover their form if bent by the resistance of thie wood.

Next to the saws and planes, chisels are the most indisthe convergency of the rays is delayed, and by a nice pensable tool to the carpenter. These chisels are of different adaptation the concavity of the artificial lens may so widths, adapted to different uses, and are not only used correct the too great convexity of the crystalline lens, with a hammer or mallet, as the mason employs them, but that the foci fall exactly on the retina. "Much injury, simply as cutting-tools, used by hand for finishing the rehowever, is done to the eye by employing bad glasses, or of pieces of wood too small to be planed.

mortise-boles, or for finishing the ends such as are too concave; the rule is, select such glasses of rice carpenter temploys gimlets for making holes for as do not diminish objects seen through them; if they screws and nails. The gimlet is a short rod of steel, do so they are too concave, and the crystalline lens is finished at one end into a sharp-pointed screw of one or brought too near to the pupil, by which means the two turns only, which, acting on the principle of that meciliary muscles are fatigued by too rigid contractions. chanical power, com pels the tool to sink deeper and deeper Between the age of thirty and fifty, the eyes of into the wood, as the tool is turned round; and to enable

the workman to turn the gimlet, it is fixed into a cross to a change, which generally shows itself in a difficulty of handle, which, acting as a lever, allows of the friction of the

Just above the screw point, the rod reading small type or ill-printed books, particularly or shaft of the gimlet is fluted or hollowed out; the sharp with candlelight. This defect of sight, which is edges of this tluted part cut the hole made by the screwcalled long-sightedness, because objects are seen best end larger and smoother, and the hollow receives the chips at a distance, arises from a change in the state of the

or shavings cut off, and prevents them from clogging the crystalline lens, by which its density and refractive

hole and stopping the progress of the tool. power, as well as its form, are altered. It frequently in the same manner, are employed for making large holes

Augers are large tools shaped like a gimlet, and, acting begins at the margin of the lens, and takes several for bolts, spikes, &c. Centre-bits are steel tools of different months to go round it, and it is often accompanied shapes, made to fit into a bent handle something like the letter by a partial separation of the laminæ, and even of G, which, acting as a lever, allows of the tool being turned the fibres of the lens.

round and round by one hand, while by the other the work

man holds the top of the handle steady and vertically over If the human eye (as Sir David Brewster remarks,) is the point of the tool. Some of the bits or tools are for not managed with peculiar care at this period, the change cutting out cylindrical holes, and are shaped at the cuttingin the condition of the lens often runs into cataract, or ter- edge like a chisel, with a small point projecting from the minates in a derangement of fibres, which, though not in

centre of the edge, on which the instrument turns in the dicated by white opacity, occasions imperfections of vision

wood and acts on the principle of a lathe. On each side that are often mistaken for amaurosis and other diseases. this point, the chisel-edge is bent sideways in opposite A skilful oculist, who thoroughly nuderstands the structure directions, to allow of its ploughing up the wood before of the eye, and all its optical functions, would have no diffi- it with greater efficacy than it would do if it were not so culty, by means of nice experiments, in detecting the very formed. portion of the lens where this change has taken place, in The brad-awl, or nail-piercer, is a short steel wire, determining the nature and magnitude of the change sharpened at the point into a flat chisel-edge, and put into which is going on, in applying the proper remedies for a plain turned handle. This edge being pushed into the stopping its progress, and in ascertaining whether it has wood, and the handle turned round, the tool divides the advanced to such a state, that aid can be obtained from fibre, and makes its way on the simple principle of a wedge, convex or concave lenses. In such cases, lenses are often and does not cut away or remove any portion of the material resorted to before the crystalline lens has suffered an

as the above-described tools do. uniform change of figure or of density, and the use of them

The carpenter uses nails and screws to fasten the different cannot fail to aggravate the very evils which they are in parts of his work together, and it is necessary to make a tended to remedy. In diseases of the lens, where the hole to receive them before they are driven in, or else the separation of fibres is confined to small spots, and is yet of wood would split by the action of forcing the nail or screw such magnitude as to give separate coloured images of a into the solid material, and, indeed, it would be impossible luminous object, or irregular lialos of light, it is often neces to force a screw into the solid wood at all. sary to limit the aperture of the spectacles, so as to allow

The screw is forced into the wood by being turned round the vision to be performed by the good part of the crystal- and round by means of a blunt chisel called a screw-driver, line lens. -BREWSTER's Optics,

the edge of which is inserted into a notch cut in the head of the screw to receive it.

Joiners fasten one piece of their work to another by glue . This I hold

made by boiling down refuse animal matter containing the A secret worth its weight in gold

animal principle called gelatine in abundance, such as To those who write as I write now,

hoofs, horns, tendons, skin, gristle, &c.: it is a property of Not to mind where they go, or how,

gelatine to dissolve in hot water, and to harden again when Through ditch, through bog, o'er hedge, and stile, cold, and the water evaporates. Accordingly the glue, Make it but worth the reader's while ;

which is only concentrated impure gelatine, is dissolved by And keep a passage fair and plain

heat in a small quantity of water, and being applied to the Always to bring him back again. —Church'LL. clean faces of the wood to be united, by a coarse brush: these

faces are closely pressed and retained together till the water "You may run from major to minor,” says Mrs. Bray in evaporates, when such is the tenacity of the glue, that the one of her letters to Dr. Southey, "and through a thousand wood may be broken in another place as easily as at the changes, so long as you fall into the subject at last, and glued joint. To enable, glue, howeyer, to act in this manbring back the ear to the right key at the close."

ner well, the wood should be clean, the parts to be glued

well warmed before the glue is applied, and the joint should of this notch is the fine mortise-hole intended to receita be close, or the parts accurately brought together.

the tenon. Besides the before-mentioned tools and materials, and The bars of the sash can, of course, only be mada some others, such as hammers, axes, &c., which need not in one length in one direction, and the cross-bars when be described, carpenters and joiners use instruments for divide the long panels, formed by these continuous bars, ins measuring and setting out their work, and for drawing on the sizes of the glass, are made of similar short pieces sit the surface of the material the forms into which it is to be mitred ends; but these ends, where they frame into the reduced, or the shape and situations of portions of the long bars, have no tenon, the thinness of the stuff not as material to be removed for the purposes of framing. The mitting of one, since the cross-bars come, end for end, oppo instruments are compasses, squares, rules, levels, plumb- site each other, on the two sides of the upright bars. lines, and so on, common to all trades which form materials It is evident that the long bars must be put together with into artificial geometrical shapes : and, like the mason, the the outside frame, or else the tenons could not be inserted carpenter and joiner must be conversant with the more into the mortises made in this last. elementary problems of practical geometry.

In further explanation of joiners-work, we will briefly Having described the principal tools used by this work- describe the mode of making a drawing-board, requiring to man, we will return to the work performed by him, and in be true, plane, and square. Suppose the board is intended illustration of the subject, point out the mode of proceeding to be so wide as to require three boards side by side te in making a window-sash, which is one of the most delicate make it: these three boards being sawn out of the rigbt operations in common joiner's-work. The outer part of the length, their edges are first planed perfectly straight and sash is made broader and stronger than the intermediate smooth, so that when any two are placed side by side, the cross-bars which receive the panes of glass, in order to give edges touching, those edges may touch or fit together accestrength and rigidity to the sash. This outer part is framed rately for their whole length; this accuracy of joint is obtogether at the four angles by mortises and tenons, the tained by testing the edge after each time the plane is aplatter coming quite through the stuff, and having a small plied, by a straight-edge, or rule, known to be true. There sharp wedge driven into the middle of the tenon when in

are two modes of proceeding to make these joints firm, one serted into the mortise: by means of this wedge, the tenon by dowelling, that is, by inserting short pieces of hard is expanded at its end into a wedge-shaped form, by which wood, as oak or wainscot, let for half their length into a it fits more tightly into the mortise and is retained in its mortise cut in the edges of the boards that are to fit togeplace, the wedge-shape not allowing the tenon to be with ther; these mortises being, of course, made opposite each drawn again. But it may be here remarked that, besides other, these dowels prevent the boards from rising up or this precaution, all small mortises and tenons are put toge starting from their places when the work is finished. Inther with glue to ensure the stability of the joint.

stead of short dowels a strip, the whole length of the boards, The inner edge of this frame is formed by a plane into is let into each joint, half the strip lying in a ploughed the half moulding, of which the cross-bars present the groove, made in the middle of the corresponding edges of entire section, so that when the sash is completed, each the two boards. But, besides these precautions, the joints panel, as it were, which is filled in with the glass, is sur: are well glued up. rounded on its sides by a continuous moulding, and on the There are two modes by which this board may be other side of the frame each panel presents a rebate in strengthened, to prevent its warping or casting by the dry. which the glass lies. The annexed figure of the section of ing or shrinking of the wood. A cross-piece of deal, or part of the outer frame and one cross-bar, will make this better still of wainscot, is fixed across the ends of the boards, clcar.

these ends being double rebated or tongued, to fit into a groove made in the cross-piece to receive the tongue; these cross-pieces prevent the long boards from warping, since the cross-pieces would have no tendency to alter their figure in the direction of their grain.

If, however, the board be larger, keying is better than this clamping. Clamping consists in attaching to stout cross-pieces at the back of the boards, the faces of which pieces are worked so as to fit, and are glued into a dovetailshaped groove cut across the direction of the boards at their back to receive the keys, as will be understood from the annexed sketch.

put in.

Tilladels The cross-bars are made in lengths out of slips of wood, by a plane, which first forms the mouldings and rebate on one side, and then by turning the slip over the same plane, the face is planed perfectly smooth and level, and the edges

When the board is made, and the glued joints quite dry, finishes the other with an exact counterpart of the first. These bars are framed into the outer part of the sash by keyed, the back must be planed smooth before the keys are

made truly square, or at right angles; if the board be delicate mortises and tenons put together in the manner before described; but it will be seen by reference to the figure, that the moulded part of the bar must unite to that often dowelled in the manner above described, and the

The flooring-boards in the better kinds of houses are of the outer frame, or of another bar, by a mitre joint,

that ends of the flooring-boards are tongued and grooved to fit is, by one which allows of the lines of mouldings returning together, to prevent the boards from starting up from the on the second piece, at right angles to their direction on joists and becoming uneven. the first, without any interruption to the continuity of the surface.

This and all analogous mitre-joints are formed by planing the ends of the wood to form a face, making an angle of The seven days is by far the most permanent division of 45° with the axis or length of the stuff, and the joiner is time, and the most ancient monument of astronomical provided with a tool called a mitre-box, consisting of a knowledge; It was used by the Brahmins in India, with stock or frame, in which the stuff being put, resting against the same denomination used by us ; and was alike found in one another's surface, guides the plane so as to cut off the the calendars of the Jews, Egyptians, Arabs, and Assy; end obliquely at the requisite angle. It is clear that this rians. It has survired the fall of empires, and has existed mitre must be made on both faces of the bar, and there among all successive generations; a proof of the common fore the two mitre faces form a wedge-shaped termination origin of mankind. The division of the year into months, by meeting at a right angle, as shown in the last figure. &c., is very old, and almost universal, but not so ancient or Now as besides the mitre end a tenon is to be left to fit into uniform as the seven days, or week.Mks. SOMERVILLE. a mortise in the outer frame, it is clear that the whole must be a very nice piece of workmanship to be executed on so

LONDON: small a material as the thin bar of a modern sashı. The bevelled mitred end of the bar is received into a


PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MUXTHLY PANTI, corresponding shaped notch cut the depth of the half moulding in the outer frame to receive it, and at the bottom

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she begged to retire to a gentleman's house then at hand; but the extreme circumspection of Bedingfield led him to refuse this request, so that the princess

was obliged to replace her head-dress under a hedge In our last paper on this subject we related the cir near the road. cumstances under which, in the year 1554, the Prin On reaching Hampton Court, where the king and cess Elizabeth was imprisoned at the royal palace of queen were then residing, Elizabeth found that she Woodstock, under the charge of Sir Henry Beding was still a prisoner. She was visited by Bishop field. After a confinement of many months she pro- Gardiner and others of the council, who endeavoured cured permission to write to the queen, but her impor- to persuade her to make a confesssion of guilt, and tunate keeper intruded and overlooked what she submit to the queen's mercy. wrote. At length, by the interposition of Mary's One night, when it was late, the princess was unex. husband, King Philip, she was removed to court. pectedly summoned and conducted by torch-light to the

This sudden kindness of Philip, (says Warton,) who queen's bed-chamber, where she kneeled down before the thought Elizabeth a much less obnoxious character than his queen, declaring herself to be the most faithful and true father, Charles the fifth, had conceived her to have been, subject. She even went so far as to request the queen to did not arise from any regular principle of real generosity, send her some Catholic treatises wbich might confirm her but partly from an affectation of popularity; and partly faith, and inculcate doctrines different from those which she from a refined sentiment of policy, which made him foresee had been taught in the writings of the reformers. The that if Elizabeth was put to death, the next lawful heir queen seemed still to suspect her sincerity; but they parted would be Mary, Queen of Scots, already betrothed to the on good terms. During this critical interview Philip had dauphin of France, whose succession would for ever join the concealed himself behind the tapestry that he might have sceptres of England and France, and consequently crush seasonably interposed to prevent the violence of the queen's the growing interests of Spain.

passionate temper from proceeding to any extremities. In the course of the first day's journey, which A week afterwards a change took piace in the conextended from Woodstock to the house of Lord dition of Elizabeth. She was permitted to retire to Williams at Ricot, there came on a very violent storm Hatfield House, in Hertfordshire, then a royal palace, of wind, which two or three times blew off the prin being placed under the care of Sir Thomas Pope. cess's hood, and the attire of her head. Upon this At parting, the queen presented her with a ring worth Vol. XII.


seven hundred crowns; and at the same time recom and twenty yeomen in green, “ all on horseback, that mended to her Sir Thomas Pope as a person whose her grace might hunt the hart.” On entering the humanity, prudence, and other qualifications, were cal- chase or forest she was met by fifty archers in scarlet culated to render her new situation perfectly agreeable. boots and yellow caps, armed with gilded bows, one

Elizabeth experienced great benefit from this of whom presented her with a silver-headed arrow, change of keepers; Sir Thomas Pope behaved towards winged with peacocks' feathers. Sir Thomas Pope her with kindness and respect, “residing with her at had the devising of this show; at the conclusion of Hatfield rather as an indulgent and affectionate guar- which, the princess was gratified with the privilege of dian, than as an officious or rigorous governor.” cutting the throat of a buck.” In the same month, That he was also not wanting on proper occasions in likewise, she was visited at Hatfield by the queen, showing her such marks of regard and deference as when the great chamber was adorned with a sumpher station and quality demanded, appears from the tuous suit of tapestry, called the hangings of the following anecdote. Two of the fellows of Trinity siege of Antioch, and after supper a play was perCollege, in Oxford, just founded by him, had violated formed by the choir-boys of St. Paul's. one of its strictest statutes, and were accordingly ex In the summer of this year, the princess paid a pelled by the president and society. Upon this they visit to the queen at Richmond. She went by water repaired to their founder then at Hatfield with the from Somerset-place, in the queen’s barge, which was princess, humbly petitioning to be re-admitted into his richly hung with garlands of artificial flowers, and college. Sir Thomas was somewhat perplexed; for covered with a canopy of green sarcenet, wrought although disposed to forgiveness, yet he was unwilling with branches of eglantine on embroidery, and powto be the first who should openly countenance or pardon dered with blossoms of gold. She was accompanied an infringement of laws which he himself had made; by Sir Thomas Pope and four ladies of her chamber. but perceiving a happy opportunity of adjusting the Six boats attended on this procession filled with her difficulty, by at the same time paying a compliment highness's retinue, habited in russet damask and to the princess, he with much address referred the blue embroidered satin, lapelled and spangled with matter to her gracious consideration ; and she was silver, with bonnets of cloth of silver, plumed with pleased to order that the offending parties should be green feathers. She was received by the queen in a restored to their fellowships. Sir Thomas, in his sumptuous pavilion made in the form of a castle, letter to the president of the college, communicating with cloth of gold and purple velvet, in the labyrinth this determination, states, that it was at the desier of the gardens.

the desier of the gardens. The walls or sides of the pavilion or rather commandement of my ladie Elizabeth her were chequered into compartments, in each of which grace," that he was content to "remytt this fault, and was alternately, a lily in silver, and a pomegranate in to dispence with thyem towching the same."

gold. Here the party were entertained at a royal It appears also, that Sir Thomas Pope gratified the banquet, in which was introduced "a sottletie of a princess on some occasions with the characteristic pomegranate tree," bearing the arms of Spain. There amusements of the times, and that he did so both at were many minstrels but there was no masking or his own expense and at the hazard of offending the dancing. In the evening the princess with all her queen,-as we learn from the following passage of an

suite returned as she had come, to Somerset-place; old chronicle:

and the next day went back to Hatfield. In Shrovetide, 1556, Sir Thomas Pope made for the

During the period of her residence at Hatfield, the ladie Elizabeth, all at his oune costes, a greate and rich Princess Elizabeth was also present at a royal Christmaskinge, in the greate halle at Hatfelde; wher the pa- mas, kept with great solemnity by Philip and Mary at geaunts were marvellously furnished. There were ther Hampton Court. On Christmas eve the great hall of twelve minstrels antickly disguised; with forty-six or more

the palace was illuminated with a thousand lamps, gentlemen and ladies, many of them knights or nobles, and ladies, apparelled in crimsin sattin, embrothered uppon

curiously disposed. The princess supped at the same witth wrethes of golde, and garnished with bordures of table in the hall with the king and queen, next the hanging perle. And the devise of a castell of clothe of cloth of state ; and after supper, was served with a golde, sett with pomegranates about the battlements, with perfumed napkin and plates of confects by the Lord shields of knights hanging therefrom, and six knights in Paget; but she retired to her ladies before the revels, rich harneis turneyed. At night the cuppboard in the halle maskings, and disguisings began. On St. Stephen's and silver vessul, and a baseket of seventie dishes, and after day she heard mattins in the queen's closet, adjoining a voidee of spices and suttleties, with thirty spyse plates, to the chapel, where she was attired in a robe of white all at the chardgis of Sir Thomas Pope. And the next day satin, strung all over with large pearls. On the 29th the play of. Holophernes. But the queen percase mysliked day of December she sate with their majesties and these fólliries, as by her letters to Sir Thomas Pope hit did the nobility at a grand spectacle of jousting, when two appear, and so their disguisinges were ceased.

hundred spears were broken, half of the combatants On some occasions, however, the princess was being accoutred in the “Almaine" and half in the allowed to make excursions, either for pleasure or for Spanish fashion. All these particulars, which are the purpose of paying her compliments at court. It minutely recorded by a chronicler of the day, are is related that on the 25th of February, 1557, considered by Warton, the biographer of Sir Thomas

The lady Elizabeth came riding from her house at Pope, as affording a vindication of Queen Mary's Hatfield to London, attended with a great company of character in the treatment of her sister, and as lords, and nobles, and gentlemen, unto her place called proving that the princess, during her residence at Somerset-place, beyond Strand-bridge, to do her duty to the queen. And on the twenty-eighth she repaired unto

Hatfield, lived in splendour and alluence, that she her grace at Whitehall, with many lords and ladies. (And

was often admitted to the diversions of the court, again, one day in March, the same year,) aforenoon, the and “ that her situation was by no means a state of lady Elizabeth's grace took her horse and rode to her palace imprisonment and oppression, as it has been repreif Shene, with many lords, knights, ladies, and gentlemen, sented by most of our historians.” i nd a goodlie company of horse.

It has been mentioned above, that Sir Thomas In April, the same year, she was escorted from Pope, during his attendance on the princess, was en. Hatfield to Enfield-Chase, by a retinue of twelve gaged in founding Trinity College, at Oxford.

An ladies clothed in white satin, on " ambling palfries,

," undertaking of such a nature could not fail to attract * Curious devicee in cookey or confectionary.

the attention of Elizabeth, whose learned education

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