Obrazy na stronie

the advantages and profit derivable from commercial navi All such, then, are mere inventions, which arise, as the gation, was strikingly shown in numerous instances. If, foregoing pages will show, from fear and inisapprehension ; at any time, when bound on a foreign voyage, they observed in proportion to the ignorance of the mariner, or from his a stranger in company with them, and found him endea- | interested and selfish motives. vouring to pursue the same track, they immediately altered their intended course, using every possible means to avoid him, and to prevent him from following them; it is even THE MONSOONS: A KNOWLEDGE OF THE EARTH INCREASED asserted that they often purposely risked the loss of their

BY NAVIGATION. vessels and their own lives, rather than afford the inhabitants of any other country than their own the smallest The first great natural relief, given to ancient navigation, opportunity of breaking into their monopoly, or holding was the discovery of the trade-winds which prevail in the any share whatever in the commerce of the world. So Indian Ocean. These winds, from the dependence which fearful were they of rivalship, and so pertinaciously bent may be placed upon them, and from their consequent value were they on keeping everything to themselves, that to to navigation, are called trade-winds, and extend about add to the natural dangers of the seas, and to increase such thirty degrees on each side of the Equator. These winds, discouragement as might prevent other nations from ex however, maintain their regularity only in the open ocean. posing themselves to it, they became pirates, and declared | Where land breaks the continuity of the liquid surface, themselves at war, by turns, with every country in the then great changes are produced; but the most remarkable known world; whenever they met with vessels to which effects exist in the Indian Ocean. The third degree of they thought themselves superior in force, and consequently south latitude is a boundary between distinct winds; from able to overcome.

that boundary northward to the continent of Hindostan, a Terrific accounts of the dangers of foreign navigation north-east wind blows from October to April, and a southwere propagated among the lively, but credulous, people of west from April to October; while from the same boundary the Morea, who not only received these stories with facility, to the tenth degree of south latitude, a north-west wind but added embellishments of their own to that which had blows from October to April, and a south-east from April already been ungraciously imposed upon them. The to October. These winds are called monsoons. The term Greeks, too, possessing an open and communicative spirit, monsoon, or, according to the Persian, monsum, implies promulgated these accounts in their various writings; and seasons; and is so used in the Malayan, moossin, and other with all the skill which proficiency in literature could effect. dialects of the East. The breaking up of the monsoons, From the Phænicians, therefore, for evident reasons, or periodical changes in the direction of these winds, nothing to the purpose could be learned. The Romans, divides the Indian year into two seasons. The monsoons by destroying all their records and vestiges of ancient on the eastern side of the globe, originate with the tradeglory, hoped that nothing would be learned from the Car-winds, of which they are a species, produced by the diverthaginians.

sity of continent and islands, seas and gulfs, in this part of What little knowledge, dimmed by the length of its the world. These periodical currents of winds, if noticed passage, people had of the East, came to them by com- by the Arabians, were not made to serve their maritime mercial transactions. They heard that the precious com trade, until the keerer enterprise of the West, in the permodities of the East were obtained under circumstances of son of Hippalus, about 50 A.D., first ventured to steer off peculiar difficulty and peril. So hideous and alarming from the Arabian and Persian shores, and to be impelled were the objects to be encountered, after escaping the eastward in the direction of the wind. A voyage which dangers of the sea, that the task of purveying the desired had consumed years, now took up but as many months, luxuries was gladly relinquished to those who chose to by a conformity, on the part of the mariner, with this invaundergo such danger. The golden sands of India swarmed ríable law of nature. The means of profit and information thickly with ants, as big as foxes; and wonderful caution were now less monopolized, and the West became better and expedition was necessary in gathering up the precious acquainted with the inhabitants and produce of the East. dust, loading it on camels, and getting off, before swarms The navigation to the Indies was continued, when the of these monstrous insects should environ and destroy both | Romans became 'masters of Egypt, by sailing down the men and beasts. Cinnamon, Herodotus tells us, was Arabian Gulf, and from thence to the mouth of the river brought from the country of Bacchus, that is, India. It Indus, along the southern coasts of Arabia and Persia. was carried into Arabia by certain birds to form their nests | But, under the Emperor Claudius, this route was so far with, which were built on dangerous and inaccessible changed, that after emerging from the Arabian Gulf, they places. The Arabs would strew large pieces of flesh below cut across the Indian Ocean directly to the mouth of the their nests, which the birds descending would carry off to Indus, by noticing, and taking advantage of, the time when their young. The nests would break down with the weight, the south-west trade-wind blew. The irade was carried on and an opportunity of gathering up the cinnamon was with India thus:--The goods that were intended for the afforded. Cassia was found on the borders of a lake by Indian markets, were embarked at Alexandria, and carried persons covered over with hides and skins, to save them up the Nile, a distance of about three hundred miles, to selves from the assaults of enormous bats, which occupied Coptus. From the latter place, the merchandise was carthe neighbouring trees. The real truth seems to have ried on camels' backs to Berenice, a distance of two hunbeen since made out; that these celebrated spices, which dred and sixty miles. Berenice is on the shore of the Red the Egyptians sought after, and which the Hebrews used Sea, and there the goods were warehoused, until the proper in the composition of the holy anointing oil of the tabernacle season for sailing; when they steered for the opposite coast and of the other sacred things, were brought from the of Arabià, and took on board frankincense, and other coasts of Malabar, the islands of Ceylon and Sumatra, and Arabian commodities, giving arms, knives, vessels, &c., in other eastern regions, by Arabian merchants, from the return. They now proceeded on their voyage to India; earliest times; that the Arabs, in fact, engrossed the East whence, having disposed of their articles of merchandise, Indian commerce, until the discovery of the monsoons, and and got gold, spices, drugs, &c., in return, they pursued navigation had so far advanced, as to enable the Greeks to their voyage back to Alexandria, where they usually arrived steer off from the shores of Arabia. For many ages these about December or January. The Indian commodities Arabians were met by the Phænicians, whose place was were conveyed from Berenice to Alexandria in the way afterwards usurped by the Greeks. Whether frankincense before described; and a fleet sailed annually from the came originally from the land of Arabia, or from the latter place to Rome, conveying the treasures of the mountains of India, as some say, winged serpents were its East. jealous guardians. We are also told of trees bearing wool When the Constantinopolitan empire was formed, by the for fruit, by which is meant the cotton-trees.

division of the Roman empire into two parts, their maritime It would be tedious to dwell upon the stories of Sirens, and commercial arrangements were very extensive. One who seduced and changed the hardy mariners into beasts; fleet, called the fleet of Alexandria, was destined to bring of one-eyed Cyclops, to whom the human kind were but to the capital the produce of India, as conveyed to the Red as insects, and who cut the tallest trees of the forest for Sea. Another fleet was that of Seleucia, on the river their walking-sticks; people with the heads of horses; Orontes, by which an intercourse was kept up with Persia, the pigmies and cranes; confounded perhaps with the and higher Asia. A third tleet was stationed in the Euxine, monkeys; the horned birds; the Phænix; the Sphynx, or Black Sea, by which intercourse could be kept up with Perverse, all monstrous, all prodigious things,

the nations of Eastern Europe, while at the same time a

check could be given to the ravages of the uncivilized tribes Gorgons, and hydras, and chimeras dire.--Milton.

of Scythia.



Various opinions were held by the ancients respecting the ; irruptions into the southern climes of Europe, and conse form and surface of the earth. The followers of Thales be- quent downfall of the Roman empire, threw Navigation, lieved the earth to be a sphere; this was about 600 years with all the other arts and sciences, back into their original B. C. The successors of Thales got into the notion that it barbarism. They flourished, however, in another part of was of a cylindrical form : some gave it the shape of a drum; the world, whither we must attend their footsteps,—at least others of a cube. Many believed it to be a high mountain, when they seek the sea,—and hail their restoration in with an infinitely extended base, and that the stars moved Europe. But here may properly be drawn the line, which round and round its summit; but Heraclides, the disciple bounds the ancient naval art and practice from that of subof Aristotle, who lived about 335 B. C., actually taught that sequent times; and the crossing of this line will be the the earth had the figure of a ship. Some Indian sects are commencement of a dissertation on the navigation of the said to hold similar opinions. Anaximander, the disciple Middle ages. of Thales, was the first who represented the earth by maps and spheres. With the improvement of navigation, advanced the

THE WATCH-TOWER, OR LIGHT-HOUSE, ERECTED BY knowledge of the earth; both, however, being still im PTOLEMY SOTER, ON THE ISLE OF PHAROS, NEAR perfectly understood :-witness, Strabo's comparison of the

Spanish peninsula to “ a hide spread out." . The ancients
knew that a great boundary to the West was formed by the This was a large building, composed of fine white marble,
Atlantic Ocean; but the confines of the earth towards the

one hundred and thirty-five feet high, on the top of which East they supposed were illimitable. Hence the distance fires were constantly maintained, for the direction of ships on the earth's surface, measured from W. to E. they termed upon the coast. The expense of this tower was about eight Longitude, or measurement in length, which they supposed hundred Alexandrian talents, or about 330,0001. English. infinitely greater than the measurement in breadth N. and The Isle of Pharos was in the bay of Alexandria, about S., which they termed Latitude. The knowledge of this

seven furlongs from the continent, and was joined thereto began to be made practically useful for fixing the positions by a causeway. The tower was accounted one of the seven of places, hitherto often doubtful, on the earth's surface, by wonders of the world. The architect, Sostratus, was ordered Ptolemy, in the middle of the second century of the Christian to inscribe on it, “ King Ptolemy, to the gods, the saviours, But this, the most celebrated geographer of antiquity,

for the benefit of sailors :" but, wishing to claim all the only approximates towards correctness. The Mediterranean glory, he engraved his own name on the solid marble, Sea he makes 20° too long; the breadth of the Caspian which he covered with cement, on which he formed Sea he makes to exceed the length; and the mouth of Ptolemy's inscription. When the cement had decayed by the Ganges is placed 46° out of its place. Nor can we

time, Ptolemy's name disappeared, and the following inwonder that the maps of the ancients should be incorrect, scription then became visible ;-“ Sostratus, the Cnidian, when, not yet possessing the magnetic needle, their sailing

son of Dexiphanes, to the gods, the saviours, for the benefit bore no reference to the heavens, and their maps were formed of sailors."' Dexiphanes, was he who made the causeway from road-books or itineraries, wherein marching distances mentioned above. This light-house is alluded to in our were set down by the guides of an army; or from a sort of last paper, see page 40. log-book, wherein was inserted the distance the ship had sailed, as calculated from point to point. But it surprises us at learning that the two former errors, mentioned above, were not corrected in modern maps until the first half of the last century.

To a nation which has an insular position, or good com. mand of the sea, a naval force (which Themistocles, nearly 500 years B. c., understood the oracle to mean, when it advised the Athenians to defend themselves with wooden walls,) has been found, even from the earliest ages, to be the surest glory and defence. The influence of a state so fortunate has always been most widely and efficiently felt ; and its power, whether for good or evil, has always been proportionally increased.

Before concluding, we should observe that it was customary, in ancient times to give an appellation to a vessel, according to the place from whence it started, or according to the purpose to which it was intended to be applied. Thus, Phaselus, a small yacht, pinnace, or pleasure-vessel, was named, in all probability, from Phaselis, a town in Pamphylia, belonging to the Cilicians, where such boats were much in use:-Cydarus, a vessel peculiar to a river in Thrace, of the same name : - Parones, which were small vessels built on the Parian Islands, in the Ægean Sea, the inhabitants of which were much accustomed to use those vessels :-Myoparones, nearly of the same description with those last mentioned, and acquiring their title from the same cause, with the addition of the term Myon, a city in Epirus, where the use of them was much adopted. Cicero states that the name Cybea was applied to a large vessel built for the purposes of merchandise, and so called from the word "cibus," which is the Latin for meat or food. The term Gaulus, was applied to vessels nearly round, somewhat resembling the present jolly-boat, which term was probably derived from the same Latin word, which signifies a milkpail :-the term Corbitæ was applied to such vessels as Cæsar saw when he invaded Britain, which we have already seen (p. 34) were made of wicker-work,—the word "corbis" signifying a wicker-basket :-Caudicæ, was a term applied to rafts, and was derived from "caudex," the stump or body of a tree :-Hippagines, from hippos, a horse, was applied to vessels employed for the transportation of cavalry or horses :-Pontones,—from which is derived the word

LONDON: pontoons,—was the term applied to such vessels as were adapted to the passage of rivers. Many others might be


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The ruins of Caister Castle, in Norfolk, offer much | himself could devise," and appointed it as a fortification that is interesting, both intrinsically and historically, to the town of Great Yarmouth. The castle, or “hall," to the notice of the antiquarian ;-intrinsically, as as it is termed by contemporary writers, enclosed a being the remains of one of the earliest brick build court, in form a rectangled parallelogram, whose ings in the kingdom ; and historically, as being north and south sides were longer than the east and founded by the celebrated Sir John Fastolf, as having west. At the north-west corner is the tower of which been an object of contention between various of the we annex an illustration. The grand entrance was highest families in the county, and as being associated over a drawbridge on the west side. with many of the principal events, as well as person And here it will be as well to introduce Sir John ages, in the annals of our country. It is situated Fastolf to the reader under his real character ; since about three miles to the north of Great Yarmouth, he it is, who in exchange for his own fair celebrity, and about a mile from the coast.

is indebted to Shakspeare for a notoriety, which As early as 1363, we obtain notice of the manor of clings, with more tenacity than justice, to his name. Caister being in the possession of the Fastolf family; This hero was born at Yarniouth about, or shortly but the first mention of erecting any residence before, 1380, and, his father dying early, he became, appears in the reign of Henry the Fifth, who granted according to the custom of the times, the ward of a Sir John Fastolf a license“ to build it as strong as I nobleman and was trained up in the family of the VOL. XII.


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Duke of Norfolk, whose splendid and numerous re- | castle, with whom, 'except in point of age, a no tinue appears to have been the polite school of all the better agreed. squirearchy around. About 1405-6 he appears in And now, having endeavoured to justify the cha. Ireland with Thomas of Lancaster, second son to racter of this hero of olden time, we must also clear Henry the Fourth, afterwards Duke of Clarence, and the history of his castle of Caister, from some errors then lord-lieutenant of that country. Two years which attach to it. One of them consists in a fallaafterwards he married, in Ireland, Milicentia, daugh- cious idea entertained by some writers, that the castie ter of Sir Robert Tibelot, and widow of Sir Stephen of Caister was built as a ransom by the Duke d'Alen. Scroope, with whom he received a large fortune ; and çon, taken prisoner by Sir John, at the battle of shortly after, obtaining posts of considerable trust in Agincourt,-a supposition which is refuted by a Gascony, he went thither to reside. Here he re letter from Sir John, dated from Caister Hall, 1456, mained, engaged in all the commotions, civil and mi- wherein he sues for the money due to him for the litary, which mark this period, when England was said ransom. Another error respects a supposed endeavouring to establish her claims to the possession similarity between the castle of Falaise, in Normandy, of France. In 1415 we find him, in conjunction with the birth-place of William the Conqueror, and that the Duke of Dorset, intrusted with the government of Caister ; the latter being said to built on the exact of Harfleur, and subsequently present with Henry model of the former; but this is easily refuted by the Fifth at the battle of Agincourt, on which oc those who have visited both, and enough remains of casion he especially distinguished himself. After the each to prove that no such correspondence ever existed. death of this young monarch he continued to be pro- The only analogy between them consists in a solid moted to posts of higher importance and honour, tower, and other apartments, having been added to and to distinguish himself by such services of bravery | Falaise about the period of the erection of Caister, and danger, as, in 1425, procured him the order by the famous Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, contemof the Garter. In 1428 he gained great honour porary, and companion in arms, with our Sir John at the memorable battle of the Herrings, in which, Fastolf. at the head of 2500 Englishmen, he totally routed Much light has been thrown on the history of this 4000, or, as some of the French historians admit, castle, and the families connected with it, by Tke 9000 of the French, and succeeded in conducting a Pasion Letters edited by Sir John Fen; a collection convoy of provisions, (consisting chiefly of herrings) of the most valuable private correspondence during in triumph to the English camp before Orléans. the eventful period included between the reigns of

The character of this brave warrior, however, here Henry the Fourth and Henry the Seventh. suffers a partial eclipse, for we find him sharing From this correspondence we find Sir John living in the universal panic which infected the English in great splendour, keeping up a large body of reforces, before the mysterious power of the Maid of tainers, engaged in active charity, and in plans for Orléans. But with returning fortune his name re testamentary benefactions, but nevertheless adding sumed its lustre, and after a period of active service, yearly to his estates, and administering, and exacting he concluded his career with a succession of diplo- justice in a manner which shows the stern old discimatic and civil employments. In 1435 the Duke of plinarian, as well as the kind friend and master. Bedford, Regent of France, dying, gave a manifest These were the prosperous days of old Caister; for proof of the esteem in which he had held Sir John, Sir - John's death, while it enriched many excellent by leaving him one of his executors. In 1436 for public institutions, and difused much private comthe space of four years he appears settled in the fort, gave rise to that usual average of evil, which, government of Normandy ; after which, in 1440, he four hundred years ago, accompanied the best intenfinally returned to his native land, and abode in his tions and deeds, much the same as it does at the different estates, but principally in his hall of Caister, present day. His ample estates were chiefly vested where he lived in great splendour and hospitality in charitable endowments, while that of Caister was He died in 1459, full of years and worth, and was left to his cousin, John Paston, Esq., on condition of buried in a chapel, erected by himself, in St. Ben- his maintaining with the profits therefrom, a nett's Abbey, Norfolk, the ruins of which yet remain. lege," or rather chapel for seven priests, and seven He had been twice married, but left no children. The poor men,-a foundation which the knight had greater portion of his immense fortune was be- laboured to obtain during his life-time, and which it queathed to charitable purposes, in which the univer- appears the Pastons succeeded in establishing, though sities of Oxford and Cambridge largely shared, and not till after the lapse of many years, and innuespecially Magdalen College, Cambridge.

merable difficulties in obtaining the necessary grant. Much has been said to prove Shakspeare's injustice To detail and elucidate the various plots, open and in his character of Sir John Falstaff, as represented secret, to dispossess the Pastons of their rightful inin his Henry the Fourth and Fifth, &c. ; but herein heritance—how kings and commons played into one the same charge of injustice may extend to the critics another's hands, and used or abused the law as their themselves : for, setting aside the inaccuracy of name, interests required, and how all this occurred at a time and anachronism of date, it by no means appears when the kingdom was torn with civil wars, and the that in the person of the unwieldy buffoon, who faction of York and Lancaster alternately ascendant, amuses us equally with his jests and cowardice, Shak- is no easy task. The Duke of Norfolk, then a prince speare ever intended to depict the great and good Sir of almost unlimited power, and chiefly resident at his John Fastolf, celebrated alike in field and council, castle of Framlingham, in Suffolk, had, it appears, feared by his enemies, and beloved by his friends. for some time kept a longing eye upon the fair estate A version more agreeable to probability and his- of Caister, and shortly before Sir John Fastolfs tory is, that the character of Falstaff was originally death, we find Agnes Paston, widow of Sir William written and acted under the name of Sir John Old- Paston, judge, thus writing to John Paston her son, castle, but, imagining it might give offence to the It is said in this country, that my lord of Norfolk saith, Oldcastle family (then living), Queen Elizabeth Sir John Fastolf hath given him Caister, and that he will ordered our bard to substitute another name. Nor have it plainly. need it be supposed that this buffoon notoriety was This same John Paston, therefore, a man it appears more applicable to the real identity of Sir John Old- universally respected, inherited with Caister, a weight

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and succession of cares, which left him no rest to ance of the place, saying, “ We were sore lack of mind or body. His affectionate wife writes to him,-victuals and gunpowder ; men's hearts, lack of surety And, at the reverence of God, sloth not your matters

of rescue, were driven thereto to take appointment." now, but make an end to them ; either purvey you to make The siege of Caister lasted about three weeks, and or mar them in haste, for this is too horrible a cost and was concluded at the end of September, 1469. trouble that ye have and have had, for to endure any In disputes of this kind, it seems that with the cause while; and it is great heaviness to your friends, and great of contention, all animosity also ceased; for, after joy and comfort to your enemies. My lord of Norwich (the Bishop of Norwich,)

said to me, that he would not clearing off a few troublesome accounts still remain. abide the sorrow and trouble that you have abiden, to win ing between them, we find John Paston the

younger all Sir John Fastoll's goods —God be your speed.

resuming service with the Duke of Norfolk, in whose Through the machinations of powerful enemies household he had been reared. John Paston was soon thrown into the Fleet, and

The Pastons continued suing in vain for justice though soon liberated, he died, worn out with care,

through various channels, and spending their subafter seven years of precarious possession. Caister

stance in the necessary bribes accompanying such then descended to his son, Sir John Paston, a soldier applications, when a catastrophe occurred which

turned the scale in their favour. This was no less and knight, and quite a gallant of his time, who was principally stationed at Calais, but who, however, set

than the awfully sudden death of the Duke of Norgreat store by his estate at Caister.

folk, in January, 1475, then a young man of thirtyAbout this time, 1468, Thomas Howys openly and

four years of age. unwarrantably proffered to sell the estates of Caister

He left an only daughter, the Lady Anne, sole to the Duke of Norfolk, making, on that occasion, heiress of his immense possessions, who, in 1477,

was married to Richard Duke of York, second most insulting mention of a “pretended bargain, by which John Paston, in his lifetime, thought to

son of King Edward the Fourth, she being at that have secured all my Master Fastolf's land in Norfolk

time five years, and he, three years of age, on and Suffolk." Fortified by this nominal and illegal The little duchess, however, died, we believe, before

which occasion he was created Duke of Norfolk, purchase, the duke soon resorted to opener means. At the same time Fastolf of Longshawe, a relation

the innocent prince, her nominal husband, who was of the late knight's, threatened largely to attack the murdered with his brother in the Tower, 1483. After place, though it does not appear that he ever pro- John Howard, whose mother was aunt to the late

which, the estates and title of Norfolk came to Sir ceeded to such extremities; and a report went abroad, that Richard, the infamous Duke of Gloucester, alsó duke, and with the Howards it has ever since reintended possessing himself of Caister. At length, mained, being a period of eleven generations. in 1469, the duke threw off all disguise, and openly the unfavourable result which the Pastons prognos.

This infantine marriage seems not to have produced summoned “ John Paston, with his fellowship," to

ticated, for in June, 1476, Sir John writes, “ Blessed quit Caister at fifteen days' notice. Caister was meanwhile occupied by John Paston the younger, a

be God, I have Caister at my will; God hold it better brother, though of the same name, to Sir John

than it has done before ;" on the back of which Paston, then at Calais, and he, determined to defend

letter is written, “ Caister is gotten agayn,” and in the place, thus writes to his brother ;

the July following, King Edward granted him a

warrant under his own hand and privy seal, to take And how that my demeaning shall be it is too late to possession of all lands belonging to his late father, &c. send to you for advice, wherefore, if I do well I ask no thank, and if I do ill, I pray you lay the default on over

Shortly after this, considerable damage was done little wit; but I purpose to use the first point of hawking, bed. Sir John dying unmarried in 1479, all the

to the castle by a girl setting fire to it in making a to hold fast if I may. And hold fast he certainly did, with his little gar

Paston property descended to the same John Paston rison of twenty-eight against a regular siege of 3000


who retired to the halls of Caister troops, headed by Sir John Heveningham, and joined which he had so valiantly defended. In 1485, he by many persons of distinction. Whilst the utmost was High Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk; in 1487 was thus doing to defend the place from within, Sir

was knighted, and made knight banneret at the battle John Paston was equally indefatigable without. We of Stoke, by Henry the Seventh, and died in 1503. find him immediately proceeding to lay the maiter

Caister continued the chief and favourite seat of the before the king's council then at York, and moving Pastons, till Clement Paston, grandson of the lastin his behalf such personages as the Duke of Cla- named, and a great naval commander, built a magnirence, the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the ficent hall at Oxnead, in Norfolk, whereupon the Earl of Essex, &c. Meanwhile the siege commenced. residence of Caister gradually fell into decay. The

Whatever the decision of the king's council might Paston family continued to increase in wealth and be, it would seem that my Lord of Norfolk had no

importance, intermarried with the first families in great respect for it, and the siege continuing, we are

the county and kingdom, were created baronets in presented with some interesting letters from Margaret 1641, and Earls of Yarmouth and Barons Paston Paston to her son, Sir John, written with all a

in 1679. With the second of that title, who died in woman's and mother's anxiety, wherein she gives him 1732, this noble family became extinct in the male report of the death of his friends, the danger and line. This earl had greatly encumbered the estates, hardships of the survivors, the destruction of the and at his death they were purchased by Lord Anson, place, and the increasing virulence of the duke. the great circumnavigator. Urged by these and other considerations, and by

The village of Caister is also famous as having the delays of his powerful friends, Sir John desires been the site of a castra æstiva, or summer station of Writtill to ascertain the precise state of the besieged, the Romans, (see our article on Burgh Castle, vol. xi., and though equally anxious to preserve his patri- p. 177,) from which the place derives its name. mony, to keep or yield it accordingly. The matter winds up in a short letter from John Paston the Speak only when you have anything to say which it is deyounger, headed, “ Caister yielded,” acquainting his sirable to communicate. You do not know what a great gift brother with the bravery of his servants, and of the of God it is, not to be obliged to speak, and know when to urgent necessity which compelled them to the deliver. I hold your tongue.-St. GREGORY; Book of the Fathers.

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