Obrazy na stronie
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THE Canton of Berne, thougn not one of the three richest verdure, interspersed with the most pictugreat founders of Swiss independence, is the second resque villages. The two other valleys empty them. in rank in the Helvetic confederation, and by far the selves into the eastern corner of the lake, and of first in size, wealth, and power. It comprises within these, and the surrounding mountains, the Oberland its northern and western boundary part of the Jura, properly consists. The principal of them is the and in its southern and eastern some of the most valley of Hasli, which follows the course of the Aar remarkable of the Alpine chain, the intermediate from its source, the other consists of the united space consisting of pastoral lowlands, a region of valleys of Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen. Nowhere surpassing beauty, which is, however, nearly over- has nature displayed more magnificence than in this looked in contemplating the stupendous magnificence extraordinary region; nowhere can so constant a of the surrounding objects. That part of the High succession of rock, waterfall, or glacier, be found : Alps which is included in the Canton of Berne, is the mind, hurried on from one wonder to another, is usually known by the name of the Oberland, or at first lost in a breathless enchantment, and it reHighland, of Berne, and of this we propose to give quires a continued residence among them to be able some account.

to appreciate them thoroughly. The Bernese Oberland, then, consists principally The grand features of these valleys are the mighty of four great valleys, the waters of which are emptied granite mountains which encompass them; of which into the common basin of the lake of Thun. The the most remarkable are the following:most western, and perhaps the least remarkable of these valleys, is the Simmenthal, which separates the

The Finster Aar horn (Dark Horn of the Aar) 14,300 chain of the Stokhorn from that of the Niesen.

Jungfrau (Virgin)

13,600 Eiger.

12,900 The second, parallel to the Simmenthal, is the Kan Wetterhorn (Peak of Thunder)

12,000 duthal, which rises at the foot of the Gemmi-pass in

Schreckhorn (Peak of Terror)

13,200 the Valais. These two valleys pour their united waters into the western side of the lake of Thun, Besides which, there are many but little inferior in where they form a landscape of meadows of the height or sublimity, VOL. XII.

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The valley of Lauterbrunnen, with its celebrated

THE DUTCH WHALE FISHERY. cascade, the Staubbach, has been already described | The Whale fishery in Holland dates from the ninth in the Saiurday Magazine, Vol. VII., p. 162, we will, century; and even earlier than that it seems to have therefore, proceed to the valley of Grindelwald, which, been engaged in by the Norwegians. The Flemings though of a somewhat different character, offers even of the eleventh, and the Icelanders and Normans of greater beauties and wonders to the traveller. The the twelfth century, also took part in it; but no usual access to it is by the valley of Lütschenen, but authentic accounts remain of the manner in which it the route from Lauterbrunnen by the Wengern Alp, was conducted in those remote times. We know is much the most alluring to the lover of the sub not even how the whales were killed ; though we lime. The Wengern Alp is opposite to the Staubbach, may conjecture that the practice in this respect may and it requires two hours' hard labour to attain its have resembled that of the Esquimaux and Aleoutisummit, but when the atmosphere is clear, the pro ans of the present day. Probably no certain mode spect would well repay much greater exertion. For of procedure was followed ; but whales were attacked immediately opposite to the spectator rise the three and destroyed like beasts of prey by the readiest means enormous masses of the Jungfrau, Moneh, and Eiger, that circumstances at the moment might suggest. (the most imposing of the three,) covered with The inhabitants of the coasts of the Bay of Biscay eternal ice, and apparently within his grasp, while the are said to have been the first to engage in Whale ear is struck with the frequent thunder of the distant fishing as a distinct branch of commerce; and indeed, avalanche. The effect of an avalanche is much this hardly can be disputed, since so early as the greater to the ear than to the eye, as should the eye twelfth century, traces of such a commerce may be happen to catch it, the appearance (unless it is very discovered on those coasts. It is known also that near indeed,) is precisely that of falling water, whales used at one time to frequent the bay in great whereas the sound, reverberated from a thousand numbers, a fact which admits the supposition that rocks and caverns, is wonderfully awful and sublime, capturing them might have been a great resource for

Till lately, the Jungfrau was thought to be inac-| the people as long as those animals remained within a cessible, but in 1828, after several ineffectual attempts, moderate distance, but ceased to be so when, frightened a party of Grindelwald chamois-hunters succeeded in by continual pursuit, they retired gradually northward, attaining the summit, with considerable difficulty and and sheltered themselves from the Biscayans, along danger. They described the area of the summit as the coasts of Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland. about thirty or forty feet in diameter, and the vast At the close of the fifteenth century that people, as glacier, or rather plain of ice, which reaches from well as the inhabitants of Rochelle, Dunkirk, and the Bernese Mountains to those of the Valais, as other ports, which afterwards shared their fortunes, much more extensive than was supposed before. lost this branch of industry, after having possessed This tremendous phenomenon, must be twenty-five it from the twelfth century. miles in length, by from three to twelve broad.

The Northern Whale fishery commenced in the From the Wengern Alp to Grindelwald, the descent sixteenth century, and was conducted then as it has is over the Little Scheideck, on which may be ob- been ever since. The first enterprise seems to have served the terrible effect of a glacier which fell about been conducted by the English in 1594. About the twelve years ago. It has been thought that forests same period the Dutch also first took part in it, and were a complete protection against the progress of to them it has been a source of wealth almost ever glaciers, but in the present instance the trees were since. They sent to Biscay, for harpooners, and entirely swept away before the moving mass, while in what they called a spek-snyder, blubber-cutter, who those parts where it did not touch, the mountain-side was also virtually second captain, for on the ship is still covered with magnificent pines.

arriving at its destination, he took the command and The principal objects of curiosity at Grindelwald directed all the operations. This arrangement was are the glaciers, which are well worthy of a visit, and, a powerful element of success in the early period of indeed, are more easily attained than any other in these enterprises. The first expeditions were fitted Switzerland. The finest and most delicate turf | out by companies chartered by the States ; but in reaches nearly up to tie ice, and wild strawberries 1649, the Whale fishery was declared free, and then and flowers may be gathered within a few yards of it. it rose to its most Aourishing condition. Though The principal branch of the Lütchine issues from a privileged companies were at first thought requisite, natural arch of ice at the foot of the glacier Inférieur, in order to the surmounting of obstacles with which supplied by the constant melting of the ice above. the fortunes of private adventurers might have The whole of this glacier is covered with pinnacles struggled in vain, the time for abolishing monopolies thirty or forty feet high, and is intersected with had arrived. The original difficulties once overcome, cracks and chasms, from which, in the year 1790, a private adventures, less cumbersome and less exfatal catastrophe occurred.

pensive, still further increased profits which were even A Monsieur Monson, a pastor of the Pays de Vaud, then immense. The rigorous economy which distinvisited the glacier with his guide, and having passed guished them was seen chiefly in the mode of outfit. the lower part of it, proceeded to traverse the Mer The hull of the vessel was supplied by its owner, de Glace. Having placed his "alpenstock" on the who also took the command; a master sail-maker edge of one of the cracks, he leaned on it to contem furnished the sails, a cooper the hogsheads, and so plate the profound abyss, when suddenly the point of on. This clubbing of interests obviated the incon. the staff slipped from under him, and he fell head- | veniences arising from the smallness of individual long into the gull. The body was eventually re-capitals, and goes far to account, as a general princovered from the depth of 770 feet, so that consci-ciple, for the extraordinary rapidity with which the ousness must have ceased long before the unfortunate Dutch advanced in wealth, at a time when money man reached the bottom.

was scarce, and banking operations extremely limited. There are many peculiar usages of the inhabitants. When the vessel returned, each received his own of the valley of Grindelwald, of which some account share of the profits in proportion to his contribution, shall be given in a future paper.

the sailors themselves receiving shares instead of wages. This mode of procedure increased the numter of vessels employed tenfold. They amounted at

PRESERVATION OF APPLE-TREES,

the year.

last to three hundred, manned by ten thousand seamen, sent out in one year.

Many a time nave I helped to cut away the branches About the middle of the seventeenth century, when of decaying apple-trees, and to insert healthy grafts in their as yet there was abundance of whales on the coasts places; hoping to restore the tree to the sound and fertile of Spitzbergen, the Dutch built forts there, and after state in which it once had been. Revolving seasons did wards added establishments for the preparation of oil, but tend to show that I had completely lost my time; for amply providing these with boilers and other utensils

the American bug, supposed to have been unknown for

merly, in this country, attacked my labours in such forinifor that operation. So opulent had the whale-traders dable array, that nothing could withstand its fury. become, that a taste for luxury led them to build a Every lover of the orchard must have observed this white town on that desolate island. Houses were actually pestilence in the enclosures sacred to Pomona. It is seen constructed upon it within eleven degrees of the pole, on the branches and on the bole of the apple-tree in the fitted up with many of the conveniences enjoyed in

month of June, when it gives them the appearance of being Holland, in hopes of enabling their inhabitants to

dotted over with little patches of a downy white. brave the rigours of the climate during all seasons of the spoliator, which had nearly rendered the choicest parts

Long ago I turned my thoughts to the extermination of These habitations were originally con of the orchard a sickly, sad, unprofitable waste. I began structed piecemeal, in the ship-building yards of by trying to make the branches upon which these diminuAmsterdam, and taken to Spitzbergen at a heavy tive harpies had settled, as disagreeable to them as it were cost, but the project of living there in Winter proved possible, hoping by this manœuvre to starve them out of fatal to the lives of many. This town of theirs they house and home. With this in view, I applied unctuous called Smeerenberg, and so entirely has it now disa preparations to the injured parts of the trees; but finding.

in the long run, that this availed me nothing, I made a depeared, doubtless in part from the combustible nature

coction from walnut leaves, and washed the branches well of its materials, that the very site it occupied can with it, calculating that the bitterness of the decoction hardly be ascertained; while Batavia, founded by the would render the fivourite food of the insects unpalatable to same people, at the same time, on the island of Java, them. But I was deceived: the bugs continued their is now the centre of Indian trade. The idea, how-depredations as though no pains had been taken to dislodge

them. ever, of the former of these settlements, be it remembered, was suggested, and the sacrifice of the large once, and for a few days after it had been applied I was

The application of the spirit of turpentine killed them at amount of accumulated profits which it cost, was in hopes that their extermination had been effected: but made, only in prospect of the place becoming an others soon appeared. inexhaustible source of wealth. It was at that time Despairing of success, I was on the point of quitting the the central point of meeting for all the whaling-field, and leaving the bugs in undisturbed possession of it, vessels; there they met, followed by numerous

when I began to conjecture that I had not gone the right tenders, charged with victuals and stores of all could have penetrated sufficiently deep into the curred and

way to work. I reflected that none of my applications kinds; so that while the fishing was in full activity, knotty sinuosities of the diseased parts; and that, on this there were good inns, well-furnished shops, and account, there would be a suflicient force of the enemy left many things else to make life agreeable, particularly alive to recommence its depredations at the first favourable to strangers. It was only towards the close of the opportunity: Wherefore I concluded that nothing short of seventeenth century, on the whales retiring about the entire destruction of the eggs, the young, and the adult, seventy leagues further north, that Spitzbergen was

could save the trees from ultimate ruin. Knowing that the

bug could not exist if totally deprived of air, I resolved to abandoned. Ham, and some other northern towns

bury it alive; I effected this by an application at once the most alone could compete with the Dutch, who, though easy and simple that can be imagined. It costs nothing. they abandoned Spitzbergen, continued in possession I mixed clay with water, till it was of a consistency that of the trade until about the middle of the eighteenth it could be put on the injured parts of the tree, either with century, when the English, after great sacrifices, got a mason's trowel, or with a painter's brush. I then applied it into their own hands, and it seems not unlikely it to the diseased places of the tree, and it soon smothered that they in turn will be supplanteıl by the Americans. crack which showed itself when the clay had become dry;

every bug. A second coat upon the first filled up every On retiring from Spitzbergen, the whales were still and this resisted, for a sufficient length of time, the effects

be found in the northern parts of the icy sea, o both of sun and rain. The sickly parts, now effectually freed the east coast of Greenland, but now they hardly from the enemy which had been preying upon their vitals, . appear even there. They confine themselves almost were placed in a state to be cured by the healing process of

nature; and that nature has done her duty, my apple trees entirely to the sea, called Baffin's Bay, which connects

amply testify:

-WATERTON. with the ocean by Davis's Straits. There they are still to be found in vast numbers, but the icebergs, so formidable in those latitudes, make the fishery dangerous. What a chain of evils does that man prepare for himself

who is a slave to anger! He is the murderer of his own I am by all means for encouraging the contemplation soul, yea to the letter he is so, for he lives in a continual of the celestial part of the world, and the shining globes

torment. He is devoured by an inward fire, and his body that adorn it, and especially the sun and moon, in order to partakes of his sufferings. Terror reigns around him, every raise our admiration of the stupendous power and wisdom one dreads lest the most innocent, the most trifling occurof Him who was able to frame such immense bodies; and,

rence, may give him a pretext for quarrel, or rouse him notwithstanding their vast bulk, and scarce conceivable

into fury:

A passionate man is alike odious to God and rapidity, keep them for so many ages constant both to the

man, and is insupportable even to himself. —St. EPHRAIM; lines and degrees of their motion, without interfering with

Book of the Fathers. one another. And doubtless we ought to return thanks and praises to the Divine goodness for having so placed the sun and moon, and determined the former, or else the All the performances of human art, at which we look with earth, to move in particular lines for the good of men and praise or wonder, are instances of the resistless force of other animals; and how disadvantageous it would have perseverance; it is by this that the quarry becomes a been to the inhabitants of the earth if the luminaries had pyramid, and that distant countries are united by canals. moved after a different manner, I dare not, however, If a man was to compare the effect of a single stroke of a affirm that the sun, moon, and other celestial bodies were pickaxe, or of one impression of the spade, with the general made solely for the use of man; much less presume to design and last result, he would be overwhelmed by the prove one system of the world to be true and another false; sense of their disproportion; yet those petty operations because the former is better fitted to the convenience of incessantly continued, in time surmount the greatest diffimankind, or the other less suited, or perhaps altogether culties, and mountains are levelled, and oceans bounded, by useless to that end. -BOYLE.

the slender force of human beings. --JOHNSON.

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THE ORIGIN OF CORONATIONS.

High Priest; but the kings who were vassals to The ceremony of the Coronation is not to be re the Persian monarch received this emblem of their garded simply as a splendid spectacle, and an impos- royal dignity from the sovereign himself. In the ing form ; it is a solemn recognition of the mutual annexed engraving we see one of those vassal princes obligations between the sovereign and the subjects, receiving the regal circlet from the hands of the made in the presence of that Almighty Being " by Persian monarch, who claimed for himself the title whom alone kings do reign.” When God selected of king of kings. The queen also was crowned Saul to be the first king over his chosen people, we by the king, and not by a mobed : thus, we read in find that “ Samuel took a vial of oil, and poured it the Book of Esther, “The king loved Esther above upon his head, and kissed him, and said, Is it not all the women, and she obtained grace and favour in because the Lord hath anointed thee to be captain his sight, more than all the virgins ; so that he set over his inheritance ?" (1 Sam. x. 1.) From that the royal crown upon her head, and made her queen period, the unction, or anointing with oil, became an instead of Vashti." (Esther ii. 17.) We learn, also, important part of the ceremonials used at the in- from the next verse, that the ceremony of the corostallation of kings in Judah and Israel. St. Augustine nation in Persia was celebrated by a public entertainexpressly assures us that this custom was peculiar to ment, and by various acts of grace and favour. “The the Jews : Nowhere else,” he says, were kings king made a great feast unto all his princes and his anointed, than in that kingdom where Christ. was servants, even Esther's feast; and he made a release foretold, and whence he was to come.” The cere to the provinces, and gave gifts, according to the mony of Saul's inauguration was a simple recog- state of the king.” (Esther ii. 18.) nition : “Samuel said to all the peopl3, See ye

him The Roman title of emperor originally signified whom the Lord hath chosen, that there is none like nothing more than commander of an army, and was him among all the people? And all the people regarded as inferior to that of king. It will be shouted, and said, God save the king.” (1 Sam. X. 24.) remembered that Julius Cæsar refused to accept The ceremonies used at the coronation of David were a crown; Mark Antony, in his oration over Cæsar's also unction and recognition, and the forms were used body, is represented as declaringwhen Solomon was made king, during the life-time

You all did see that on the Lupercal, of his father. But when Jehoash, being saved from

I thrice presented him a kingly crown, Athaliah's massacre, was anointed king by Jehoiada,

Which he did thrice refuse. we find that several additional forms were used, In the Western empire, indeed, there seems to which deserve attention. “Jehoiada brought forth have been no established form for the installation of the king's son, and put the crown upon his head, and the sovereign ; but in the Eastern or Byzantine gave him the testimony; and they made him king, empire the Roman customs were intermingled with and anointed him; and they clapped their hands those of the Oriental nations, and the emperors reand said, God save the king."

ceived from the prætorian guards a crown and a The crown appears to have been taken as a royal sword, which seemed to be a tacit acknowledgment of ornament, because the circle was regarded as the the right claimed by the soldiers to dispose of the em. symbol of completeness and perfection ; for the same pire. Justin II, deprived the imperial guards of this reason, investiture by the ring was used at a much privilege, under the pretence of giving a religious earlier period : it was by this form that Pharaoh sanction to the ceremonies of the coronation ; and constituted Joseph his viceroy over Egypt. A circlet from his time the crown, sceptre, and sword, were for the head was used at a very early period in publicly given to the emperor by the patriarch of Persia, and probably in Babylonia ; but most of the Constantinople, in the church of St. Sophia. The other Asiatic nations adopted the tiara, or fillet, ceremony of anointing was first introduced by which was bound round the king's head, on his ac- Andronicus the Younger, in the thirteenth century, cession, with great solemnity. The Persian received long after it had been adopted in Western Europe ; he the crown, or, perhaps, we should rather call it the added this form in order that the soldiers should not royal circlet, from the hands of the Chief Mobed, or revive their claim to perform the coronation, because

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that unction and chrism, that is, anointing with and the principal nobles. In this state the emperor oil and ointment, could only be performed by a was conveyed to the church of St. Sophia, where he person of episcopal dignity. The empresses of Con. was invested with the ensigns of imperial dignity. stantinople, like the queens of Persia, however, could In Navarre, the ceremony of elevating the sovereign only receive the crown matrimonial from the hands on the shield was considered of greater importance of the emperor.

than the coronation itself. The arms of the kingdom The warlike tribes of Germany elected their kings, were painted on a shield, which was placed upon the but they always chose one of royal blood for their ground in some public place; the king, led by two sovereign. Indeed, the principles of hereditary and of the principal nobles, advanced and stepped upon elective monarchy, which now appear so utterly the shield, when it was raised up by six stout slaves, irreconcileable, were so far from seeming inconsistent and the monarch was borne in this fashion into the to our Saxon ancestors, that they insisted on both midst of the assembled multitude. being united in the person of their monarch, and In an ancient law of Don Pelayo, one of the Gothic some traces of this apparent anomaly may be found | kings of Spain, we find the following directions for in the present ceremonials of coronation.

the creation of their kings : “Let the king be chosen and admitted into the metropolitan city of this kingdom, or at least into some cathedral church, and the night before he is exalted, let him watch all night in the church; and the next day, when they come to lift him up, let him step upon a shield or buckler, and the principal men there present shall raise him aloft, and when he is so elevated, the people shall cry, Real, Real."

Among the Jews, the Norwegians, and the Irish, the ceremony of investing the monarch with sovereign power was performed near or at some remarkable stone pillar. Thus Abimelech was made king " by the plain of the pillar that was in Shechem." (Judges ix. 6.) Jehoash, during his coronation, “stood by a pillar, as the manner was,” (2 Kings xi. 14 ;) and Josiah, when he restored the pure worship of Jehovah, "stood by a pillar, and made a covenant before the Lord.” (2 Kings xxiii. 3.)

The Norwegians and Danes used to place twelve stone seats in the form of a circle, for the principal nobles, and one in the centre for the king. The royal stone was of great size, and was rudely shaped into the form of a seat. Three of these circles still exist in Denmark, which was anciently divided into

three kingdoms : the most perfect of them is that When the Germans had chosen a king, they pre-called Kingstolen (the royal seat), at Leipa in Zeapared a pavis, or very large shield, on which they land ; the others are at Lunden in Scania, and seated the new monarch; and elevating the pavis on | Viburg in Jutland. the shoulders of the principal officers, carried their These stone circles for the installation of kings king in triumphal procession three times round the were introduced into the Shetland Isles, the Hebrides, army. On these occasions, the Germans used to ma and the Isle of Man, by their Norwegian conquerors. nifest their spirit of rude independence by playing They were called Tings, and the hill on which the practical jokes on their sovereign, such as sbaking stone circle in the Isle of Man was erected, is still the pavis, and attempting to unseat him. Such bar-called Tinwald Hill. barous sport had nearly proved fatal to Gunwald, The Germans adopted this custom from the Nor. king of Burgundy : he was thrown from the shield, wegians : their Königstuhl is near Coblentz

upon

the as he was borne round the army a third time, and Rhine ; it consists of seven stone seats ranged was so severely bruised that it was feared he would in a circle, for the seven electors, and a large stone have expired upon the spot. This custom was intro- in the centre for the emperors. In Hungary, the duced into England by the Saxons, and it is still pre- kings took their coronation oath on a stone column. served in the chairing of successful candidates after After the monarch had sworn, he mounted a spirited elections. Even the spirit of practical jesting was pre- horse, and leaped over a mound of earth prepared served down to the beginning of the esent century: for the purpose, after wbich he ascended the mound, within the memory of persons still alive, it was con and waved his sword in the form of a cross over the sidered rather hazardous to encounter the perils of a multitude. popular chairing at Yarmouth or at Norwich.

The most singular ceremony connected with the This custom of elevating the sovereign on a shield, stone column was that which took place at the was introduced into the Roman empire a little installation of the dukes of Carinthia.

A large before its fall; Gordian and Julian were thus pro rock near the city of St. Veit was the place where claimed emperors by their soldiers, who had learned the installation was performed. On the day apthe practice during their campaigns in Germany and pointed for the celebration of the ceremonial, a Gaul. This custom was also adopted in the Byzan- peasant, who claimed the place by hereditary descent, tine empire. Cantacuzenus informs us that the em took up his position on the top of the rock, and had peror was to be elevated on the shield at sunrise ; below him, tethered at the basė, a black cow, a black that the fore-part of the shield was to be supported calf, and the leanest mare which could be found in by the emperor's father, if he were alive, and if not, the province. A little after sunrise, the duke-elect by his nearest male relation ; and that the back part came out from the city, clad in a peasant's dress, was to be borne by the patriarch of Constantinople, I a coarse bonnet on his head, buskins of untanned

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ELEVATION OY AN ANCIENT GERMAN KING.

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