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and even if we suppose him able to control the the moon, without any other feeling than the comfort force of these, his yet unsubjugated ministers, this of a safe and easy navigation; and the varieties of could only be done by studying their characters, by hill and dale, of shady woods and luxuriant verdure, learning more thoroughly the laws of air, and heat, might have been pleasant only in the eyes of farmers and moisture. He cannot give the minutest portion and graziers. We could, too, have listened to sounds of the atmosphere new relations, a new course of ex with equal indifference to everything beyond the mere pansion, new laws of motion. But the Divine opera- information they conveyed to us ; and the sighing of tions, on the other hand, include something much the breeze, or the murmuring of the ocean, while we higher. They take in the establishment of the laws learned nothing from them of which we could avail of the elements, as well as the combinations of these ourselves, might have been heard without pleasure. laws, and the determination of the distribution and It is evident that the perception of external things, quantity of the materials on which they shall produce for the mere purpose of making use of them, has no their effect. We must conceive that the Supreme connexion with the feeling of their beauty; and that Power has ordained that air shall be rarefied, and our Creator, therefore, has bestowed on us this addiwater turned into vapour by heat ; no less than that tional feeling, for the purpose of augmenting our haphe has combined air and water, so as to sprinkle the piness. Had he not had this design, he might have earth with showers, and determined the quantity of left us without the sense of beauty or deformity. heat, and air, and water, so that the showers shall be “If God,” says Paley, “had wished our misery, He as beneficial as they are.
might have made sure of his purpose, by forming We may and must, therefore, in our conceptions our senses to be as many sores and pains to us, as of the Divine purpose and agency, go beyond the they are now instruments of our gratification and analogy of human contrivances. We must conceive enjoyment; or by placing us among objects so illthe Deity, not only as constructing the most refined suited to our perceptions, as to have continually and vast machinery with which the universe is filled; offended us, instead of ministering to our refreshment but we must also imagine him as establishing those and delight. He might have made, for instance, properties by which such machinery is possible : as everything we saw loathsome, everything we touched giving to the materials of his structure the qualities a sting, and every sound a discord.” by which the material is fitted to its use. There is In place of every sound being a discord, the greatmuch to be found, in natural objects, of the same est part of the sounds which we hear are more or less kind of contrivance which is common to these and to agreeable to us. The infinite variety of sounds prohuman inventions : there are mechanical devices, duced by the wind and waters, the cries of animals, operations of the atmospheric elements, chemical the notes of birds, and above all, the tones of the processes. Many such have been pointed out; many human voice, all affect us with various kinds and demore exist. But besides these cases of the combina grees of pleasure ; and, in general, it may be said, tion of means, which we seem able to understand that it is such sounds as indicate something to be without much difficulty, we are led to consider the feared and avoided, such as the howling of wild Divine Being as the author of the laws of chemical, of beasts, or the hissing of serpents, that are positively physical, and of mechanical action, and of such other painful to our ears. In this sense all nature may be laws as make matter what it is; and this is a view said to be full of music, the disagreeable and diswhich no analogy of human inventions, no knowledge cordant sounds being (as in artificial music), in such of human powers, at all assists us to embody or un- proportion only as to heighten the pleasure derived derstand. Science, therefore, while it discloses to us from those which are agreeable. The human voice the mode of instrumentality employed by the Deity, is that which pleases us chiefly, and affects us most convinces us, more effectually than ever, of the im powerfully. Its natural tones and accents are calcupossibility of conceiving God's actions by assimilating lated to penetrate the heart of the listener, and the them to our own. ---WHEWELL.
union of these to articulate speech, in every language, not only produces a melody which pleases the ear,
but an effect on the feelings, of which the mere words MUSIC
would be incapable. These natural tones of the voice, Music, though now a very complete and difficult art, either by themselves, or joined to articulate lanis, in truth, a gift of the Author of Nature to the guage, constitute music in its simplest state; and the whole human race. Its existence and influence are pleasures and feelings derived from such music must to be traced in the records of every people from the
necessarily have existed in every form of society. earliest ages, and are perceptible, at the present time,
Hogarth's Musical History. in every quarter of the globe. It is a part of the benevolent order of Providence, that we are capable of receiving from the objects around us, pleasures
THE USEFUL ARTS. No. XXXVI. independent of the immediate purposes for which
The CARPENTER. 2. they have been created. Our eyes do not merely When a timber-tree is cut down, the branches, arms, and enable us to see external things, so as to avail our boughs, are cut off and the bark stripped, this being selves of their useful properties; they enable us also valuable for many purposes. The trunk is then sawed to enjoy the delight produced by the sensation of square, and again cut into planks, deals, battens, &c., as
the different sized boards into which it is reduced are called. beauty, a perception which (upon whatever principle
Teak and mahogany is imported into this country in it may be explained), is something distinct from any
logs, distinguished from the long beams known technically consideration of the mere utility of an object. We
as timber, by their width and thickness, being considerable, could have had the most accurate perceptions of the in proportion to their length. form and position of everything that constitutes the "* Timber is sawed in countries producing, or using it, in most beautiful landscape, without receiving any idea great quantities in saw mills, in which the tools are worked of its beauty. We could have beheld the sun setting by water or steam. From four to six long saws are set amid the glowing tints of a summer evening, without parallel to each other in a frame, and at the distance apart thinking of anything beyond the advantage of serene
of the thickness of the planks into which the timber is to
be cut. These frames of saws are moved vertically up and weather ; we might have contemplated the glossy ex down by the machinery, the timber lying horizontally on a panse of the ocean, reflecting the tranquil beams of frame-work, and being pushed gradually along by the ma
chinery, to keep the saws in action as they cut through it, | the girder is completed, there is a slit all along it, through the saws always remaining in one place.
which the truss is seen lying in its place between the twi Wood is also sawed into battens, laths, &c., by circular sides. saws, turned by machinery, like a lathe.
Iron trusses are often used instead of oak, and beari When timber is sawed by hand, it is done by two men are frequently strengthened by screwing a thin flat irco acting in concert in the following manner. A pit is gene. truss on one or both sides, let into the beam for about hali rally chosen, round the margin of which a stout frame is the thickness of the metal. laid. The beam to be sawed is laid lengthwise to the pit on this frame, in the centre, and one man stands on the beam while another is in the pit below him, each alternately raising or pulling down a large vertical saw, with which they saw the beam lengthwise into planks. Wedges of wood are placed by them in the fissure as they proceed, to keep the cut open, and thus allow the saw to play freely. This is excessively hard labour, especially to the upper man, who has not only to raise the weight of the saw in the up-stroke, but to guide it correctly along the chalked line on the beam. This man gets higher wages, and is called the Top-sawyer, a term technically given in jest to any one who is, or fancies himself, of importance.
When timber is wanted in lengths exceeding those that can be procured from the tree in one piece, it must be joined by what is called scarfing ; that is, the ends of the two lengths that are to be united into one, are cut so that a
This mode of strengthening a beam by trussing, is only portion of the one may lap over and fit into a portion of the adopted in floors, where it is necessary to limit the depth other which is cut so as to receive it, the timber, when
of the truss to that of the beam, to obtain a level surface united, being of the same uniforin size. The joined ends by means of joists laid across, and supported by, the beam. are secured together by bolts or spikes. The annexed are
But it is obvious that much greater strength may be imfigures of the more usual modes of scarfing timber for parted to a long bearu by making it the base of a triangular
frame, as is done in roofs, in various manners, when the slanting sides of the triangular frame carry the battens or laths for supporting the tiles or other covering.
The annexed is the simplest form of a roof, and will help to explain the subject of carpentry in other respects. The beam a, called the Tie-beam, is of such a length as to rest on tlic side walls of the house at each of its ends, and is supposed to be of such dimensions in depth and thickness as would render it inadequate to support much more than its own weight. The two sloping rafters BB, are called Principals ; they are mortised into the tie-beam at their ends by a joint, shown in the annexed figure, by which they are provided with a firm abutment to prevent the ends from slipping outwards, and in order to prevent the principal from starting upwards out of the mortise, it is strapped down to the tie-beam by an iron strap, bolted or screwed to both timbers.
p is termed a King-post, and is cut out with a head and foot, the former to receive the upper ends of the principals,
which, being cut square, abut firmly against the sloping The last is a mode of scaring invented by Mr. Roberts, face of the head. The sloping principals hold up the kingof the Royal Dock Yards.
post, and the tie-beam is supported from the latter by a When a beam of timber is long in proportion to its stirrup-shaped strap, that goes under the beam and is breadth and thickness, it will bend by its own and will be bolted, or screwed, to the post on each side. To prevent incapable of supporting much additional weight; it may be the principals from bending by the strain, or by the weight strengthened by trussing, in different modes, of which we of the roof-covering, the struts c c, are placed, abutting will only describe that usually adopted for girders, intended against the beveled part of the foot of the king-post, and are for floors. The beam is sawed longitudinally into two strapped to the principals, or mortised into them. equal beams, each, of course, half the thickness of the The number of tie-beams with their trusses, &c., of original, these halves are reversed, end for end, so that if course depends on the length of the roof, or the material there were any weak part in the original beam, this may with which it is to be covered. A longitudinal scantling, be divided equally between the ends of the compound beam or thin beam, called a purline, E, is laid lengthwise, resting made up of the two halves when bolted together. A flat on the principals over the ends of the struts, and is secured truss, usually of oak, with iron king-bolts and abutting to the former by a spike, or else by being notched down plates, resembling in form and principle, a timber roof or on to the principal. These purlines support the common bridge, is placed between the two half beams, and let into rafters R, which abut at their feet against a longitudinal a shallow groove cut in each half to receive it; the com- scantling s, lying on, and halved down on, the tie-beams; pound beam, with this truss in the middle, is then bolted at their upper ends, the rafters R rest against a ridge-piece, together again by means of iron bolts with washers and or thin plank, let edgeways into the head of the king-post. nuts, and consequently becomes rigid by the construction The rafters are placed about a foot apart, and on to them of the truss. The truss is not entirely let into the double are nailed the laths or battens to carry the tiles or slates. beam, as the full effect of strength may be obtained without In constructing roofs, floors, and other structures of the necessity for cutting the groove in each half beam, of timber, the various beams are framed, or fastened together half the thickness of the oak truss; consequently, when by certain processes calculated to insure strength and per
manence in the framing, which ought to be understood, and The smaller and better kind of work executed by the their names remembered.
Carpenter is called Joiner's work, such as the making of The Mortise and Tenon is used when one beam is to be doors, windows, stairs, wainscotting, boxes, tables, &c., &c., attached to, and supported by, another, without resting on which are usually formed of yellow or Norway deals, wainit, but so that the beams may be in the same plane. The scot, or else mahogany. mortise is a hole cut into, or through, the side of the one When a large surface is to be of wood, it is not formed beam, into which hole the end of the other, cut down to fit of planks fixed together side by side till the requisite width the form of the hole, is inserted and fastened. It is ob- is attained, but it is formed of framing and pannelling. viously necessary to consider two things in determining the A frame-work, of the area required to be covered, is formed size and form of the mortise and tenon. First, that by the of narrow planks, with cross-bars between to strengthen former the one beam may not be too much weakened, and the frame; these are called stiles and rails, according to yet that it should be large enough to give the tenon that the directions in which they run, the former name being fits into it, sufficient strength to enable the beam to carry given to the upright planks of the frame, while the horithe weight intended.
zontal ones are called rails. If the one beam is horizontal, and the other to stand The rails are mortised into the stiles, and the tenons, perpendicularly upon it, the tenon need only be large since they must be comparitively thin, are made proporenough to retain the upright beam in its place. The an- tionably wide, nearly as wide as the rail
. The tenons are nexed are the most usual forms of mortises and tenons, always pinned into the mortise holes by one or two wooden and will explain their use and principle.
pins driven quite through the stiles and through the inclosed tenon.
The edges of the stiles and rails are ploughed, that is, a rectangular furrow is cut in the edge by means of a plane, to receive the ends and sides of the panels. These panels are formed of thinner deals than the stiles and rails, and are made by glueing the edges of two or more boards together to make the proper width of the panel, the ends and edges of the panel are thinned off to fit into the groove or furrow in the stiles and rails, or else the ends and sides of the panel are rebated, that is, worked by a plane into the form shown in the annexed figure, the projecting part being received into the furrow.
It is obvious that two mortises never should come opposite each other on the two sides of the same beam.
When the tenon comes through the beam, it is secured from drawing by a pin or peg put through it.
The Dovetail is used to secure one beam into another, when they have to resist any strain acting to draw them asunder, rather than to carry any weight; it is consequently employed to frame wall-plates, or the timber laid in walls to carry the ends of beams of floors, roofs, and so on, which plates tend to bind the walls together as well as receive the ends of the beams. The term is derived from the end of one beam being cut into a shape resembling the spreading tail of a bird which is pinned down in a corresponding wedge-shaped recess cut in the other beam to receive it. It is clear from this construction that no force, acting in the
As the panels are thinner than the frame, the former direction of its length, could pull the first beam out of the constitute so many recesses, at least on one side of the second without breaking off the dovetail, which the tenacity framing; and a small moulding is glued round the edge of of wood-fibre renders nearly im practicable in one of any the panel to form a finish to the work. Or else the same size. The dovetail is extensively used in all cabinet-object is attained by working the edge of the stiles and making, and may be seen in any mahogany or deal-box rails with such a moulding, so that when the panel is put better made than a common packing-case.
in, the moulding may finish against it. Sometimes the When two beams of equal ihickness are required to cross
face of the panel is made to lie in the same plane with the one another and to lie in the same plane, they are halved face of the stiles and rails, and the panel is then said to be together; that is, a notch is cut in each of half the thick- flush, and the edges of the stiles, &c., are finished with a
small bead, also flush with the panel when finished.
In joiner's-work the whole surface of the work is made perfectly smooth by planing the material, and allowance must be made for the reduction in thickness and width of the wood, produced by this planing, in the choice of the rough material.
All mouldings in wood are worked out by planes made of the proper form, to leave the moulding in the wood when the plane has been passed over the part. The carpenter and joiner consequently require a vast variety of planes for these purposes, which constitute the most expensive part of the expensive tools used by these workmen. These planes receive their names from the form they are intended to produce in the wood, such as rebating planes, O G planes, ovolo-planes, beadirg-planes, and so on.
ness of te other, then the uncut part of each lies in the NATURE has perfections in order to show that she is the notch of the other respectively, and the two are pinned image of God, and defects in order to show that she is only together
THE ANCIENT OFFICE OF PURVEYOR TO lings each ; he might take more if he would at a
price to be fixed by the king's appraisers. Purveyance,
however, was to be made between sun and sun, and The office of Purveyor to the royal household, at nothing was to be taken in the highway. Hides, the present day, is very different in its character from leather, and other necessaries were taken for making that which was formerly exercised under the same the king's saddles; beans and pease for his horses,
The Purveyor of modern times is nothing Lord Coke says, that meat and drink could be taken more than a tradesman who serves the king precisely by the king, only when in his progress, and that in as he would serve any other customer, and generally his standing-house he could not take beer, ale, or at as cheap a rate ; the Purveyor of ancient days bread, being manufactured; but malt, having the was an officer employed to enforce a very obnoxious substance of barley remaining, might be taken. prerogative, and for that purpose armed with a large In the reign of John, the abuses of purveyance share of power, which he generally contrived to had risen to such a height that they were made the abuse to his own profit and the great oppression of subject of three articles of Magna Charta, which the his fellow-subjects.
barons obtained from that monarch at Runnymede. The profitable prerogative of purveyance and By the first, the constable or bailiff of a castle was pre-emption," as Blackstone calls it, was a right restrained from taking corn or other chattels of any enjoyed by the crown of buying up provisions and man not of the town where the castle was, without other necessaries by the intervention of the king's making immediate payment, unless the seller agreed Purveyors for the use of the royal household, at an to wait; but if the seller was of the town, three appraised valuation, in preference to all others, and weeks were allowed for payment by the first confireven without consent of the owner ; and also of for- mation of this charter in the beginning of the reign cibly impressing the carriages and horses of the sub- of Henry the Third. By the 30th article of John's ject to do the king's business on the public roads in charter, no sheriff or bailiff of the king, or any other, the conveyance of timber, baggage, and the like, was to tice any man's horses or carriages but by his however inconvenient to the proprietor, upon paying consent; the subsequent charters add, "but at the him a settled price. This prerogative prevailed pretty old prices limited, namely, a carriage with two horses generally throughout Europe during the scarcity of tenpence a day, with three horses fourteenpence a gold and silver. In those early times the king's day.” The 31st chapter of John's charter prohibited household was supported by specific venders of corn the taking of any man's wood for the king's castles and other victuals, from the tenants of the respective or other necessaries, without the owner's consent; demesnes
and this was confirmed by the subsequent charters. Many lands were from time to time granted to It appears, nevertheless, that the practice of taking individuals, on condition of their yielding to the king the wood continued, and that money was extorted certain supplies of provisions; the reservations, from the owners by demanding such as grew about however, were often small, and many of them only the mansion-house and could ill be spared. to be rendered when the king travelled into the It appears by the statute of Westminster, passed country where the lands lay. In some cases special in the third year of Edward the First, that Purveyors care was taken that he should not make the service used to enter houses under colour of buying for the burdensome by paying his visits too often; as in the king, break the doors, locks, and windows, and thrash case of William, son of William Alesbury, who held out and carry away the corn, and that they paid no lands in Alesbury, upon the tenure of finding more regard to the houses of prelates than to those amongst other things, three eels for the king when of the laity. Edward the Second, in his sixteenth he should come to Alesbury in the winter, and two year, sent his writ to the justices of the King's Bench, green geese in the summer ; the number of visits, commanding them to punish the infringers of the however, not to exceed three in the year.
statutes upon this subject; but the steward of his There was also a continual market kept at the household continued to exercise his power of purpalace-gate to furnish viands for the royal use. This veyance with a high hand even in the city of London, was superintended by an officer called " Clerk of the notwithstanding the great privileges of that place; for Market of the King's House," who was to burn all in the eighteenth year of Edward's reign, he comfalse weights and measures, to precede the king in manded that no fishmonger, on pain of imprisonhis progresses, and warn the people to bake and brew ment, should go out of the city to forestall any sea and make provision against his coming, and by the or fresh fish, or send them to any great lord or relioaths of twelve men to set the prices of provisions, gious house, until the king's Purveyors should have beyond which no persons attending the court were to made their purveyance for the king. pay.
In the fourth of Edward the Third, an act reciting These arrangements answered all necessary pur- that the king, queen, and their children, oppressed poses in those times, so long as the king's court the people by not paying for corn, hay, and cattle, continued in any certain place. But when it removed and other“ vittailes” which they took, and by taking from one part of the kingdom to another, (as was twenty-five quarters of corn for twenty, measuring formerly very frequently done,) it was found neces- by heap, and taking hay and litter at less than the sary to send Purveyors beforehand, to get together a value ; directs accordingly that nothing be taken sufficient quantity of provisions and other neces without consent of the owner, that corn be taken saries for the household : and lest the unusual demand by the strike as men use throughout the kingdom," should raise them to an exorbitant price, the powers and that the things be taken at their true value by above mentioned were vested in these Purveyors, constables and other good men of the vill who should “who in process of time greatly abused their autho- not be enforced by menace or duress to assess any rity, and became a great oppression to the subject, other price than their oath would allow. though of little advantage to the crown.”
No severity of law, however, could restrain the The king's butler had a right to choose for the rapacity of these plunderers; and in the twentieth king two hogsheads of wine out of every merchant's year of Edward the Third, several Purveyors were ship laden with wine, one in the prow, the other in attainted and hanged for offending against the statutes. the poop, paying to the merchants only twenty shil. Yet in spite of this example, it was found necessary
five years afterwards to pass another act; from the Vice-Chancellor and his assistants, he boldly which we learn that one of the frauds practised by commanded a justice of the peace of the university these " harpies," as Queen Elizabeth called them, to go and provide him his horse for his carriage, “ was the taking of sheep between Easter and St. although he knew the mayor's officers to be always John with their fleeces on, keeping them till shearing ready to satisfy his wants in that respect. The next time and then taking the fleeces to their own use, A maneuvre of this unscrupulous rogue was to cease petition of the Commons in the 28th of Edward the sending up his provisions for a whole day, in order Third, sets forth that the Purveyors of the king, those to bring the officers of the university into displeasure of the queen, and those of the prince, would come by causing it to be supposed that they had stopped successively to the same house, which they complain him, when in fact he was all the day bragging at of as too grievous. This petition, and an act of the taverns and alehouses in the town, and threatening same year, explains another oppression. Purveyors that he would shortly cause some officers and justices were ordered to pay by tallies; these they gave pay of the university to be set in the marshalsea. After able at such distant places, that, as the act says, this example of the treatment which so powerful and people spent their value and double in going after privileged as the university experienced at the hands the money:
of a royal Purveyor, under such a monarch as Edward In the 36th of Edward the Third, some very im: the Sixth, the reader may form some estimate of the portant regulations were made for correcting the hardships which the "kinges pore subjects" in general abuses of purveyance. According to Sir Edward must have endured from the same quarter. Coke, this act was passed in consequence of a Latin In the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, work addressed to the king, by Simon Islip, Arch some of the counties, to avoid the trouble which they bishop of Canterbury, sharply inveighing against the had in procuring their money for goods taken by the intolerable abuses of Purveyors and purveyances, and Purveyors, and which arose, in a great measure, from earnestly pressing and advising him to make remedies the many offices, cheques, entries, and comptrolments for those insufferable oppressions and wrongs offered through which the accounts were to pass, petitioned to his subjects. It, however, was doubtless in a great her to accept the value in money to be yearly paid measure the effect of a very strong petition of the by the counties. Philips says that she would not Commons,
hearken to this, but did afterwards come to an A very curious illustration of the abuses of pur- agreement, fixing the proportions which several veyance, and the unblushing impudence of Purveyors counties should yearly afford in oxen, calves, muttons, in the reign of Edward the Sixth, is afforded to us poultry, corn, &c.; and that this agreement continues in an account of the behaviour of one William Pallet, in force during her reign and that of her successor, deputed Purveyor for the King's Majesty's provision James the First. In regulating these proportions, of poultry, &c., in the town of Cambridge. It the principal burden was imposed on the counties appears that Mr. Pallet exercised his powers so harshly adjacent to the metropolis, they deriving the most as to excite a disturbance among the people of the benefit from the royal residence; and Philips says town, and to render necessary the Vice-Chancellor's that they could well afford to bear it, as their rents interference to pacify them. Instead of taking the in the time of Charles the First were improved to provisions at prices fixed in the manner required by twenty times more than they were in the reign of the statutes, he took everything at his own price; Henry the Seventh, and ten times more than they and what was worse, he took the liberty of purveying were in the eighteenth year of Elizabeth's reign, for his friends as well as for the King's Majesty, very But though Elizabeth would not grant the request candidly confessing that if he could not do the one of the counties that she would accept money instead he would not do the other. The bold air of effrontery of provisions, she hanged one of her Purveyors in which this man put on, when detected, shows pretty her thirty-second year for forcibly taking provisions clearly how secure he must have felt of being sup without paying for them. Prosecutions were also ported by the court, which in those days was seldom carried on in the star-chamber against some of her disposed to permit any interference with the pre- Purveyors ; but she ordered Sir Thomas Egerton, the rogative even when abused. When it was proved Lord Keeper, to stop the proceedings, as being an before his face that he had taken a pheasant and encroachment on the prerogative royal in her houseother birds in the king's name, and then sold them hold, and commanded that the matter should be to different persons, he answered that he had done so heard before the Lord Buckhurst, Lord Treasurer ; to gratify sume friends, and openly affirmed with an the Earl of Nottingham, Lord High Admiral; Sir oath, that unless he might do his friend's pleasure in John Fortescue, Chancellor of the Exchequer, (being the execution of his office, he would not serve the the commissioners for household causes,) Sir William king in it.
Knollys, Comptroller of the Household, and the rest The Vice-Chancellor's reasonable request, that he of the officers of the Board of Green Cloth, in the would use his commission discreetly, and that when Compting-house; and the cause was heard there he had full passage in all the surrounding country, accordingly. he would spare the market of the town, except he In Elizabeth's time, too, great complaints were saw a pheasant or anything else fit for the king's made by the city of London, that the Purveyors took table, was treated by Mr. Pallet in the most uncere the first carts they could find, and frightened away monious manner ; for he contemptuously cast his those persons from the country that used to bring procommission to the Vice-Chancellor and commanded visions; whereupon, a regulation was made that the him to go and serve it himself. He then sent up a carts in London and resorting to it should serve the false certificate to his master, accusing the Vice- Queen four times in a year, and the management of Chancellor of having said that he should be sued the matter was entrusted to the governors of Christ's before the king and not suffered within the market. Hospital. When his master's son was sent down purposely from When Elizabeth was at Nonsuch, in Surrey, her the court to inquire into this alleged ill-treatment of Purveyor of coals used to make out a warrant to the a royal Purveyor by the officers of the university, high constables of some Rape in Sussex, to warn Pallet was unable to substantiate his charge ; but his carts for the carriage of coals to Nonsuch, appointeffrontery did not desert him, for while he was before ing a meeting with them to receive the returns on