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RECREATIONS IN NATURAL
earth's surface, a mass of air only five miles high PHILOSOPHY.
would weigh as much as that of the whole fifty miles We propose, under the above title, to present our now does, as it is really constituted. readers with a series of very popular papers, on
Now this weight acts as a pressure upon all bodies various subjects connected with natural philosophy. at the earth's surface; and it is precisely this pressure As our object is to present the young reader with an which makes water ascend in the siphon or bent tube easy and agreeable mode of passing his time, and of of the distiller. The shorter leg of the siphon is, in turning it to useful account, even in the midst of his the first intance, inserted into the bung-hole of the sports, we shall avoid every appearance of scientific cask, the other end being closed by means of a cock. difficulty, which may remind him of work instead A small tube is inserted at the side of the siphon of play. Accordingly, we shall adopt no particular above the cock, and passes a little way into it." To arrangement of subjects, but write, from time to time, the free end of this small tube the man applies his on such as most readily occur to us; and which we lips, and sucks out the air, the spirit in the cask being think capable of being best understood, or most pressed upon by the atmospheric air, a portion of it likely to afford pleasure. Our experiments will be rises up the tube, passes over the bent part, and of such a nature as to be easily repeated, without falls down to the closed end of the siphon; on having recourse to that very expensive gentleman, the opening the cock the spirit flows out, and the cask philosophical instrument maker. We therefore begin would be almost entirely emptied of spirit, unless the by requesting the young experimentalist to provide flow were regulated by the turning of the cock at the himself with some of that cheap and abundant long end of the siphon. blessing-water-for we are going to talk to him of Let us illustrate this by a figure. The annexed
cut represents a vessel, with a siphon Fg h inserted I. THE SIPHON.
Fig. 2. Most persons who inhabit a city or large town, such as London, have seen a distiller's wagon in the streets, with men drawing off spirits from casks into copper vessels, through bent copper tubes; most persons, we say, have seen this ; but very few understand the curious law by which fluids admit of being removed from one vessel into another in this way. If we look at the manner in which it is done, we find that the pipe ascends from the upper part of the cask; and is not inserted into the lower part; and, in that respect, differs from all our common in one side of it. In fig. 1 the vessel is rather more notions as to the manner in which liquids move. than half filled with water, and in fig. 2 it is nearly
Why is it that the water will not flow out of a full. The pipe E we will supose to be for the purpose tea-kettle while on the are, into our tea-pots, unless, of conveying water into the vessel. Now as soon by applying our hand to the handle, we bring the as there is enough water in the vessel to reach up to spout of the kettle to a lower level ? It is that the point F, that is, to the mouth of the siphon, the water, under general circumstances, will not ascend, water begins to ascend the tube; and if the vessel but will constantly strive to attain a lower position. gets so full that the water is as high as the top of the The tinman, therefore, who, without being much of siphon, as in fig. 2, it will immediately begin to flow a philosopher, perfectly well knows that such is the down the outer leg of the siphon, and escape at the property of liquids, makes the mouth of the spout end 1 ; but so long as the height of the water is, as of the kettle higher than the body of the kettle, in in fig. 1, less than the height of the siphon, the water order that, although full of water, it may not over will not flow through the tube, provided the bent flow. The manner in which cocks are fixed into our part of the siphon contain air ; because that air will cisterns and water-butts, the care which we take to act on the water in the inner leg of the siphon, as prevent any holes being made in the sides of a vessel much as the exterior air açts on the water in the containing water, &c., all show that we constantly vessel, and will prevent it from flowing outwards. act from a knowledge of the circumstance, that water But if the siphon, before it be introduced into the will descend whenever an opportunity for so doing vessel, be inverted and filled with water, the water occurs; but that it shows no tendency to ascend. from the vessel will flow through the siphon, even if How is it, then, that the distiller is enabled to draw there were only just enough water to cover the mouth liquor from a cask by a pipe fixed into the top of the of the siphon at F. If the conduit pipes F and E be cask instead of into the bottom? This we will now of the same bore, that is, of the same breadth or
diameter, as the siphons, the water will flow out as The air which we breathe, and by which we are quickly as it flows in. If the conduit-pipe be of larger always surrounded, is a material substance, although bore than the siphon, the latter will not draw off the we cannot see it. A gallon of it weighs about a water quick enough, and the vessel will soon overflow. quarter of an ounce, and presses on other bodies in If the conduit-pipe be of smaller bore than the siphon, that proportion. A milkmaid, while carrying her the vessel will be emptied down to F; air will then pail upon her head, when going to milk cows, thinks enter the siphon, and no more water will flow from that she has an empty pail upon her head, and it until the level of the water in the vessel and in only bears the weight of the pail: but such is not the siphon has reached to g. All these conditions, the case ; she carries a pailful of air besides the pail however, are subject to modifications depending upon itself, the air weighing from an ounce to two ounces. the rapidity with which the water flows into the It is very true that this is a small amount of weight; cistern from the conduit-pipes. but it produces an important effect when witnessed We now understand the action of the distiller's in the grand processes of nature. The atmosphere siphon. The inner leg of the siphon dips into the is about fifty miles in height from the earth's surface; liquid in the cask; and the air which presses on the but it gets so much thinner or lighter as we ascend, liquid in the cask forces it up the siphon, because that if the whole were of the same density as at the the latter, being full of lic uid, cannot allow the air
to press in an opposite direction. It must always elapsed ? If the water flowed through the hole with be understood, however, that the mouth of the outer a constant rapidity, it would be suffi
Fig. 3 leg of the 'siphon must be at a lower level than the cient to divide the height of the tube surface of the liquid in the vessel, or the liquid will into twelve equal parts; and we should not flow through the siphon.
know that when one of those divisions This property of water is the source of one of the was emptied, one hour had elapsed; grandest, as well as one of the most valuable, phe when two divisions were emptied, two nomena of nature: we mean the formation of springs hours had elapsed, and so on. But and fountains. The rain which descends from the such is not the case : the water flows clouds, falls, some on hilly districts, and other por more rapidly when the tube is nearly tions on plains and valleys. That which falls on hills full than when it is nearly empty ; inis partially absorbed by the soil, and a number of deed, so great is the difference, that if minute streams combine to form a reservoir, which the tube were twelve inches high, frequently exists in the bosom of a mountain. From almost two inches of water would flow this reservoir streams descend through the sandy out in the first hour, and only onestrata, following the windings of those kinds of soil, twelfth part of an inch in the last hour or earth, or gravel, which will admit them to pass It therefore became necessary, in order to ipake. this most easily. These little streams may thus descend water-clock indicate correct hourly intervals, to divide and wind, until they arrive under the surface of a the height of the tube into twelve unequal divisions, neighbouring valley: when, if the soil above them be the smallest being at the bottom, and increasing upporous, they will rise to the surface and exhibit wards in length according to a certain law of increase; themselves to us under the form of bubbling streams. this we see roughly indicated in our engraving. The reason why the water rises to the surface is, that But it was not always easy to graduate the all the little channels leading from the reservoir to tube in the exact proportion desired; and, in the spring, form collectively a sort of siphon turned order to obviate the necessity of so doing, the prinupside down, because there is a continuous stream of ciple of the siphon was employed, as in the annexed water from one end of the siphon to the other. figure, fig. 4. Here D E is an
Fig. 4. If the soil on the surface of the valley lie on a open vessel for containing chalky foundation, the little streams will probably be water, and ABC is a siphon, unable to penetrate upwards through the chalk; but with the outer opening c at a if a well be dug at that part, a hole or passage is
lower level than the inner open. prepared for the water, through which it will ascend. ing A. On filling the vessel If the reservoir in the neighbouring mountain be with water, and immersing the under the level of the valley, the stream will form a shorter leg of the siphon in it, well; but if it be at a higher level, the stream will the water will flow through form a fountain, because the water will strive to reach the siphon, and escape at the as high a level at the valley as at the mountain. lower orifice c, provided, of
The poet Thomson, in some beautiful lines, thus course, the siphon be properly describes the above phenomenon :
prepared by being full of water These roving mists, that constant now begin
before the short leg is immerTo smoke along the hilly country; these,
sed in the vessel. In this way With weightier rains and melted Alpine snows,
the vessel may be completely emptied of its water The mountain-cisterns fill, those ample stores
We have now to inquire whether the water flows Of water, scooped among the hollow rocks,
at an equal velocity through the siphon at all times; Whence gush the streams, the ceaseless fountains play,
for if such is not the case, we shall be as far off as And their unfailing wealth the rivers draw. Some sages say, that, where the numerous wave
ever from obtaining a correct time-measurer. Now For ever lashes the resounding shore,
such is not the case, unless the lower orifice c of the Drilled through the sandy stratum, every way
siphon is at a constant distance below the surface of The waters with the sandy stratum rise;
the fluid in the vessel : as that distance increases, so Amid whose angles infinitely strained,
does the rapidity of the flow through the siphon inThey joyful leave their jaggy salts behind,
In order, therefore, to keep this distance And clear and sweeter as they soak along : Nor stops the restless fluid; mounting still,
always equal, the shorter leg of the siphon is fixed Though oft amidst the irriguous vale it springs ;
through a flat piece of cork, which floats on the surBut to the mountain courted by the sand,
face of the water; so that as the water sinks the That leads it darkling on in faithful maze,
siphon sinks with it, and the consequence is, that the Far from the parent-main, it boils again
water flows with a constantly equal rapidity through Fresh into day; and all the glittering hill
the siphon. Is bright with spouting rills.
This we perceive is precisely the object which we The property which enables liquids to flow from desired : the vessel loses equal portions of water in one vessel into another through a siphon, was taken equal times. If, therefore, the height of the vessel advantage of to form a rude kind of clock, before be divided into twelve equal parts, either one of the our present admirable watches and clocks were divisions will be emptied of its water in an hour ; for invented. To explain how this was done, we must the diameter of the siphon, and the size of the vessel, first consider another mode of attaining the same are so adjusted, as to cause the whole of the water object. Fig. 3, is a Clepsydra, or Water-Clock. It to flow out in twelve hours. If the vessel is filled consists of an upright hollow tube, with a little hole with water at noon, one-twelfth will have flowed out in the bottom, and an open vessel placed underneath. by one o'clock, and the surface will be at 1, as in the The hole in the bottom of the tube is so small, that figure. We have represented the cork-float at between the tube-full of water takes twelve hours to flow out. the levels of 7 and 8; it is thus indicated that nearly The tube is filled with water at a certain hour, and two-thirds of the water have flowed out, and that when the water has all flowed out, it indicates that nearly two-thirds of twelve hours have elapsed in the twelve hours, or half a day, have elapsed. But how flowing, which indicates likewise that the time is now shall we know when one, or two, or three hours have I between seven and eight o'clock,
These are some of the means by which our fore- | DANGERS OF MORAL SENTIMENT UNAC. fathers measured the flight of time; but the almost COMPANIED BY ACTIVE VIRTUE. magical performance of a modern watch or clock Or the various appearances of melancholy weakness has completely driven the water-clock out of the in youth, none is more general or more fatal to every field; and it is only now known as a curiosity—as a duty or hope of the Christian, than that, where the relic of ancient ingenuity.
youthful taste is exalted above the condition in which The reader may see the action of the siphon by life is to be passed. The faithful parent, or the wise taking a bent tube and placing one end into a vessel instructor of the young, will ever assiduously accomof water, and inserting the other end into his mouth; modate the ideas of excellence to the actual circumon withdrawing the air the water will pass over the stances and the probable scenes in which their future bent part of the tube into his mouth, and if the years are to be engaged ; and every condition of life latter be removed, the water will continue to flow undoubtedly affords opportunities for the highest until the vessel is empty, provided the outer end of excellence of which our nature is susceptible. If, on the tube be always below the level of the water in the other hand, these hours are neglected,-if the the vessel.
fancy of youth be suffered to expand into the regions
of visionary perfection,--if compositions which THE HEAD OF THE ELEPHANT.
nourish all these chimerical opinions are permitted A vulgar admiration is excited by seeing the spider- to hold an undue share in the studies of the young, monkey pick up a straw or a piece of wood, with its tail; -if, what is far more, no employment of moral or the elephant searching the keeper's pocket with his labour and intellectual activity are afforded them to trunk. Now, fully to examine the peculiarity of the ele- correct this progressive indolence, and give strength phant's structure, that is to say, from its huge mass to deduce the necessity for its trunk, would lead us through a
and energy to their opening minds, there is much train of very curious observations to a more correct notion danger that the seeds of irremediable evil are sown, of that appendage, and therefore to truer admiration of it.
and that the future harvest of life will be only feebleWe find that one of the grinders of the elephant weighs ness, and contempt, and sorrow. seventeen pounds; and of these there are four in the skull, If, in the first place, it is to the common duties of besides the rudiments of others. We next observe how
life they advance, how singularly unprepared are they admirably these grinding-teeth are suited to sustain great for their discharge! In all ranks and conditions, pressure and attrition. The jaws must be provided to give these duties are the same ; everywhere sacred in the deep socketing to such teeth: and they must have space and strength to give lodgment and attachment to museles eyes of God and man; everywhere requiring activity, sufficient for moving this grinding-machine. The animal and firmness, and perseverance of mind; and everymust have its defence too. Now each of the tusks some. where only to be fulfilled by the deep sense of relitimes weighis as much as one hundred and thirteen pounds: gious obligation. For such scenes, however, of comand being projected, they may be considered as if placed at
mon trial and of universal occurrence, the characters the end of a lever. If this enormous and heavy head had hung on the end of a neck having anything like the pro
we are considering are ill prepared. Their habits portion in its length, which we see, for example, in the have given them no energy or activity; their studies horse, it would inordinately have increased the pressure on have enlightened their imaginations, but not warmed the anterior extremities; and more than four times the ex their hearts; their anticipations of action have been penditure of muscular power would have been necessary to upon a romantic theatre, not upon the humble dust the inotion of the head. What has been the resource of
of mortal life. nature ? There are seven vertebrw of the neck in this animal, the
It is the fine-drawn scenes of visionary distress to same number that we find in the giraffe; but they are com
which they have been accustomed, not the plain cirpressed in a very remarkable manner, so as to bring the cumstances of common wretchedness. It is the head close upon the body: and thus the head is, as it were, momentary exertions of generosity or greatness a part of the body, without the interposition of the neck. which have elevated their fancy, not the long and But the animal must teed: and as its head cannot reach the patient struggle of pious duty. It is before an ground, it must possess an instrument like a hand in the proboscis, to minister to the mouth, to grasp the herbage, admiring world that they have hitherto conceived and list it to its lips. Thus we perceive that the form of themselves to act, not in solitude and obscurity, amid the elephant, as far as regards the peculiar character in the the wants of poverty, the exigences of disease, or the shoulders and head, the closeness of the head to the body, deep silence of domestic sorrow. Is it wonderful the possession of the proboscis, and the desence of that that characters of this enfeebled kind should recoil proboscis by the projecting tusks, is a necessary consequence from the duties to which they are called, and which of the weight of the head, and, indeed, of the great size of the animal.-BELL on the Hand.
appear to them in colours so unexpected that they should consider the world as a gross and vulgar scene, unworthy of their interest, and its common
obligations as something beneath them to perform; But who the melodies of morn can tell ?
and that, with an affectation of proud superiority, The wild brook babbling down the mountain's side; they should wish to retire from a field in which they
The lowing herd ; the sheepfold's simple bell; have the presumption to think it is fit only for vulgar The pipe of early shepherd, dim descried
minds to combat? In the lone valley ; echoing far and wide
If these are the opinions which they form on their The clamorous horn along the cliff's above ; The hollow murmur of the ocean-tide;
entrance upon the world and all its stern realities, it The hum of bees; the linnet's lay of love;
is the “ fountain from which many waters of bitterAnd the full choir that wakes the universal grove.
ness will flow." Youth may pass in indolence and The cottage curs at early pilgrims bark;
imagination, but life must necessarily be active; and Crowned with her pail the tripping milk-maid sings; what must be the probable character of that life
The whistling ploughman stalks afield; and, hark! which begins with disgust at the simple but inevitable Down the rough slope the ponderous wagon rings; duties to which it is called, it is not difficult to
Through rustling corn the hare astonished springs ; determine.
From hence come many classes of character with Deep mourns the turtle in sequestered bower;
which the world presents us, in what we call its And shrill lark carols clear from her aërial tower.-- higher scenes, and which it is impossible to behold
BEATTIE. without a sentiment of pity, as well as of indignation;
in some, the perpetual affectation of sentiment, and the perpetual absence of its reality ; in others, the
THE NESTS OF WASPS. warm admiration of goodness, and the cold and in- | The honeycomb of the bee is well known, and the dignant performance of their own most sacred duties; instinct by which the insect has been taught to conin some, that childish belief of their own superior struct its curious dwelling, has been often commented refinement, which leads them to withdraw from the
upon. It is not so generally known that many common scenes of life and of business, and to dis- species of wasps, who live in societies, prepare habitatinguish themselves only by capricious opinions and tions for their young with a skill, little, if anything, fantastic manners; and in others, of a bolder spirit, inferior to that evinced by the bee. the proud rejection of all the duties and decencies The nest of the common wasp is constructed in which belong only to common men,—the love of that the earth, the entrance to it is by a hole or gallery distinction in vice which they feel themselves unable worked in, like the entrance to the burrow of a rabto attain in virtue, and the gradual but too certain bit; this gallery seldom leads in a direct line to the advance to the last stages of guilt, of impiety, and of nest, and its length is of course determined by the wretchedness. Such are sometimes the “ issues" of distance of the nest from the surface, but it appears a once promising youth! and to these degrees of to be never less than six inches, and seldom exceeds folly or of guilt, let the parents and the instructors eighteen inches in length. of the young ever remember, that those infant hearts
This gallery leads to a little subterranean town may come, which have not been " kept with all dili constructed with great regularity. It is surrounded gence," and early exercised in virtuous activity. by walls on all sides, the walls not being merely
Amid these delusions of fancy, life, meanwhile, formed by the earth in which the hole is made, but with all its plain and serious business is passing; by a substance somewhat resembling paper, consisttheir contempories, in every line, are starting before ing of layers, altogether about an inch and a half in them in the road of honour, of fortune, or of use. thickness. (See fig. 1.) This outward envelope of the fulness; and nothing is now left them but to concen nest varies in form and size according to the species trate all the vigour of their minds to recover the of wasp to which the nest belongs ; the usual form is ground which they have lost. But if this last energy that of a lengthened ball, about eighteen inches long, be wanting-if what they " would," they yet fail to and twelve or thirteen broad. The substance of “do," what, alas! can be the termination of the once
which its covering is formed, as has already been said, ardent and aspiring mind, but ignominy and dis more resembles paper than anything else; it is genegrace? a heart dissatisfied with mankind and with rally of an ashy-gray colour, of different shades; itself; a conscience sickening at the review of what sometimes its surface appears as if formed of different is passed ; a failing fortune ; a degraded character ; coloured substances, applied in streaks or wavy lines, and, what I fear is ever the last and the most frantic so as to have a marbled appearance. The surface of refuge of selfish and disappointed ambition,-—infi this covering is not smooth, nor does its substance delity and despair.
appear solid, but it bears some resemblance to a It is ever painful to trace the history of human number of bivalve shells cemented together with degradation, and it would even be injurious to reli- their convex sides outwards. When the structure is gion and virtue to do it, if it were not at the same complete, it is provided with two door-ways, or time to exhibit the means by which these evils may openings, by one of which the insects enter, but be prevented. Of the character which I have now they always leave the building by the other. These attempted to illustrate, the origin may be expressed openings are only suflicient to allow one wasp to in one word : it is in the forgetfulness of duty, in pass at a time, and so great is the regularity of the forgetfulness that every power, and advantage, their movements, that no confusion takes place by and possession of our being, are only trusts com- jostling each other, or by entering at the wrong hole. mitted to us for an end, not properties which we are The interior of the building is occupied by several to dispose of at pleasure; in the forgetfulness that platforms of cells, placed horizontally, like the seg. all our imaginary virtues are "nothing worth," unless ments of a honeycomb, from which, however, they they spring from the genuine and permanent source differ in many respects; they are formed of the same of moral and religious obligation.
paper-like material as the covering of the nest. Wherever, indeed, we look around us upon general The segments of the honeycomb are composed of life, we may everywhere see, that nothing but the
a double series of cells, opening on both their surdeep sense of religion can produce either consistency faces; the cells of the wasps are in a single series, or virtue in human conduct. The world deceives us
the openings all on the under side, and the cells on one side,-our imaginations on another,-our pas contain no honey or other substance, being merely sions upon all. Nothing could save us; nothing, intended for the reception of the eggs and young. with such materials, could hold together even the These cells are most numerous, and Réaumur has fabric of society, but the preservation of that deep calculated that as many as thirty thousand wasps and instinctive sense of duty, which the Father of might be produced in a nest in one year. The upper nature hath mercifully given to direct and illuminate part of the cells being covered over, affords spacious us in every relation of life; which is “none other" platforms, on which the inhabitants move backwards than his own voice; to which all our other powers, and forwards. The intervals between these platforms if they aim either at wisdom or at virtue, must be are ornamented with numerous pillars, by which they subservient; and which leads us, if we listen to it, to are supported. In constructing the comb, the upper everything for which we were called into being, either and smallest platform is first formed, the second is here or hereafterALISON.
suspended in the air beneath it, being attached by
the pillars. These pillars are formed of the same Guilt, though it may attain temporal splendour, can never material as the rest of the structure ; the platforms are confer real happiness. The evil consequences of our crimes also attached in some places to the sides of the nest. long survive their commission, and, like the ghosts of the If the wall of the nest is cut through its substance, murdered, for ever haunt the steps of the malefactor. The
it will be seen that it is formed of numerous layers, paths of virtue, though seldom those of worldly greatness, are always those of pleasantness and peace. ---SIR
leaving small spaces between each layer; as many as Walter Scott.
sixteen of these have been counted in the covering of
NESTS OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF WASPS. a wasp's nest. This structure of the covering ap- substance was not as moist as it is when the insect employs pears to be resorted to on two accounts; it requires it in its labours. a smaller quantity of material, and is less easily On examining the mass, he found it to consist of penetrated by the rain, the intervals between the numerous small fibres of wood, not chips, the insect layers forming so many drains for the moisture. having first loosened the fibres, and then bitten thern
The material, of which the whole building is formed, off of the necessary length. Fragments of wood, is brought home by each wasp in the shape of a like saw-dust, would not have answered the purpose small ball, which is carried between a pair of of the wasp, they would not have interlaced so as to pincers, placed beneath the head, with which at other form a paper. times the creature divides its food. Supposing a Subsequent observations proved to our author, that layer begun, which the wasp wishes to enlarge, it these insects were quite as well satisfied to take the presses the little ball, which consists of a soft paste, fibres from ready-made paper, as to be at the trouble against one end of the layer, there it adheres, and of stripping them from the wood. This he discovered the wasp moves backwards; as it retreats, it leaves by the noise made by a wasp while robbing the paper behind it a small portion of its load fixed to the edge squares of a casement in Paris, near which he was at of the layer, employing all this time its nippers, as a work. The window overlooked the garden, and the potter does his finger and thumb in applying more paper was much damaged by the numerous wasps clay to the edge of a vessel. The wasp having who visited the spot. moulded the whole of the ball into a flattened layer, The hornet, like the wasp, builds its nest in the advances quickly to the place where it was first ground, but other species of this genus attach them attached, and seizing it in its nippers again, retreats to the branches of trees. The engravings, figs. 2 and
3, operation is repeated four or five times in succession, Fig. 2 was about the size and form of a large until it is reduced to the thickness of a sheet of cabbage-rose. In this instance the cells were arpaper.
ranged in two masses, at the bottom of the cavity of Réaumur, to whom we are indebted for our know the nest. Fig. 3 shows the form of a wasp's nest ledge of the mode in which the wasps construct their from America; the outside of this nest was smooth, nests, was, for a length of time, notwithstanding and bore a great resemblance to pasteboard. Fig. 4 repeated observations, unable to ascertain from what is a very singular wasp's nest; the cells are unprosource the insects obtained the substance which vided with the usual covering, and attached to the they brought home with them. At length accident branch of a tree; at a little distance it appears like gave him an opportunity of ascertaining the fact; a flower. Unprovided with the usual covering, these and he thus explains the circumstance.
wasps preserve their cells from the effects of the rain After I had discontinued my observations on this descrip-by varnishing them, and this seems to occupy a great tion of fly, a female wasp, of the species of which we are portion of their time. speaking, taught me that which I had been so long searching for without success. She placed herself near me on the frame-work of the window, which was open. I per- As beauty does not consist in taking what lies immediately ceived that she remained at rest, on a spot from which it before you, so neither, in our pursuit of taste, are those seemed impossible she could obtain any succulent sub- opinions which we first received and adopted, the best stance; while the rest of her body was at rest, I remarked choice or the most natural to the mind and imagination. In many movements of her head. My first idea was, that the the infancy of our knowledge we seize with greediness the wasp was detaching from the wood some substance with goodness that is within our reach; it is by after considerawhich to build, and I was right in my conjecture. I tion, and in consequence of discipline, that we refuse the observed it with attention, and I noticed that while it ap- present for a greater good at a distance. The nobility or peared to be biting the wood, it moved its two teeth with elevation of all arts, like the excellency of virtue itsell, great activity, and cut off extremely fine fibres from the consists in adopting this enlarged and comprehensive idea, wood. The wasp did not swallow what it removed, but and all criticism built upon the confined view of what is added it to a small mass of the same material, which it had natural, may properly he called shallow criticism, rather already collected between its legs. Presently it changed than false; its defect is, that the truth is not sufficiently its place, but still continued to gnaw the wood, and add to extensive.—Sir Joshua REYNOLDS. its little stock. Being perfectly satisfied of the nature of its labour, I seized the wasp in the midst of its work. I
LONDON: found it loaded with nearly as much material as these tlies JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. are usually in the habit of carrying home to their nest, but | PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NIIMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNP, AN? 'N MONTHLY PARTA it had not yet been formed into the shape of a ball: the Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.