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water, the Lamprey swims with a lateral undulating motion of the body, assisted by its fins; where the current is rapid, it makes successive plunges forward, attaching itself quickly to any fixed substance that offers, to secure the advantage gained.
Pennant states that it has been an old custom, for the city of Gloucester annually to present the sovereign with a lamprey-pie, covered with a raised crust.
The Fresh-water Lampern is about half the size of the species just described, and is believed to remain in the rivers it frequents throughout the whole year. It is considered in best condition from October 19
March. Formerly it was in great request among the THE SEA-LAMPREY. (Petromy son marinus.)
Dutch fishermen, as bait for turbot, cod, &c.; but the The Lamprey tribe constitutes the last family of the great demand so raised the price by making the fish fishes with a cartilagenous skeleton. There are four scarce, that other substances have been resorted to. known British species ; that figured above, which is In the course of one season as many as 400,000 have found in salt-water, and three inhabitants of fresh been sold for bait, at 40s. per 1000. Formerly the water,—namely, the Lampern, Petromyzon fluviatilis ; Thames alone supplied from 1,000,000 to 12,000,000 the Fringe-lipped Lampern, Petromyzon planeri; and Lamperns annually. the Sand- Pride or Mud-Lamprey, Ammocætes branchialis. The Sea-Lamprey is found in all the seas of Europe, from the Mediterranean as far north as
THE USEFUL ARTS. No. XXXV. Scandinavia and Iceland; it is also met with in
THE CARPENTER. North America. In Spring and Summer this species Following the plan we have laid down, we shall first frequents the mouths of most of our rivers, and describe the principal materials made use of, by this most ascends the stream for a considerable distance, for important of all mechanics. It is obvious that in every the purpose of depositing its spawn. Sir William country the timber is employed that is either indigenous, Jardine says, speaking of the Scotch rivers, “ They and adapted to the work to be done, or which can be proascend our rivers to breed about the end of June, cured most readily from other countries. In Britain the and remain until the beginning of August.” They first and most important of all trees is, of course, our own are not furnished with any elongation of the jaw, belonging to the genus Quercus. It is far less used in civil
OAK, of which we have two species and several varieties, 'afforded to most of our fresh-water fish, with which architecture than formerly, although there are certain purthe latter form the receiving furrows at this important poses in building to which it is still applied : but owing to season ; but the want is supplied by their sucker-like its value, and the demand for it for ships, and to the great mouth, by which they individually remove stones or labour required to work it, its place is now supplied other substances. Their power is immense; stones by fir. The best oak is that which grows on cold, stiff, of a large size are removed by them, and a large the colder the climate, or the higher above the level of the
clayey soils, and is the slowest in arriving at maturity; and furrow soon formed. This species remains in pairs, sea the tree grows, provided it be not stunted from severity two in each spawning-place, and while there em of climate, the better the timber; hence Scottish and ployed, retain themselves asfixed to a large stone. Welsh oak is more esteemed than that from the middle or
The right-hand figure below shows the flexible lip, southern counties of Britain. Our own island does not concealing the mouth; the figure on the left hand produce this timber in sufficient abundance to supply the represents the rounded mouth, the small and numer
demand, and large quantities of oak are imported from ous tubercular teeth, and the central opening leading There are four kinds of oak used in the Royal Dock-yards,
different countries, especially from Prussia and Canada. to the throat and stomach.
Welsh, Sussex, Adriatic, and Baltic, besides two others termed African oak, employed in different parts of the vessels, according to the qualities requisite for the particular purpose. Next to our own oak, that from the shores of the Baltic is by far the most esteemed.
In domestic architecture oak is only used in the largest and best buildings, occasionally for the principal beams; but its chief use is for door and window frames, cills, sleepers, king-posts of roofs, for trussing fir girders, for sashes, for gales of locks, sluices, posts, piles, &c. The timber called African oak, used in the navy, is wood of a different genus.
TEAK is the produce of a tree of the genus Tectona. Valuable as teak is found to be in ship-building, it has not
yet been used in domestic building to any extent. From The Lampreys, like the sharks and rays, have no sixteen to eighteen thousand loads of teak are annually swimming-bladder, and being also without pectoral imported into Britain from India, principally for the Royal fins, are usually found near the bottom of the water. Dock-yards, this wood being used for certain beams and To save themselves from the constant muscular exer- pillars in ships: tion which is necessary to prevent their being carried
Wainscor is the wood of a species of oak, imported along by the current, they attach themselves by the from Russia and Prussia in a particular form of log
Fir, or Pine, ranks next to oak for its valuable qualities, mouth to stones or rocks, and from this circumstance and if its universal application be taken into consideration, they obtained the name of Petromyzon, Stone-sucker. it might be thought even superior in importance. The
The food of the Lamprey consists generally of any finest fir is that from Norway, Sweden, Russia, and the soft animal matter; and in the sea it is known to Baltic generally, the vast mountainous tracks of which attack fishes even of large size, by fastening upon pine. The best of these is the Pinus sylvestris, called also
countries are covered with dense forests of various species of them, and with its numerous small, rasp-like teeth, in Britain the Scotch Fir, from its growing in great pereating away the soft parts down to the very bone. foction in the northern portion of our island. The fir from
The Marine Lamprey usually measures from twenty the southern shores of the Baltic, the timber from which is to twenty-eight inches in length. In slowly-running known as Memel, Riga, or Dantziç fir, from the several
localities whence it is imported, is next in value to that being closer-grained, denser, and tougher than perhaps all from Norway. Large quantities of fir timber are also others, except iron-wood, LIGNUM VITÆ, and one or two annually brought from Canada, but this timber is greatly rarer woods. Box is used for rules, scales, and for small inferior to the European.
cabinet works; but that which gives it particular importDeal is the name given to the timber of the pine, when ance is its universal use for wood engraving: sawed into planks, in which form it is imported into this LANCE is the name given to the wood of the Guatteria country from the north of Europe. Deal is the produce of virgata, a tree indigenous to Jamaica, and one of the most the Pinus abies, Pinus alba, and Pinus nigra, and the best important that are so, from the valuable qualities of its is that obtained from Christiana.
timber, lance-wood far exceeding our ash in lightness, Fir timber is used for every part of houses, and exten strength, and elasticity; hence it is admirably calculated sively in ship-building, in the fittings-up, while it con for shafts to carriages, handles to spears, and for all purstitutes the only material for masts, for which purpose its poses where straight, light, flexible, and tough wood is lightness, and the great length and straightness of the required. It is neither so close-grained as box nor so hard, trunk, peculiarly fit it.
but it turns well, and does not split; in colour it is lighter Pine, or fir, is imported into this kingdom under the than box. various names of timber, battens, deals, laths, masts, yards, EBONY is the name given to the wood of several different and spars, according to the size or form into which the tree trees, which agree in being dark-coloured, dense, and is sawed. It is called timber when the tree is only squared durable ; it is used for inlaying and for making rules or into a straight beam of the length of the trunk, and from scales, as not being liable to warp. It is an excellent wood not less than eight or nine inches square, up to sixteen or for turning, but except for these purposes, it is less in reeighteen square; fifty cubic feet is a load of timber. Deals quest now than formerly, when it was much used in cabinetvary in length and thickness from eight to sixteen feet, making. eleven inches wide, and from one and a half to three and LIGNUM VITÆ is the wood of the Guaiacum officinale, a half inches thick. Four hundred superficial feet of one a large tree indigenous in the West Indies. This wood is and a half inch plank makes a load. Battens are small the hardest and heaviest known, and can only be worked long pieces of fir about three inches wide and one inch in the lathe. It is much used for making the sheaves, thick. Masts, yards, and spars, are the trunks of small or pullies of blocks used in shipping, and for friction trees simply barked and topped.
rollers, &c. Beech is partially employed in ship-building for the keel There are a variety of foreign woods which, from their and timbers near it; but it is not at all employed in civil beautiful grain and varied tints, are used in-cabinet-making. architecture. The principal use made of this wood is in But as these woods are too valuable to be used solid, they the construction of machines, mill-work, lock-gates, &c., are sawed into thin leaves, called veneers, which are glued and for handles to tools; it is also a good wood for the down on a backing of ordinary mahogany. The principal turner, being of a close grain. It will not, however, bear of these fancy woods arealternations of moisture and dryness, and is liable to be Rose-wood, which is produced by a tree, a native of attacked by worms, so that it is not extensively employed. Brazil. This wood is much used for furniture, both as a
Chestnut belongs to the same order as the beech, but veneer, and solid for legs of tables, chairs, &c. although a valuable wood, it is now little, if ever, used. KING-wood is also the produce of Brazil; it is a dark Formerly it was extensively so, and the roofs of several chocolate wood, veined with fine black veins. ancient buildings are constructed of it. From some experi BEEF-wood comes from New Holiand, is of a pale red ments, indeed, it seems to be as durable as oak itself. even tint, and intensely hard and heavy. It is used for in
Ash is the wood for the wheelwright and the maker of laying and bordering. agricultural implements; it is one of the most valuable of TULIP-wood is a wood of a clouded red and yellow all timber trees, combining great strength with elasticity colour, and very hard, and used for bordering to larger and lightness; it, however, splits easily. Ash is not used woods. The tree is unknown to our botanists. either by the shipwright or the common carpenter.
ZEBRA-wood is a large-sized tree, and abundant enough Elm is a coarse-grained wood, but strong and durable ; to be used as a veneer in large furniture, like rose-wood; it it does not work readily, and is therefore but little used. It is more curious than elegant. is, however, employed for certain parts of ships, and for Satin-woop is well known for its glossy yellowish tint, making casks, chests, coffins, posts for mill-work, and a few from which it derives its name; there are two varieties. other purposes.
Maple, from our own indigenous tree, is a very elegant Next to oak and fir, the foreign wood MAHOGANY is by wood of a light colour, or else, near the root, variegated far the most valuable, and that most extensively used; it is with knots and twisted grain. It is much used in fancythe growth of the West Indies and South America, and work. the tree, the Swietenia mahogani, is, perhaps, the most majestic of all timber-trees for the enormous dimensions its Of the great number to whom it has been my painful protrunk attains, its vast height and size, and its dark beautiful fessional duty to have administered in the last hour of their foliage. The mahogany of the island of Cuba, and that lives, I have sometimes felt surprised that so few have apfrom the bay of Honduras, is first in estimation. There peared reluctant to go to the undiscovered country “ from are two East Indian species, but they are not imported in whose bourne no traveller returns!" Many, we may easily any quantities into this country.
suppose, have manifested this willingness to die from an The best mahogany is that which grows in dry, cold, and impatience of suffering, or from that passive indifference exposed situations. Such wood is fine-grained, hard, and which is sometimes the result of debility and bodily exdark in colour, richly variegated, causing it from its beauty haustion. But I have seen those who have arrived at a to rank among the most ornamental of fancy woods, while fearless contemplation of the future, from faith in the the light, coarse-grained wood, which grows in warm moist doctrine which our religion teaches. Such men were not climates is sufficiently abundant to be used for ordinary only calın and supported, but cheerful, in the hour of death; purposes, and yet possesses admirable properties for all, and I never quitted such a sick chamber without a hope that where no great strength or tenacity is wanted.
my last end might be like theirs.—Sir Henry HALFORD. Within the last twenty years the use of this wood has increased amazingly, and some ships have many of their We know, and what is better we feel, inwardly, that religion upper timbers above the water-line constructed of Honduras is the basis of civil society, and the source of all good and mahogany. Its use in furniture and cabinet-making is of all comfort. We know, and it is our pride to know, that well known, and, indeed, it may be said to be the principal man is by his constitution a religious animal; that atheism wood used for this purpose, and to have entirely supplanted is against not only our reason, but our instincts, and that it our own walnut, which was formerly in universal use for cannot prevail long. But if in the moment of rest, and in the same purposes.
a drunken delirium from the hot spirit drawn out of the The woods above enumerated are those most extensively alembick of hell, (which, in France, is now so furiously or largely used by the carpenter; but there are several boiling.) we should uncover our nakedness, by throwing off others employed for small articles, and for particular pur- that Christian religion, which has hitherto been our boast poses, which deserve mentioning.
and comfort, and one great source of civilization anong us, Box is the wood of the Buxus sempervirens, a hardy and among many other nations, we are apprehensive (being evergreen plant, indigenous in all the southern parts of well aware that the mind will not endure a veil) that some Europe and Western Asia, and long domesticated in our uncouth, pernicious, and degrading superstition might take shrubberies. Box is especially the wood for turning, it place of it.-BURKE.
ON EMPLOYMENTS WHICH INJURE THE exempt a man from the penalties due to transgression : EYE-SIGHT.
the disciple of Claude, or of Galileo-of Hunter, or of No. IV.
Watt,-is exposed (as we shall see) in the exercise of
his high calling to the inconveniences of the humblest LINEN-INSPECTORS - BANK-NOTE
artisan, Nothing, in fact, proves so well to us the COL-dependent and even coequal condition of man in the
scheme of creation as the universality and individuality of the application of the natural laws to which we are
all alike subject. We have heard the case of an emiWe now proceed to notice a few employments nent landscape-painter, who in the ardent pursuit of wherein too much or too little light proves injurious his profession became troubled with confusion and to the eye.
dimness of vision. He abandoned his practice for a It is of course known that the value of cloth de time, and gave rest to his eyes, the inflammation of pends upon the fineness of its material, and the which yielded to proper medical treatment. Upon degree of closeness with which it is put together. attempting to resume his occupations he was much In the process of weaving, the threads, whether of alarmed to find that he no longer possessed the power silk, cotton, or wool, &c., cross each other at right of discriminating shades of colour from each other : angles, and constitute what is technically termed the he had, in fact, apparently lost the faculty necessary warp and the woof. The value of the cloth therefore to his profession. He had again recourse to medical is tested by the number of threads contained within treatment, and after a time was restored to perfect a given space—the larger the number, the more va- sight. luable becomes the article. There is a class of per The above instances occur, as it will be seen, in sons called linen-inspectors, whose business it is to employments where too much light is admitted to test the value of cloths in this way, and such per the eye, whereby it becomes irritated and fatigued. sons suffer loss of visual power, in consequence of On the other hand its occupation in a dim uncertain the constant application of the eye to this kind of light is productive of results equally disastrous. In work. Those engaged in examining white linen cloths this case it is strained as it were beyond its powers, suffer more than when dark colours are the subject in endeavouring to exercise its function in the absence of investigation ; and among the coloured cloths the of the only necessary means, namely, a moderate and scarlet, with which our army is clothed, produces steady supply of light. Such persons are the numethe worst effects. The reader is probably aware that rous class of miners and colliers, whose employwhite cloth reflects most light; and that of all the ment is underground, amid the fitful gleams of a few colours of the spectrum red is the least refrangible ; lamps or candles, which the very position of the and although yellow and orange colours afford workmen prevent from being other than weak and most light, yet red affords most heat, and is, from almost inadequate sources of illumination ; while in causes not well understood, productive of irritability the collieries the lamps are necessarily surrounded to the eyes of most animals. Scarlet is a compound with wire-gauze to prevent the firing of the gas which colour, containing a large proportion of red, com often issues from the apertures (blowers) laid open bined with yellow*. Manufacturers of bright colours by the workman's pick, and thus the already feeble also suffer injury to the eyes.
illumination is enfeebled. The exposure then of the It is said also that at the Bank of England a new eye to this bad light for several hours, and the transiissue of bank-notes. is productive of ocular disease | tion into the light of day above when the miners' among the clerks, whose employment it is to exa daily toil is done, is in many cases productive of the mine, sign, and counter-sign an immense number of disease we have described. In the stupendous mines these documents per day. The money counters also, of Southern America immense numbers of the natives in the same establishment, are said to be peculiarly were, while under Spanish dominion, kept entirely in liable to amaurotic affections, especially at every new the mines, together with their wives and children ; issue of coinage, when the pieces are highly polished, and thus, as an ingenious Frenchman observes, those and consequently reflect much light.
very persons whose ancestors worshipped the sun are Burnishers form another class of persons peculiarly born, live, and die, without ever having been blessed liable to this disease, particularly such as are engaged with a sight of his rays. in producing upon metallic surfaces a high degree of
Ah! what avail their fatal treasures, hid polish. One of the results of the simple, and other
Deep in the bowels of the pitying earth, wise admirable, principle of the division of labour, is Golconda's gems, and sad Potosi's mines ; certainly attended in some cases with its evils, by Where dwelt the gentlest Children of the Sun ? splitting up one branch of business into a large num
Thomson. ber of collateral shoots, it reduces man to a machine, The united effect of the dim light in which colliers and often deprives him of the power of exercising his are constrained to perform their daily labour, and of invention; and, as in this case, proves positively hurt the contaminated atmosphere which they breathe, is ful. Hence we have an additional proof of the value thus alluded to by Mr. Thackrah, in his work on the of automatic machinery in effecting those processes Effects of Trades, Professions, &c. on the Health. by which man is injured, and his powers impaired.
The eyes of colliers are small, affected with chronic In the instances we have given, the hand and the inflammation, and intolerant of full light. Boys enter the eye are chiefly employed, while the mind rests; but pit at the age of six or seven, and are employed in opening Nature is not partial in her rewards or her punish the trap-doors, driving the horses, propelling the trucks, ments. A high degree of mental cultivation does not
&c.; and finally, when of sufficient age, they become col
liers. Sickness and vomiting sometimes affect persons at • The bull, the turkey, and other animals, manifest great impa-their commencing the employ, and many after a few years' tience and anger at the sight of a red colour. This is probably due trial are obliged, by the injury which their health has sus. to an irritation of the optic nerve, induced by this particular colour : tained, and especially by the weakness of the eyes, to leave this is, however, only a surmise of the writer. A young man was recently killed by holding out his tongue to an adder which he had
the mine. caught, and doubting whether it was a snake or an adder, put out (3.) As the exposure of the eye to too much light his tongue to test the fact. The animal, irritated by the red ap
is injurious, it almost follows that too much heat is pearance of the tongue, bit it; and the bite was fatal, for the young man died some hours afterwards.
equally so. It is painful to reflect that many of our
luxuries are purchased at the expense of much hu- | is, however, a fact, that so much depends upon the man suffering. True it is that by habit men may most exact attention to a number of minute parti become inured to extraordinary and unnatural circulars, only to be attained by a rare union of judg cumstances, which do not indeed exert their fatal ment and experience, that a person who thoroughly influence at once upon them, but which would understands the business is invaluable as a workman, sink unaccustomed hand. Undoubtedly, by and his earnings are accordingly great. Honourable early use and training, the body may successfully instances are not wanting of these melters having withstand high degrees of heat, as the experiments become persons of property, not to say that they of Sir C. Blagden, Chantrey, and others, and the have set up their carriages ! The importance of every-day experience of our gas-factories, glass-houses, their avocation is indeed much greater than may &c., prove ; and it is possible that in all the success- generally be imagined, even when the best irons are ful cases the individuals are fitted peculiarly by na used. Not only does the perfection of innumerable ture, or the habit of early training, for the exercise exquisite cutting instruments depend almost entirely of these pursuits; still, however, it is to be lamented upon the quality of the metal, but much of the glory that there are many cases of workmen whose powers of the fine arts. The steel plates, which by a wonfail them for their own peculiar callings. How far derful triumph of skill the engraver has appropriated, habits of intemperance influence their fate, it is not the burine of Heath and the chisel of Chantrey, within our province to discuss, although we fear that respectively owe their excellence to a judicious mamuch is to be attributed to this energetic and too nagement of the crucible by the Sheffield cast-steel common cause.
melter.”—Manufactures in Metal. On a visit a few years ago to an immense foundry, A melancholy case has occured recently to a friend about noon on a hot summer's day, we were much of the writer, an ingenious painter on glass and glassstruck by the situation chosen by several of the men stainer. The stained glass which enters into the comfor the consumption of their dinner. They were seated position of church and cathedral windows, often conon the copings of several enormous forge-fires, the taining pictures and figures of high excellence, is heat of which was so great as to prevent our approach produced in the first instance, by applying a coloured within several yards, and yet these men appeared to composition to white glass, or painting on glass, as suffer no inconvenience whatever, for as it would on canvass, with a coloured compost which will seem they were in a temperature natural to them, resist heat : the glass being thus prepared by the which, however, was so great that the broad sun artist, its durability through long ages is ensured by shine, into which we soon went, appeared cool in a process termed firing, which consists in placing the comparison.
glass in a close iron box or oven, called a muffle, But the above instance of the power of the human and which is provided with horizontal iron shelves, frame to bear intense degrees of heat, sinks into placed at regular distances, and covered with insignificance when compared with many cases of well-burnt powdered lime, to prevent the contact constant occurrence in the arts and manufactures. of the glass and the hot metal. On these shelves We must be content at present with the selection the glass plates are deposited, the coloured surfaces of one only. The reader may be aware that steel of course upwards. The muffles are placed in a furis fusible, or capable of being melted, and when in nace, and each muffle is furnished with a tube, which the fluid state of being cast in moulds, by which passes out through the furnace-wall, the use of which process the natural qualities of the metal, its hard tube is to enable the operator to examine the state of ness and elasticity, and the permanence of the edge the glass during the process of firing. A fire is now in cutting-tools, are very much improved. The steel kindled and heat continued until, on inspection, the which is to be cast is previously broken into small glass contained in the muffle is found to have acquired pieces, put into a clay crucible capable of holding a heat just sufficient to fuse it: by this means the between thirty and forty pounds of the metal, and so colours are absorbed into and become part of the placed in a wind-furnace, where it is brought to a glass. The watchful eye of experience alone detects white heat, which is sustained for about four hours, the exact moment when the white heat, to which the in which time the liquefaction of the mass is com furnace has been brought, must be reduced : the plete : the furnace-cover is then removed, and other whole contents of the furnace are left to cool gradupreparations are made for pouring the metal into ally for about twelve hours, at the end of which time cast-iron moulds. “ This is a process which places the glass is said to be annealed, or to have lost that the melter in a situation little, if at all, enviable, as brittleness which it would have had if it had been compared with the inside of M. Chabert's celebrated removed from the furnace immediately. oven : indeed the eyes and the hands that are daily The gentleman referred to had been engaged for conversant with molten steel would hardly shrink at several years in managing the above process, when a the mention of a temperature sufficient to broil a few months back, after looking for a longer time than beef-steak! Previously to drawing the crucible, the usual through one of the tubes into the furnace, while artist, whose body, arms, and legs, are defended by the contents of the latter were at a white heat, he ensacking-wrappers, goes to a water-trough, and with tirely, and as it appeared to him suddenly, lost the a besom thoroughly moistens his outer covering, sight of the eye he was employing. The retina was that his clothes may not get a-flame, while he is in fact struck with palsy, from which we regret to bending over the mouth of the burning fiery fur- add he has not since recovered. And yet how wonnace.' Thus prepared, with a pair of strong tongs derful is the fact, that although the eye in this case he withdraws the pot from the fire, takes the lid off, is totally insensible to luminous impressions, and at and pours the metal into the mould. The ingot thus present is of no assistance to its owner, yet the pupil formed is either a bar about two inches square for still retains to a certain extent its contractile and extilting, or a plate six inches broad, twelve to eighteen pansive power when light is more or less admitted to
es long, and an inch thick, for rolling, as the the visionless orb. This fact tends to show how in. same may be wanted to be wrought into its ultimate dependent the function of the iris is of the will. form by the hammer or the shears. It may perhaps In this class are included stokers in iron-furnaces be thought that this fluxing and pouring of the metal and glass-houses, and the denizens of the smithy requires no very great skill in the management. It generally, together with tavern cooks, &c.
THE OVAL, THE ELEMENTARY FORM
The following method of further elucidating the OF BEAUTY.
properties of the oval, will form an amusing problem The indescribable beauty of outline which pervades two ovals of different sizes, cut in card-board, are
for the young draughtsman. To make these drawings, many of the works of antiquity, has been the cause
necessary. Fig. 6 is a Greek vase, with handles, of many attempts to discover if there was any fundamental principle to which this peculiar beauty was to be ascribed. All parties seem to have agreed that it depends on various modifications of a curved line. Mr. Reinagle, the Royal Academician, endeavoured to show, in a lecture delivered at the Royal Institution in 1827, that ovals of various sizes would mechanically produce various elegant and symmetrical outlines. His endeavour was to prove, a line formed by an elliptic curve was beautiful even in an abstract point of view, free from all association." To illustrate his vicws he employed various diagrams, such as are seen in the following figures.
1 2 3 No. 1 and 2 are a series of straight parallel lines, arranged horizontally and vertically; these were shown to produce no principle of beauty. In No.3, a series of straight lines are drawn so as to radiate from a centre producing the simplest beautiful arrangement of lines. In Nos. 4 and 5, he endeavoured formed in the following proportions of seven parts; to prove that a series of straight lines, radiating
the body has four parts, the foot one, and the neck from centres, as fig. 4, were improved in beauty by two. The greatest width of the body is equal to the the addition of curves, as in No. 5. Nos. 6 and ž longest diameter of the larger oval. illustrate the improvement produced by substituting
Fig. 7 is another illustration of the use of the oval curves in the rays, as in No. 6, and a still further in forming a flattened vessel called a patera. improvement by additional curves, as in No. 7.
Fig. 7. Pursuing the same idea, it was shown that if the rays proceeded from a curved instead of a straight line, as in Nos. 8, 9, the beauty of the arrangement was increased, No. 9 being the most elegant.
If an oval disk, fig. 2, is prepared, the beauty of the
We have thus seen in what manner many elegant
figures can be produced by the symmetrical arrangecombination of elliptic curves may be illustrated in ment of elliptic curves ; some, however, contend that various ways, as in fig. 3, where the curves are placed the line of beauty is formed of what is called an hexaat random; fig. 4, in which they radiate from a centre, gonal curve, that is, an arc of a circle equal in length forming a most beautiful figure, capable of becoming to one-sixth part of its diameter. In this manner the the ground-work of an elegant design in foliage or following elegant serpentine lines are produced. The ornament. If the oval disk is applied, as in fig. 5, outline of the human face is said to be formed of and the whole of its outline repeatedly drawn, a hexagonal curves.