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cannot fail to do,) that the interior surface of the heavy penalty of the law, he can never secede should shells of many fishes possess those delicate tints | he chance to recover. All children subsequently born which form part of the beauty of a Pearl, we are to him are legally subject to its discipline, and must justified in believing that there is some peculiar fluid be educated in its faith; and, even a posthumous child existing in a large number of fishes, which, when is placed in the same circumstances. Instances have dried, presents a surface having that beautiful appear frequently occurred, nevertheless, where bigoted ignoance which we term pearly.
rance has refused Christian rites to the body of a Protestant, though happily the instances are rare.
A distressing case of the kind recently occurred RUSSIA. No. IX.
within thirty miles of Moscow. An Englishman of
unblemished character, an overseer in the establishFUNERAL CEREMONIES. No. 2.
ment of a Russian manufacturer, died suddenly at In our preceding paper of this series, we described the works. His afflicted wife was naturally 'anxious the funeral obsequies of one of the higher classes, not
that her husband's remains should rest besides those because we were won by the costly array of the lordly
of his countrymen in the English burial-ground; funeral, where vanity too often would fain coquet
but the proprietor, dreading the interference of the with death, and ostentation bedizen with its tinsel the police, refused even the loan of a cart to convey dark passage to the tomb, but because it afforded an it thither. Only a short time established in the opportunity of remarking those peculiar customs, country, she knew but little of the language, so little which among the poor are neglected from sheer
as to be scarcely enabled to make herself underpoverty
stood; every human being stood aloof ;—the very The writer of this article, not many months ago,
peasants, influenced doubtless by fear of the legal witnessed a scene of every day wretchedness, which responsibility, refused to lend their carts, though he cannot forbear to describe, as a contrast to the promised liberal recompense. The police urged instant description given. In one of the principal thorough- burial, the master peremptorily ordered the corpse to fares of the ancient metropolis of Russia, during be taken from his premises; and the desolate and the Carnival week, his attention was attracted to a
friendless widow, as a last and inevitable resource, funeral of the humblest aspect. On a rough country applied to the priest, “ to give a little earth for cart, drawn by one miserable horse, and driven by a charity.” He refused, the deceased not having been ragged peasant boy, was laid a coffin, formed from
of the Greek faith. Entreaties and bribes were alike the trunk of a tree, rudely fashioned with the axe, in vain. Further delay being impossible, a shallow and without one single emblem or ornament, except hole was scooped in the corner of an open field, by a coarse tattered quilt
, half covering it, yet exposing the Russian workmen whom he had superintended; to view the emaciated features of an aged peasant,
by their hands he was laid shroudless, in his unblessed with hoary hair and long gray beard. No mourners
grave; his poor daughter, anxious that some semfollotved, excepting two peasant men, with an old
blance of a religious ceremony should mark the contime-bowed woman, who tottered by their side, and signing of her deceased parent to the earth, attempted who wore the only mark of mourning, a rusty black to read the sublime funeral service of our church; she ribbon bound round the head. The cart was pre- sobbed through a few prayers, but overcome by her ceded by a solitary priest, whose hurried step and rest
feelings fainted beneath the effort, and was borne off less air told that he grudged the unprofitable hour.
by her distracted mother. The hole was filled up, the Curiosity, think it not an idle curiosity, prompted business of the day went on as usual, and the bereaved an inquiry. The old man had dwelt in a common
family sought refuge and consolation among their lodging house for peasantry, and had gone to his countrymen in Moscow. rest the evening before, an evening everywhere in They sought it, and happily they found it too; Russia devoted to festivity: his spirit had taken its
nor did their wrongs go unredressed. The heartflight whilst the din of revelry rung around him. He rending circumstances of the case, were, as a matter was unknown to those whom Christian charity had of courtesy, laid before some individuals of rank and induced to follow him to his place of rest. A stranger influence, previously to seeking redress through an had closed his eyes, and the chill hand of cautious official channel. The Metropolitan, a man of distincharity had given him his coffin, and hollowed out guished learning, piety, and benevolence, before whom his grave. The humble train passed on in silence the affair was laid, directed immediate inquiry to be unnoticed, or noticed but for one brief moment as the instituted. The result confirming the statement given, passer-by raised his hat, hastily crossed himself, and the priest and the police received each a severe muttered the valedictory prayer.
reprimand; and, had a vindictive spirit, in urging to Carriage after carriage dashed rapidly past, filled extremities, prevailed, they would, undoubtedly, have with the youth and beauty of the city, in their gala been severely punished. The end, however, was atattire, hastening to the scene of promised enjoyment tained; the body exhumed and placed in a coffin, was at the public promenade. Few cast a look towards brought to the English burial-ground, where it was the bier of the poor peasant,-for what had youth interred with Christian rites. and beauty to do with old age, poverty, and death?
It is but justice to remark, that in Russia the The contrast was painfully striking.
higher authorities are always ready and energetic in Although by an oukaze, issued in 1801, the laws of the correcting the abuses of subordinates, and in affordempire strictly forbid the interment of a foreigner, of ing protection to foreigners of every nation and of different creed, within the limits of consecrated ground, every creed, but there is considerable difficulty in the Greco-Russian Church refuses the mere ceremo- | getting access to them. If, however, these scenes are nial rites of burial to none. If, however, a Protestant, witnessed in a country where toleration is part of the in his last hours, receive the Holy Sacrament, or the national religion, what may not be expected in those extreme unction, as will sometimes happen in remote
whence it is excluded ? parts of the country, from the ignorant, though wellmeant, zeal of those around, to secure for him a
POVERTY.—That man is to be accounted poor, of whatever
rank he be, and suffers the pains of poverty, whose expenses portion of hallowed earth, he is considered as received exceed his resources; and no man is, properly speaking, poor, within the pale of the church, from which, under the but he.- PALEY.
INDUCE THE DISEASE-STRAINING THE EYE-
ON EMPLOYMENTS WHICH INJURE THE number of readers similarly affected to himself. If EYE-SIGHT.
he succeed in reniving from the minds of such, any No. III.
ill-grounded fears and apprehensions concerning the
ultimate result of these singular affections, one great FIXED OR FLOATING SPECKS IN THE EYE-CAUSES, | object of the present article will be achieved; but a REMEDY, PREVENTION - EMPLOYMENTS
still more important object is to warn such of our readers who may be blessed with good and perfect visual organs how they employ them; that is, to
establish in their own minds a clear definition of the We now proceed to notice a few only of the symp- use of an organ and of its abuse ; they will then not toms of amaurosis, and, as far as we can, to trace have the excuse of ignorance, if, in after years, through its cause to an injudicious employment of the organ. any fault or misfortune of their own, they become
(1.) Many of the diseased affections of the eye amaurotic. proceed indirectly from indigestion, a morbid condi There is a case reported by Dr. Travers, in his tion of the stomach, the liver, and bowels, result. Synopsis of the Diseases of the Eye, so interesting, ing from sedentary employment, and the conse and so much in point, that we proceed at once to lay quent want of that exercise of the body which is it before our readers. It is the case of an intelligent so indispensable to the healthy action of all its young gentleman, written by himself, and shows parts. The fine delicate nervous filament, the re clearly the origin, progress, and gradations of this tina, possesses a very remarkable property when disease.
He says, subjected to pressure, namely, that of becoming lumi
About a year and a half ago, the first symptoms appeared nous, or of conveying to the mind a luminous im
which gave me any uneasiness with respect to my sight. For pression This may be seen in health and in a dark several months I read incessantly, not only throughout the rooms, by pressing upon the eye-ball; but its incon- day, but also for five or six hours cach night by candle-light, venient, and even alarming instances, occur when the and I now perceived numerous circular motes, which, comstomach is deranged and headache is present; then bining, formed clouds of irregular figures before my eyes. the blood-vessels of the head are surcharged, and by These motes always appear when I look at the sky or any pressure on the retina produce appearances of various light-coloured object in a strong light; they move with the forms, often a faint phosphorescent haze floating tion to each other, and to the centre of vision; each con
eyes, retaining for some time the same position, with relabefore the eye, varying in shape and colour, and sists of a slightly opaque circumference and a central spot, sometimes of various colours at the same time. The the diameter being, as well as I can judge, about four or morbid sensibility of the retina in these cases is often five minutes of the circle of vision. Sometimes films such, that persons have been able to read even in the appear curved or twisted like hairs, and of the same degree darkness of night *; and it is not an uncommon
of opacity as the motes. There is a collection of these
films always before the right eye, but at such a distance remark with amaurotic patients, that an improvement from the centre of vision as not to disturb sight. The in vision is observed while inflammation is present, number of the motes seems increased by violent exercise, which ceases as the inflammation subsides. These as well as by close reading, or a disordered state of the appearances are not so common as the presence of stomach. Sometimes for a moment a small circular black fixed or floating spots, (musca, or flies, as they are
spot appears near the centre of vision, and sometimes, called,) which darken a small portion of the field of though not so frequently, one faintly luminous. vision. Their presence is very common to persons of which became more vivid as I continued this severe exer
The candle next appeared surrounded with a faint halo, sedentary habit, after about thirty or forty years tion of my sight. When my eyes are unusually weak, or of age, often earlier, depending, of course, on the a light is presented to them after I have been some time average state of health of the individual, and the in darkness, instead of the halo, a globular appearance of “ wear and tear" to which he has exposed his eyes.
a muddy yellow colour, surrounds the flame. The fixed spots sometimes co-exist with the floating, retina retaining impressions made upon it. After looking
About six months ago, I began to be annoyed by the and the latter are constantly varying in size and
at any white or bright metallic object, on turning away my shape, which depend on causes not well understood. eyes, I distinctly perceive its outline, in a darker shade, on These spots sometimes appear as globules, or rings, any surface to which I may direct my view; the impression or disks ; they very commonly resemble particles of lasting from two or three seconds to half a minute, accordsoot, transparent vesicles, or minute globules strung ing to the strength of light, the brightness of the object, together like beads on a thread, or small bulbs with
and the length of time for which I have viewed it. The hairs attached to them, or waving lines. With some frequently for a couple of minutes, the sun for a still longer
flame of a candle leaves its image impressed on the retina persons they are seen in the air, or only when the time, the image in both instances being of a muddy yellow eye is directed to the sky, or a white surface; some colour. times they appear only in the flame of a candle or A kind of penumbra surrounds light-coloured objects in lamp, and others see them only on the ground. Some a strong light, and prevents me from accurately distintimes one eye only is affected, at other times both. guishing their outline. When the object is under a suffiThey frequently precede or accompany indigestion, ciently small angle to be seen entire without moving the
eye, it seems double; one image being such as would or bilious headache, or constipation, while they are
appear to a healthy eye, the other much fainter; thus is the often absent when the health is good. These float moon seen, a piece of money, or the gilt letters over shoping spots do not generally interfere with useful vision, windows. These appearances take place indifferently, and they frequently disappear on looking through whether I use either eye or both. spectacles. Such are the general features of the
In a few instances, a very severe exertion of my eyes floating muscæ. Their cause is said by some to produced the appearance of innumerable black partic'es depend on a disordered circulation in the vessels of
dancing before them.
When I read for any considerable time, I have a disthe retina, while others attribute the cause to floating agreeable sense of heat in my eyes, with pain in the eyeparticles in the humours or minute points in the balls, extending to the lower part of the forehead. I am
not constantly subject to headaches, though occasionally The writer of this paper is himself the sunject of alilicted with them, especially if I delay breakfasting for this disease, and, therefore, feels a more than usual any length of time after rising. My tongue is frequently confidence in addressing what, he fears, is a large seldom enjoy a good appetite.
foul for weeks together, my digestion seems weak, and I This is stated on the authority of Dr. Jacob.
I ought to observe, that most of the above-mentioned
symptoms seem to have been mitigated since I came to creased by causes opposite in their nature, while London. Since the application of the blisters, the halo their effect is the same. round the flame of the candle has nearly disappeared.
Travellers inform us of a
disease common to the inhabitants of snowy counIt appears then that the muscæ may be removed tries, which disease is called snow-blindness; and it by attention to a few simple rules of regimen, by is found necessary to protect the eyes by means of resting the eye, and giving it only a fair share of a goggle made of wood, leather, &c., with a slit oppodaily employment. If the general health be good, site the pupil. Captain Parry and other arctic trathe constant presence of the floating muscæ may be vellers make frequent mention of this disorder, and regarded as perfectly harmless insects, which are speak of covering the face with black crape, which solitary and will not increase ; but if the health be proved an effectual remedy. On the other hand, perin a low, fitful, and uncertain state, the muscæ, in
sons confined in dungeons have acquired the power common with the insect tribe whence they take their of distinguishing surrounding objects with the greatname, will increase and multiply as time goes on, and est facility in their obscure dwellings, wherein at may in such case be regarded as the prelude to a still their first entrance no light whatever could be demore disordered action of the visual organ.
tected. This power is due, in the latter case, to the In the first division of employments which induce peculiar mechanism of the iris, as well as to the inthis disease, we have spoken of such as are sedentary. creased sensibility of the retina. The iris is comPersons engaged in them are, like ourselves, students, posed of two sets of muscular fibres, the one tending writers, draughtsmen, &c.; also watch-makers, engra- like radii towards the centre of the circle, and the vers, and such as are employed in some factories, other forming a number of concentric circles round as needle-workers, and those whose employments re the same centre, which centre is the pupil, whose quire the head to be bent over their work, by which diameter varies by the action of the two sets of musthe vessels of the eye are often surcharged with blood, cular fibres which compose the iris. When a lumiand its powers taxed beyond endurance, by being nous object is seen the circular fibres contract, and strained to the perception of minute objects. The the radial fibres are relaxed; and thus the size of the very familiar term which we have just employed, pupil is diminished. In dark and obscure situations “straining the eye,” is liable to the serious objection the radial fibres contract, and the circular are reof being unmeaning, of conveying no precise idea to laxed ; and the pupil is thus enlarged, so as to admit the mind, although the act indicated by this expres a greater quantity of light. The healthy action of sion is sufficiently intelligible to all. It seems to con the eye very much depends on the perfect operation sist in compressing the eye, by means of the muscles of the fibres of the iris. attached to the globe, and by this means it becomes more convex than is natural. It must, however, be admitted, that we are ignorant how it is that the constant employment of the eye, in viewing minute
WIGS AND HEAD-DRESSES. No. II. objects, where an unusual quantity of light is not Wigs were not generally worn in England until employed, is injurious. It has been inquired, whether many years after they were in common use in Paris. in these cases, the retina is in a state of excitement The first noticed in this country was worn by Henry with morbid sensibility, a state approaching to inflam- the Eighth's fool, Saxon; and in Shakspeare's time mation? or whether it is the very reverse, in a state the players resorted to the use of them to produce of impaired sensibility and defective vitality? Now effect in personating different characters; that great if we may be allowed to hazard a conjecture, we poet makes Hamlet say,—“ It offends me to the soul should trace much of the disordered action of the to hear a robustious periwig-pated fellow tear a paseye from the above causes, to the employment of the sion to tatters.” double convex lens which is so customary with watch In the reign of King Charles the First, long hair makers, engravers, &c., whereby the adjusting powers had become fashionable at the court, and as all were of the eye are ever varying, and this, as we shall see not furnished with flowing locks, it was necessary to further on, is productive of diseased action in the supply the deficiencies of nature by art, and this eye. Again, it must not escape our notice, that per- gradually led to the introduction of the peruke, sons engaged in minute work, constantly employ except amongst the members of the bar, who did not artificial means for condensing the light by means of assume the wig until about 1670. The perukes were shades, globes filled with water, and double convex made to assume the appearance of real hair as much lenses, and so directing it to a small part of their as possible, and arranged so as to flow over each work.table, while the rest of the apartment is com shoulder and down the back; the size of these wigs paratively obscure. It is notorious that minute work continued gradually increasing through the reigns requires a good light, and it is probable, that the of Charles the Second and James, until
, in the reign causes of disease in these cases are to be found in of William and Mary they had reached their fulthe second class of employments, which we are just lest extent. No. 1 is a representation of the kind of about to consider as well as in the present class. wig then worn by persons of distinction. The size of The writer has conversed with a few intelligent watch- these wigs was so excessive, that ten heads would not makers, who state that they suffer much from head have furnished a quantity of hair equal to the conache, &c., while they admit their inability to see tents of one of them; the curls were made to flow clearly objects at great distances. It is also worthy down the back, and hang over the shoulders, half of remark, that the writer has noticed in those per- way down the arms. sons, that the pupil is unusually small, contracted as Louis the Fourteenth's wig was so large, (for the it were to a mere speck. It would be worth inquiry, same fashion prevailed in France,) that he was said to whether a clear view of minute objects is accom rob the heads of his subjects to cover his own; panied by the contraction of the pupil; this is a great was the demand for hair in England, that in point which our readers can ascertain for themselves. 1700, a young country girl received sixty pounds for We need not illustrate this division by cases, since her head of hair, and the gray locks of an old woman, the cause is sufficiently obvious, and the reader can after death, sold for fifty pounds; wigs in common supply instances from his own experience.
were as much as forty pounds each. The clergy had (2.) The sensibility of the retina is morbidly in- hitherto, with some exceptions, worn their own hair,
number of French hairdressers who had introduced themselves into this country.
At the end of the last century the wig began to fall into disuse ; many contented themselves with their natural hair, in which they wore powder, and those who still retained this article of dress were satisfied with a wig of less imposing appearance ; but still, in many cases, the queue was retained, and sometimes it
was made of an extravagant length and thickness, No, l.
tightly bound round with riband so as to resemble a solid mass rather than a bundle of pendant hair.
The statue of George the Third, in Cockspur-Street, only gone out of use in late years. No. 2 shows the London, furnishes a good example of this appendage manner in which the hair was worn by a Bishop of to the wig, but even this sinks into insignificance London in the reign of Charles the Second, before when compared with the queue which was formerly the clergy had assumed the curled wig of more worn by the sailors in the Royal Navy; this reached recent years.
nearly to the bottom of the back, and must have been very inconvenient to the wearer. These tails
were abolished in the navy some years back, and No. 2.
shortly after the filthy powder worn in the hair of the soldiery was also abolished, and the hair was cut close.
The wigs of the latter part of George the Third's reign, as we have noticed, assumed a less dignificd appearance, as shown in the annexed figures. Since
As the wig had reached its largest size during the reign of William, so in the succeeding reigns, those of Anne and George the First, it was more generally worn by all classes, and was made in the greatest variety of forms. About 1720, it was fashionable to tie one-half of it on one side into a club, as in No. 3. A few years after, bag wigs came into fashion ; several that time even wigs of this description have fallen ludicrous specimens of these are represented in the into disuse, and the chief work for the peruke-maker next engravings; the first two are copied from now consists in the manufacture of natural scratches, Hogarth's plates, about 1730, and the third was in as they are called, for the use of those whose health
and comfort require such protection, and of those
whose tastes deem them essential to appearances. No, 5. The real wig is now confined exclusively to the bench
of bishops, many of whom, however, do not wear it, and to the members of the legal profession, who cannot dispense with it.
SELF-LOVE but serves the virtuous mind to wake,
fashion in 1792. The bag was made of black silk to contain the queue, and was ornamented with a bow or rosette of the same. This rage for wigs was carried to such an extent, that even children were decked out in them. About 1763, the fashion of wearing wigs was on the decline, and that to such an extent, that the peruke-makers of London presented a petition to the king, in which they complained also of the vast
PRICE SIX PENCE,
SOME ACCOUNT OF THE CITY OF ROME. PART VIII.
HISTORY OF ST. PETER'S.
building a new church was resumed by Julius II., who The ancient basilica, which preceded the present Cathedral invited different artists to send in their plans. “Such a of St. Peter, was erected in 324, by the Emperor Con- competition," continues the author of Letters of an Archistantine; and it has been a constant tradition of the tect, “ took place on this occasion, as is not to be seen in Romish Church that the spot on which it stood was the these degenerate days: Bramante; Giuliano di San Gallo; burial place of St. Peter, after his supposed martyrdom on
Fra Giacomo, or perhaps rather Fra Giocondo; Peruzzio; the site of S. Pietro in Montorio. In the middle of the fif- Raphael; and J. Battista Berti, produced their designs; teenth century this basilica was serging on ruin; and the but that of Bramante was preferred." reigning pontiff, Nicholas V., undertook to erect a new
Bramante began to clear the ground by pulling down a building." on such a scale, and with such accompaniments," | part of the old edifice in 1503 ; the first stone of the new to use the words of Mr. Woods, that even the present structure was laid by Julius himself, on the 18th of April, work, with all its appendages, and the adjoining palace of 1506; it was deposited under one of the four enormous the Vatican, are hardly equal to it. Three straight streets, pillars which support the cupola. Bramante lived to see the with porticoes on each side, were to have conducted to the whole of these four pillars raised as high as the cornice, church. This was to have been formed on the most magni- and upon them the arches turned, upon which the great ficent scale, and finished with the richest materials: adjoin- dome itself rests. He died in 1514. His patron, Julius ing would have been a palace, large enough to afford 11., had died the previous year; but the successor of Julius, accommodation to the pope and all his court; to all the Leo X., carried on the work with increased energy. “It is Cardinals ar:d their attendants; to various officers of govern- well known," remarks Dr. Burton, “that both Július and mient; and, besides this, spacious apartments for as many Leo carried to a much greater length than any of their presovereigns with their numerous suites, as could be ever at decessors the sale of indulgences. The justification of such one time at Rome: add to all this, pleasure-grounds,-gar- a measure was principally taken from the desire entertained dens and fountains, and a great theatre for the ceremonies by the Roman Pontiff for rebuilding the church of St. of coronation." The pope died, however, and with him Peter: and as the Reformation is certainly to he ascribed his rast designs. Fifty years afterwards, the project of in a great degree to the offence raised by this scandalous
* The coronation of the Emperor, apparently is meant. If the traffic, we may say, without aiming at a paradox, that the