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QUEEN ELIZABETH ; HER PROGRESSES AND PUBLIC PROCESSIONS. No. II.

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PALACE OF PLACENTIA, AT GREENWICH, THE BIRTH-PLACE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH, BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF ELIZABETH-DESCRIP zens had another barge, and so rowed to Greenwich, where TION OF THE ANCIENT PALACE OF GREENWICH.

were many lords, knights, and gentlemen assembled. All

the walles between the king's pallace and the Fryers were BEFORE entering upon a description of the Pro hanged with arras, and all the way strewed with greene gresses and public Processions of Elizabeth while she rushes. The Fryers church was also hanged with rich occupied the throne, we shall proceed to notice the more arras; the font was of silver, and stoode in the midst of the prominent events of her early life, which still serve church three steps high, which was covered with a fine to invest some localities with interesting associations.

cloth; and divers gentlemen with aprones and towels about Concerning the periods of her childhood and youth, come to the fonte ; over it hung a square canopie of

their neckes, gave attendance about it, that no filth should in the reigns of her father and brother, a few very crimosin sattin fringed with golde; about it was a rayle, interesting details have been handed down to us; covered with a redde saie; between the queere and body of while that part of her life which was spent under the the church was a close place with a pan of fire to make rule of her sister Mary, possesses considerable im

the childe readie. portance in an historical point of view.

When all things had been thus arranged, the child Elizabeth was born at the palace of Greenwich, was brought to the hall, and the procession set foron the 7th of September, 1533. Her mother, Anne ward. First went the citizens two and two; then Boleyn, or more properly, Bullen, the daughter of the gentlemen, esquires, and chaplains ; “ next after Sir Thomas Bullen, had been privately married to them, the aldermen and the maior alone, and next King Henry the Eighth, some time in the month of the kinges counsell; then the kinges chappel in January of the same year; and on the 23rd of May, coaps; then barons, bishops, earles." The earl of his previous marriage with Catherine of Arragon had Essex,—the last of the Bourchiers who had that title, been declared by Archbishop Cranmer, to have been -bore the covered basons gilt; after him, with a from the beginning, null and invalid.

taper of virgin wax, came the marquess of Exeter, The birth of Elizabeth was the occasion of much who was put to death by Henry three years afterwards; joy ; in the account of a contemporary chronicler, then the marquess of Dorset, (the father of Lady we have a very lively and interesting description of Jane Grey,) with the salt, and behind him the Lady the ceremonies which attended her christening :

Mary of Norfolk “bearing the crisome, which was The 7th of September being Sunday, between three and very rich of pearle and stone.” The child was borne foure of the clocke at afternoone, the Queene was delivered by the dowager duchess of Norfolk, in a mantle of of a faire ladie ; for whose good deliverance Te Deum was purple velvet, with a long train furred with ermine. sung incontinently, and great preparation was made for the On the right of the duchess was the duke of Norchristning. The maior, and his brethren, and fortie of the folk with his marshal's rod, and on her left the duke chief citizens, were commanded to be at the christning of of Suffolk ; before went officers of arms; and afterthe Wednesdaie following. Upon which daie, the maior, wards came the countess of Kent, and the earls of Sir Stephen Peacocke, in a gowne of crimosin velvet, with his collar of esses, and all the aldermen in scarlet with Wiltshire and Derby supporting the train. Over the collars and chains, and all the councell of the cittie with child was a rich canopy, borne by the Lord Rochford, them, tooke their barge at one of the clocke ; and the citi-' the Lord Hussey, the Lord William Howard, and the VOL, XII.

356

was

Lord Thomas Howard the elder. And lastly, came nor my self, nor none of hers that I have the rewl of: that many ladies and gentlemen.

is her women and har gromes: besychyng yow to be good

Lord to my Lady and io al hers: And that she may have When the childe was come to the church doore, the

som rayment; for she hath neither gown, nor kertél, nor Byshop of London* met it with divers byshoppes and

petecot, nor no manner of linnin for smokes, nor cercheses, abbots mitered, and beganne the observances of the sacra

nor sleves, nor rayls, nor body-stychets, nor handcerchers, ment. The god-father was Lorde Thomas Archbyshoppe of Canterburie *; the god-mothers were the olde Dutchesse have dreven of as long as I can, that be my trothie I cannot

nor mofelers, nor begens. All thys har Graces Mostake, Í of Norfolk and the olde Marchionesse of Dorset, widdowes ;

drive it no longer, besechyng yow, my Lord, that ye wel see and the child was named ELIZABETH: and after that all that her Grace may have that is nedful for har, as my Trost things were done at the church doore, the child was

es ye wel do. Beseeching yow, my owen good Lord, that brought to the font and christned ; and that done, Gartar I may know from yow be conting how I shal order my self; chiefe king of armes cryed aloud, “ God of his infinit

and what es the kyng's Graces pleser and yours, that I goodnessc send prosperous life and long to the high and

shal do in every thing. And whatsoni ever it shall ples mighty princess of England, ELIZABETH !" And then the

the kyng's Grace or your Ludship to command me at all trumpets blew; then the childe was brought up to the altar

teyms, I shal folfel et, to the best of my power. and the Gospell said over it. After that, immediately the Archbyshop of Canterburie confirmed it, the Marchionesse There appears to have been some misunderstanding of Excester being god-mother: then the Byshop of Canter- between the Lady Governess and one Mr. Shelton, burie gave unto the Princesse a standing cup of golde; the who was chief of the house at Hunsdon. Lady Brian Dutchesse of Norfolke gave to her a standing cup of golde

seems to press very strongly for the interference of fretted with pearle ; the Marchionesse of Dorset gave three Lord Cromwell. gili boles pounced with a cover; and the Marchionesse of Excester gave three standing boles graven all gilt with a My Lord, Mr. Shelton saythe he es Master of thys cover. Then was brought in wafers, confects, and ipocrasse, Hows; what fashion that shal be I cannot tel: for I have in such plentie, that every man had as much as hee coulde not sen et afor. My Lord, ye be so honourable your self, desire: then they set forwarde, the trumpets afore going in and every man reportethe your Lordsychep lovethe the same order towards the Kinges pallace, as they did honour that I trust your Lordship will se thys Hows honerwhen they came thitherwarde, &c.

abely ordered, how som ever it hath been aforetime, and ef The mayor and aldermen received the King's it be not performed, I shal sertify to your Lordship of it.

et plese yow, that I may know what your order is, and if thanks in his chamber through the dukes of Suffolk

For I fear me it wil be hardly inow performed, for ef the and Norfolk ; “ and from thence they were had to head of ...... knew what honour meaneth, et wel be the the seller, and dranke, and so went to their barge." beter ordered: ef not it will be hard to bring it to pass. Elizabeth was not three years old when her mother The next paragraph of the letter displays strongly

beheaded. It was on the 19th of May, 1536, the anxiety of the discreet lady Governess," as that Queen Anne Boleyn was executed on the green Strype calls her, for the health of her charge, and the before the Tower of London; the marriage of Henry extreme imprudence of Master Shelton in meddling the Eighth with Jane Seymour taking place on the with matters which did not concern him. next day. Very soon after the birth of Elizabeth,

My Lord, Master Shelton wold have my Lady Elizabeth an Act of Parliament had been passed, declaring that

to dine and sup every day at the bord of Astat [board of if her mother should die, without leaving any male estate.] Alas ! my Lord, it is not meet for a child of har issue, the crown should descend, on the death of the ag [her age], to kepe such rewl yet. I promes you, my king. to her and her heirs; thus the princess was

Lord, I dare not take et upon me to kepe har Grace in placed in the order of succession, not only before the helthe and she keep that rule: for ther she shal se dyvers Princess Mary, the daughter of the degraded Queen mets and freuts, and wine: which would be hard for me to Catharine, but likewise before even any male issue of refryn her Grace from et. Ye know, my Lord, there is

no place of corekcyon ther. And she es yet to young to the king by a future queen. This arrangement was correct greatly. I know wel, and she be ther I shál nother speedily disturbed upon the death of Queen Anne bryng her up to the king's graces bonour nor hers; nor to Boleyn; an act being passed soon after the king's har helthe nor my pore honesty: Wherfore I shew your marriage with Jane Seymour, annulling his second Lordship this my descharg, besycheyng you, my Lord, that marriage as well as his first, and consequently ren

my Lady may have a mess of met to har owen logyng, with

a good dish or two that is meet for her Grace to et of: and dering the Princess Elizabetli, as well as the Princess

the reversion of the mess shal satisfy al her wemen, a genMary, incapable of succeeding to the crown, which it tleman usher and a groom. Which been eleven persons settled upon Henry's issue by Queen Jane or by any on her side. Suer I am et wil be (in to right little) as great future wife whom he might marry.

profit to the king's Grace this way as the t'other way. For After the execution of her ill-fated mother, the young if al this should be set abroad, they must have three or four Princess Elizabeth seems to have been greatly neg

mess of meat, where this one mess shal suslice them al with lected by her father. Some very curious information afore; and to be ordered in al 'things, as her Grace was

bread and drink, according as my Lady Maries Grace had concerning the condition to which she was then afore. reduced, and the “ill case,” to use Strype's expression, in which she was left, has been handed down to us in

The description which is contained in this letter of

the manners and disposition of the young princess at a letter printed by Sir Henry Ellis, in his second series of Original Letters. It is addressed by Lady

so early an age, is assuredly not the least interesting Brian, the governess of the Lady Elizabeth, to Lord

part of it.

God knoweth (says the governess) my Lady hath great Cromwell, from Hunsdon, for instructions concerning her after the death of Queen Anne, her mother. After pain with her great teeth, and they come very slowly forth:

and causeth me to suffer her Grace to have her wil more some preliminary remarks, the Lady Governess thus than I would; I trust to God and her teeth were wel graft, proceeds:

to have her Grace after another fashion than she is yet: so My Lord, when my Lady Marys Grace was born, et

as I trust the King's Grace shal have great comfort in her

Grace. For she is as toward a child, and as gentle of conpleased the King's Grace to appoint me Lady Mastres ; and made me a Barones. And so I have been our

ditions as ever I knew one in my leyf. Jesu preserve her

to the Cheldern hes Grace have had sens.

Grace. As for a day or two at a hey teym or whan som Now et es so my Lady Elizabethe is put from that degre i trost so to indever me, that shee shal so do as shal be to

ever it shal please the King's Grace to have her set abrod, she was afore: and what degree she is at now I know not bot be heryng say; therefor I know not how to order her

the King's honeur and hers: and then after to take her

ease again. Dr. John Stokesley, who held the see from 1530 to 1540. + Dr. Thomas Cranmer, who was primate from 1532 till 1553, and

The letter then concludes thus :in 1556 suffered at the stake under Mary,

I think master Shelton wil not be content with this. He

In

sixth year.

may not know it is my desier; but that et es the Kyng's, tion of a brick front towards the water side; and plesure, and yours it should be so, Good my Lord, have Stow mentions his repairing the palace in 1501. my Lady's Grace, and us that be her poor servants, in your rememberance. And your Lordship shal have our harty 28th of June, 1491, and was baptized in the parish

Henry the Eighth was born at Greenwich, on the prayers by the Grace of Jesu: ho ever preserve your Lordship with long life, and as myche honer as your nobel hart church by Richard Fox, Bishop of Exeter, Lord Privy can desire. From Hunsdon with the evil hand of har that Seal; the Earl of Oxford, and Peter Courteney, is your daily bead-woman

Bishop of Winchester, being his godfathers. This MARGET BRYAN,

monarch, from partiality, perhaps, to the place of his The superscription is “To the ryght nobel and my birth, neglected Eltham, which had been the favourite syngeler good Lord my Lord Prive Sel, be thys residence of his ancestors, and bestowed great cost delyverd."

upon Greenwich, till he made it, as Lambarde says, Of the manner in which the Princess Elizabeth “ a pleasant, perfect, and princely palaice.” During was brought up during the remainder of her father's his reign it became one of the principal scenes of that reign, we have scarcely any information. There is festivity for which his court" was celebrated. His extant a record of that period, which furnishes an

marriage with his first queen, Catharine of Arragon interesting memorial of her skill and industry at a

was solemnized at Greenwich on the 3rd of June, very early age. It is to be found among the Cot-1509, On May-day, and the following two days, in tonian Manuscripts, in a list of New Year's Gifts to

the year 1511, tournaments were held there; the Prince Edward, in the 30th of Henry VIII. (1539.) king himself

, Sir Edward Howard, Charles Brandon, The king and his nobles gave principally plate. The and Edward Neville, challenging all comers. Lady Mary's Grace gave a coat of crimson satten, 1512, the king kept his Christmas at Greenwich, embroidered with gold, with paunses of pearls, and with great and plentiful cheer;" and again in 1513, sleeves of tinsel, and four aglets of gold. The LADY

“ with great solemnity, dancing, disguisings, and ELIZABETH's GRACE gave a shyrte of Cam'yke, of mummers in a most princely manner,” among which HER OWNE WOORKYNGE." She was then only in her

was introduced the first masquerade ever seen in

England. Queen Catharine Parr, the last and most fortunate

On the 13th of May, 1515, the marriage of Mary of Henry's queens, is said to have paid considerable queen dowager of France, (Henry's sister) with attention to the education of both the young princesses Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, was solemnized Mary and Elizabeth. Their position was greatly bet- publicly at Greenwich. Tournaments were held there tered by the act which was passed for the settlement in 1517, 1526, and 1536; the king kept his Christof the Crown, soon after her marriage with the king mas there in 1521, “with great nobleness and open in 1544, and by which they were both declared court,” and again in 1525. In 1527 he received the capable of succeeding to the throne on certain con

French embassy at this place; and the same year ditions, after the failure of the king's male issue.

kept his Christmas here * with revels, masks, disOur engraving represents the ancient palace of guisings, and banquets royal;" as he again did in Placentia at Greenwich, in which Elizabeth was born. | 1533, in 1537, and in 1543. In the last-mentioned Grenewic or Grenevic, as this place was called by the year he entertained twenty-one of the Scottish noSaxons, is literally the green village, meaning perhaps, bility whom he had taken prisoners at Solway Moss, as Lysons suggests, the village on the green. We

them their liberty without ransom. Edward have traces of a royal residence at this place, as early the Sixth kept his Christmas at Greenwich, in 1552, as the year 1300, when Edward I. made an offering George Ferrers, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, being “Lorde of seven shillings at each of the holy crosses in the of the merrie disporte.” It has been reasonably supchapel of the Virgin Mary, and the Prince made an

posed that the festivities in which he indulged on this offering of half that sum. Henry IV. dates his will occasion, and which were of a character wholly unin 1408, from his manor of Greenwich. Henry V. suited to his age and constitution, contributed to bring granted this manor for life to Thomas Beaufort, Duke about his death shortly afterwards * ; he died at of Exeter, who died at Greenwich in 1426. It was

Greenwich Palace on the 6th of July following. soon afterwards granted by Henry VI. to his uncle

Queen Mary was born at Greenwich, in February, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, ( the youngest son of 1516; and baptized there a few days after her birth, Henry IV.) who, in 1433, had the royal licence to Cardinal Wolsey being her godfather, and the Lady fortify and embattle his manor-house, and to make a

Catharine and the Duchess of Norfolk her godpark of two hundred acres. Soon after this, the mothers. Of Elizabeth's birth at this palace, and of duke rebuilt the palace, calling it Placentia, or the the solemnities which accompanied her christening, Manor of Pleasaunce; he enclosed the park also, and

we have before spoken. When she ascended the erected within it a tower on the spot where the Obser- throne, Greenwich became her favourite Summer vatory now stands. Upon the Duke of Gloucester's residence; she also visited it occasionally at other death, which happened in 1447, this manor reverted

seasons of the year. Of the manner in which she to the Crown. Edward IV. took great pleasure in kept her court there, and of other particulars confinishing and enlarging the palace; and for that cerning this spot, we shall speak hereafter. purpose, expended a considerable sum. In 1466, he

No part of the Palace represented in our engraving granted the manor with the palace and park, to his in now standing, Charles the Second pulled it all queen, Elizabeth, for life. In his reign, the marriage down, it having become much decayed; he intended of his youthful son Richard, Duke of York, (after

to raise a nobler structure on the same spot, but sucwards murdered with his brother, Edward V., in the ceeded in erecting only one wing, which forms that Tower,) with Anne Mowbray, daughter and sole heir part of the present Hospital, cominonly called King of the Duke of Norfolk, was solemnized at Greenwich Charles's Building. with great splendour. Henry VII. resided much at this

*“ Their dangerous excitement, their fatiguing joyousness, their palace; his second son, Prince Henry, ( afterwards late hours and table indulgences, were immediately followed by a Henry VIII.,) and his third son, Edmund Tudor, misrule and his merry tumults may be more justly supposed to have created Duke of Somerset, were born there. Lam- produced the fatal change in the king's ever-delicate health, than barde, the author of the Perambulation of Kent, says

either grief for his lost uncles, or poison from Northumberland in

that 'nosegay of sweet flowers which was presented io him as a great that this monarch beautified the palace by the addi. dainty on new year's day.'" _Sharon Turner

and gave

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We may refer with pride, as well as pleasure, to the four portions, each a miniature life-boat, when sepaalmost innumerable contrivances and plans, which rated carefully from the fruit. If either of these have from time to time been proposed by ingenious pieces are thrown into a vessel of and scientific persons of our own country, for water, it will be seen that, although the purpose of preserving life in cases of danger, by overloading it may be sunk, it whether from shipwreck, fire, or other sudden never can be overturned by any calamity; in the present paper we shall notice a weight placed within it. Its shape few of the principal means employed to save the then giving the boat this property, to lives of shipwrecked mariners. On account of the guard against its sinking, the sides, exhausted state of the poor creatures on board a from the under part of the gunwale wreck, it is natural to look for the greatest amount along the whole length of the regular shear, extendof assistance from persons on shore, and accordingly ing twenty-one feet six inches, are cased with layers we find that, although many lives have been saved by of cork, to the depth of sixteen inches downwards, the exertions of the crew themselves, much larger the thickness of this casing being four inches. numbers owe their preservation to the perilous exer The boat being of the same form at both ends, can tions of adventurous men on the coast.

be rowed in either direction; the rowing oars are The Life-boat of Mr. Greathead, of South Shields, short; but those employed for steering, for there is has been the most successful of these inventions. A no rudder, are one-third longer. model of this boat was sent to the Society of Arts, The cork weighs nearly seven hundred weight, and and in 1802 this Society presented the inventor with from this it may be well understood, what an immense their gold medal and fifty guineas. So highly was it accession of buoyancy is gained; so light is she, and appreciated by government, that a reward of 12001. so well formed, that even when full of water she is was subsequently voted by Parliament, besides other rowed with ease, and obeys the helm with the greatest rewards by the Trinity House and Committee of quickness. Lloyd's; this latter institution devoted also 20001. to the purpose of building boats on Mr. Greathead's plan. Since this time most of the dangerous parts of our coasts have been furnished with life-boats on the same construction.

The length of the life-boat is thirty feet, the breadth ten feet, the depth, from the top of the gunwale to the bottom of the keel in midships, three feet three; but from the gunwale to the platform, or boarding within, it is but two feet four inches. The form of this boat is very different to that of those in Second in importance to the Life-boat alone, in common use, and from its construction it is impossible the humane cause of saving life from shipwrecks, it can upset. It is said that its peculiar figure was are the ingenious inventions of the veteran philansuggested by the properties possessed by the sections thropist, Captain Manby. This worthy gentleman of an oblate spheroid, a globular figure, flattened has devoted a considerable portion of his long and on two of its opposite sides, a form exactly resemb. active life to devising and perfecting the means ling that of an orange. Indeed the figure and power of forming a communication between the crew of of this boat may be popularly illustrated by means of a vessel in danger and the persons on shore, by cona simple operation upon this fruit. Take an orange, veying a rope from the shore to the ship, or from the and divide the skin by two circular incisions, as ship to the shore. This Captain Manby accomin the annexed figure; this will divide the rind into plishes by affixing a shot to a rope, discharging it

from a gun, a mortar, or some other piece of each extremity of the cot, so that it may be hauled ordnance, so that the rope should become entangled on board the ship and back again to shore : this cot with the rigging of the ship, and thus lay the is intended more particularly for women and children, foundation for a more secure communication. His and is furnished with lashings all round, while the first object was to coil the rope in such a manner, bottom is made of strong netting to allow the water that, in uncoiling, there shall be no danger of en to run out. tanglement, as a very slight hitch would alter the In order to render the passage of the shot visible direction of the shot, or, perhaps, break the rope. at night, a shell instead of a shot is fixed to the

The following method, fig. 1, is recommended as rope; this shell has four holes, in which are fixed one of the best, particularly on account of its allowing the eye to run rapidly over the coils, for the purpose of ascertaining whether it has been disturbed by the storm. The rope is arranged in what

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Fig. 1.

Fig. 3.

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as many fuzes. The shell itself being filled with the

most brilliant combustible composition, its effect when what are called French fakes, or tiers. Other methods are also resorted to, as a whale-laid coil, or a chain- passing through the air, is surprisingly bright. fake, fig. 2. But as all these methods require time and care, they are likely to fail in the hurry of the moment, and a rope kept ready coiled in a basket, so

THE ATMOSPHERE. that it could be carried on the back of a man like a

The Atmosphere is an element which we cannot see, knapsack, is considered the most certain. The diffi- but which we feel investing us wherever we go; culty of fixing the shot so that the flame of the gun- whose density we can measure to a certain height; powder might not burn its attachment to the rope, whose purity is essential to existence; whose elastic was next to be overcome, and it was found that a

pressure on the lungs, and on and around the frame, thong of stout platted hide, woven extremely close, preserves man in that noble attitude which lifts his was capable of most resistance, being, at the same

head towards the skies, and bids him seek there for time, not easily inflamed and very elastic, for chains

an eternal home. The atmosphere is neither an evaof every description were snapped in two by the poration from earth nor sea, but a separate element sudden jerk.

bound to the globe, and perpetually accompanying it The shot employed was of two sorts, round shot in its motions round the sun. Can we for an instant

imagine that we are indebted for the atmosphere only to some fortuitous accident? If there were no atmosphere, and if we could possibly exist without one, we should be unable to hear the sound of the most

powerful artillery, even though it were discharged at with a loop, to which to affix the platted hide, and the distance of a single pace. We should be deprived barbed shot; the advantage of this last is, that it of the music of the sea, the minstrelsy of the woods,

of all the artificial combinations of sweet sounds, and of the facinating tones of the human voice itself. We might make our wants and our feelings perceptible to each other, by signs and gesticulations, but the tongue would be condemned to irremediable silence. The deliberations of assemblies of men, from which

laws and the order of society, have emanated, could more readily entangles itself with the rigging. If never have taken place. The tribes of mankind the rope has reached its destination, one much would wander over the earth in savage groups, incastronger is fixed to it by the people on shore; to this pable of civilization, and the only arts which they thicker rope a block is fixed, through which a smaller could ever know, would be those alone that might rope is rove, the two ends being left on shore so as to enable them to destroy each other.--Quarterly Reform a running tackle : when all is secure at either view.

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THERE are habits, not only of drinking, swearing, and lying, and of some other things, which are commonly acknowledged to be habits, and called so, but of every modification of action, speech, and thought; man is a bundle of habits. There are habits of industry, attention, vigilance, advertency; of a prompt obedience to the judgement occurring, or of yielding to the first impulse of passion; of extending our views to the future, or of resting upon the present; of apprehending, methodizing, reasoning; of indolence, dilatoriness, of vanity, self-conceit, melancholy,

partiality ; of fretfulness, suspicion, captiousness, censoriend, a cot, a kind of cradle, which is part of the life- intriguing, projecting; in a word, there is not a quality of

ousness; of pride, ambition, covetousness; of overreaching, preserving apparatus, is slung upon the thick rope, function, either of body or mind, which does not feel the the two ends of the smaller rope being fastened to influence of this great law of animated nature. —PALEY.

LIFE-PRESERVING COT.

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