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THE DUTCH FISHERIES.
Whales also. Successive wars prevented the vessels No. II.
from putting to sea, and the government preferred
employing them and their crews in the defence of COD FISHERY.
the country. Five years ago the whaling vessels which The Dutch Cod fishery is of less importance than the then remained were wrecked, and almost all the harHerring. Those vessels which during November have pooners perished; but the government is doing everybeen employed in the latter, are repaired and graved, thing in its power to repair this last calamity and to so as to be in a condition for putting out to sea for revive the Whale fishery, now successfully prosecuted the former on the 6th of December, that being St. by the French. Among other things it is forming Nicholas' day. No positive obligation attaches to harpooners at its own expense. that day, for the government-bounty regulations only require their going to sea before the first of January. The bounty amounts to three hundred florins, or about
THE PLANETARY SYSTEM. twenty-four pounds sterling.
Fair star of Eve, thy lucid ray Far fewer vessels are employed in the Cod fishery.
Directs my thoughts to realms on high ; Vlaardingen generally sends out about forty, but of all
Great is the theme, (though weak the lay,) the other towns already mentioned, one other only,
For my heart whispers God is nigh. Maasluis, sends any.
The Sun, vicegerent of his power, The Winter Cod fishing is called Beug vaart, from
Shall rend the veil of parting night, the beug employed in it. This consists of a rope half Salute the spheres, at early hour, a league in length, or more, with bouys at certain dis
And pour a flood of life and light. tances to keep it near the surface of the water, and
Seven circling planets I behold,
Their diff'rent orbits all describe; armed throughout its whole length with lines and
Copernicus these wonders told, hooks, the hooks being baited with lampreys, or, if
And bade the laws of truth revive. these cannot be had, with geep. As lampreys make
Mercury and Venus first appear, the best bait, no pains are spared in getting them. A
Nearest the dazzling source of day, vessel with a reservoir for preserving them is sent Three months compose his hasty year, before the fishing commences to England for a supply,
In seven she treads the heavenly way. the rivers there being better stored with them than Next Earth completes her yearly course, those of Holland are. Each fisherman takes what he
The Moon, as satellite, attends;
Attraction is the hidden force, requires, and the remainder is deposited in a reservoir
On which creation's law depends. at Vlaardingen to serve for future voyages.
Then Mars is seen of fiery hue; Previous to the flotilla's putting out to sea, there is
Jupiter's orb we next descry; appointed what is called the Dank-segging-tag voor
His atmospheric belts we view de schepens, that is, Thanks-saying-day for the ships.
And four bright moons attract the eye. Thanks are offered on the occasion for the expedition Mars soon his revolution makes, that is over, and prayers made for that which is to
In twice twelve months the Sun surrounds; commence.
Jupiter greater limit takes The vessels are not long at sea, returning generally
And twelve long years declare his bounds. with fresh and salted cod, within five weeks from their With ring of light see Saturn slow, departure. The fish are all caught in the North Sea,
Pursue his path in endless space;
By seven pale moons his course we know, and the season closes in March. In April the mode of
And thirty years that round shall trace. capture is changed, and with it the term applied to the
The Georgium Sidus next appears, fishery. Lines are then employed; the fishery is called
By his amazing distance known ; kolreis ; and it closes in May, when the vessels return The lapse of more than eighty years, in order to prepare for the herring fishery. No fresh
In his account makes one alone. cod is brought home from the kolreis, the cod at that Six moons are his by Herschel shown, season being too fat and oily.
Herschel, of modern times the boast : A third Cod fishing is prosecuted by the Dutch,
Discovery here is all his own, which is called Islandsche vaart, from being carried
Another planetary host !
And lo! by astronomic scan, on along the coast of Iceland. The vessels set out in
Three stranger planets track the skies, May, and return to Holland in August or September.
Part of that high majestic plan, Though often lucrative, it is difficult and dangerous,
Whence those successive worlds arise. from the coldness of the climate, and the storms en
Next Mars, Piaszi's orb is seen, countered on the Iceland coast. The vessels employed,
Four years, six months, complete his round: not above twenty-five in number, are brigs, and are Science shall, renovated, beam, all sent out by the villages on the left bank of the
And gild Palermo's favoured ground. Maas. The cod fish they bring home is of excellent Dau
ers of telescopic rayquality, and is known by the softness and delicacy of
Pallas and Juno, smaller spheres, its skin, and the whiteness of the fibre when cooked.
Are seen near Jove's imperial day,
Tracing the heavens in destined years. The Whale fishery in Holland is called the Little
Comets and fixed stars I see, fishery, to distinguish it from that of Herring and
With native lustre ever shine; Cod, or the Great fishery. The Whale fishery was How great, how good, how dreadful He, very considerable in former times, and was chiefly
In whom life, light, and truth combine ! confined to Rotterdam adventurers. Large three Oh may I better know his will, masted vessels were employed with numerous crews.
And more implicitly obey ; They sailed either for the South Seas or for the coast of
Be God my friend, my father still, Greenland, and were often called Groenlande-vaarders.
From finite-to eternal day --MANGNALL. This branch of industry used to be so much encou. raged that even the public treasury bore the expense
LONDON: of some of the expeditions fitted out. But the same JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. causes which injured the Dutch by reducing their PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, TRICK One PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS once flourishing Herring fishery, affected that for
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CRUSADE AGAINST THE ALBIGENSES UNDER SIMON
DE MONTFORT -CRUELTIES PRACTISED UPON
It stands, (says Mr. Hughes,) on a conical cliff on the opposite side of the river, overlooking the town at about two cannon-shots' distance. On inquiring into the history of this eagle's-nest, we found that it had been, in days of
yore, the fastness of a petty free-booting chief, who kept the The Castle of Crussol, situated in the ancient dis- | inhabitants of Valence in a perpetual state of war anı. trict of Vivarais, and in that part of it which forms annoyance; a history which almost appears fabricated to suit the rnodern department of Ardèche, is one of the of sunshine from a dark evening cloud behind it, we could
its appearance and character. Seeing it relieved by a gleam most picturesque of those ruined strong-holds so fancy, without any great effort of imagination, that, like the numerous in the south of France, and so interesting bed-ridden Giant Pope in honest John Bunyan, it was grin. in the eyes of a Protestant, from their connexion ning a ghastly smile of envy at the prosperity which it with the memorable crusade carried on against the could no longer interrupt. Albigenges, by the Church of Rome and its adherents, In a former paper * we brought down the history in the early part of the thirteenth century. It stands of the crusade against the Albigenses to the capture upon a lofty eminence of rock, not far from the right of the castle of Minervc, by Simon de Montfort, in bank of the river Rhone, and nearly opposite to the the month of July, 1210, when that ambitious pertown of Valence, upon the left bank,
• See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XII., p. 89. VOL. XII.
secuting chieftain and his fanatical followers, com the crusaders. Both the noble lady and her brother pelled one hundred and forty persons, men and professed the doctrines of the Albigenses; and they women, to leap into the flames, which they had kin- had opened an asylum within the walls of the castle, dled in the square of the castle. Immediately after, for those who were persecuted in other parts of the De Montfort proceeded to the siege of the castle of province. Lavaur was thus regarded by the crusaders Termes, an extremely strong fortress upon the frontiers as one of the principal seats of heresy; and as the of Roussillon.
fortress was surrounded by strong walls and protected The capture of Minerve and Termes, two of the by deep ditches, besides being well stored with prostrongest places in Languedoc, produced a very dis- visions, its capture was deemed an object of great heartening effect upon the garrisons of other castles, importance. who feared to put any trust in the strength of their While the crusaders were undertaking the siege of walls against the overwhelming force of the crusaders. Lavaur, Fouquet, the fanatical bishop of Toulouse, As De Montfort advanced from Termes to the north- repaired to that city and displayed his zeal in the ward, he found a large number of their fortresses cause of persecution by gathering a band of auxiliaries. deserted; the inhabitants had abandoned them in He told the inhabitants that the presence of a number despair, and betaken themselves for security to the of Albigenses in that city had rendered them an woods and mountains. But their flight did not save object of horror to all Christians; and that to purify them from the unrelenting ferocity of their enemies; themselves from the stigma of being confounded with they were pursued into their retreats, where the those heretics, they should exhibit an exceeding zeal greater part of them were put to the sword, the rest in arming themselves against those of their fellowbeing taken captive to the camp, and burned for the citizens who had departed from the Catholic Church. edification of the army.
He succeeded in enrolling a large number of them in The prospect of a great addition to the army of a society which styled itself the “ White Company," crusaders in the ensuing canipaign of 1211, inspired and in token of the purity of its faith engaged to their leader with fresh confidence and boldness. The destroy the heretics by fire and sword. Five thou. fervid zeal of the monks, loath to slumber in the cause sand of this body of fanatics he despatched to aid in of persecution, had never ceased to inflame the passions the siege of Lavaur. of the credulous vulgar; and the success which had This siege was prosecuted by the crusaders with attended their recent preachings, gave promise of a vigour. Their chieftain possessed a large share of larger crowd of fanatical pilgrims than had visited the military skill; and his experience had made him concountry of the Albigenses in either of the preceding versant with all the resources of the art of war in years. De Montfort felt that it was no longer neces that age. He himself had served in the Holy Land; sary for him to keep any measures, or, in the phrase and he had in his camp many knights who had fought of Pope Innocent, “to employ guile" with regard to against the Mohammedans and against the Greeks, the Count of Toulouse; and he prepared, therefore, and in their eastern campaigns had acquired a knowto commence open hostilities against him. He was ledge of the attack and defence of fortified places. prompted to this step by a desire of gratifying not He was therefore able to employ against the walls only his own ambition in adding the fine sovereignty of Lavaur ingenious machines, which had been but of Count Raymond to his former acquisitions, but recently introduced among the nations of the west, likewise the hatred which the abbot Arnold, and and were as yet quite unknown to the inhabitants of Fouquet, the persecuting bishop of Toulouse, had the country bordering upon the Pyrenees. The most contracted for that unfortunate prince.
fearful of these was that called the “cat." It was In the month of March, Simon de Montfort, finding a very strong movable wooden tower, which being himself at the head of a very large army, proceeded built out of the reach of the besieged, was entirely to open the campaign, and directed his first effort covered with sheep's-skins, with the fur outwards to against the castle of Cabaret. This stronghold had guard it from fire, and then being provided with hitherto successfully resisted the arms of the cru soldiers at its openings, and on the platform at its saders; but it appears that the continual reverses of summit, was moved on rollers to the foot of the the Albigenses during the two years of the war, had wall. Its side then opened, and an immense beam, broken their spirit and deprived them of the hope armed with iron hooks, projected like the paw of a of effectually contending with the overwhelming force cat, shook the wall by reiterated strokes, after the which avarice and fanaticism had arrayed against manner of the ancient battering ram, and tore out, them. For Peter Roger, the lord of Cabaret, opened and pulled down, the stones which it had loosened. his gates on the approach of De Montfort, and ten
De Montfort succeeded in constructing a cat," dered his voluntary submission; and his example but the wide ditches of Lavaur prevented him from was followed by the chiefs of many other castles bringing it near enough to the walls.
The crusaders, situated in the mountains, which separate the dioceses under the order of De Montfort, laboured unceasingly of Carcassonne and Toulouse. All these places on to fill up the ditch, whilst the inhabitants of Lavaur, surrendering were treated with humanity ; De Mont- who could descend into it by subterraneous passages, fort rarely exercised this virtue, and this departure cleared away in the night time all that had been from his general practice is accounted for by his thrown in during the day. At last Montfort sucdesire of obviating the delay which would have been ceeded in filling the mines with flame and smoke, occasioned to his progress, if he had driven their and thereby prevented the inhabitants from passing defenders to a desperate resistance, by showing them into them. The ditches were then speedily filled, the that they would be no better treated if they sur cat was pushed to the foot of the wall; and its terrendered.
rible paw began to open and enlarge the breach. Lavaur, situated on the Agout at the distance of On the third of May, 1211, De Montfort judged five miles from Toulouse, became now the object of the breach to be practicable, and the crusaders preattack. This place, which afterwards rose to be an pared for the assault. episcopal city, was then only a strong castle, belonging to a widów named Guirande, whom her brother, functions of vice-legate, and all the priests clothed in their
The bishops, the abbot of Courdieu, who exercised the Aimery de Montreal, had joined with eighty knights, pontifical habits, giving themselves up to the joy of seeing after having been deprived of his own possessions by the carnage begin sang the hymu Veni Creator. Tüe.
knights mounted the breach; resistance was impossible, inferior quality, are often found imbedded in the and the only care of Simon de Montfort was to prevent the shell, from which great care is required to extract crusaders from instantly falling upon the inhabitants, and them. Respecting the origin of Pearls great diversity to beseech them rather to make prisoners, that the priests of opinion has prevailed, but the most probable conof the living God might not be deprived of their promisel joys. Very soon," continues the monk of Vaux-Cernay, jecture is that of Raumur, a French writer, who,
they dragged out of the castle, Aimery Lord of Montreal, about 120 years ago, paid much attention to this anil other knights, to the number of eighty, whom the subject. He considered Pearls to be the result of noble earl immediately ordered to be hanged upon the disease, in the same way as stone in the human gallows; but as soon as Aimery, the stoutest among them, bladder is known to be; that they were originally was hanged, the gallows fell; for, in their great haste, they fuid, forming part of the vital system of the animal, had not well fixed it in the earth. The earl seeing this would produce great delay, ordered the rest to be massacred;
but that having burst the vessel or membrane which and the pilgrims, receiving the order with the greatest contained them, they hardened into a little round avidity, very soon massacred them all upon the spot. The solid, which became the Pearl. This opinion is suplady of the castle, who was sister of Aimery, and an exe ported by a statement which has been made, that if crable heretic, was by the count's order thrown into a pit, these oysters be pricked while alive, a fluid will be which was filled up with stones ; afterwards our pilgrims discharged, which on hardening very much resembles collected the innumerable heretics that the castle contained, and burned them alive with very great joy."
a Pearl ; and it is further supported by two other The expression of "very great joy" used by the
circumstances, which we shall presently notice. writer whom Sismondi here quotes, is the phrase men find there is either a large demand for an article,
The love of gain is such a ruling passion, that when which he always employs upon a similar occasion. The writer is Peter de Vaux Cernay, a monk of
or a high price paid for it, they seldom fail to devise Citeaux, who followed his lord Simon de Montfort to
some means by which the supply shall be rendered the crusade, and was doubtless an eye-witness of the
more abundant. Accordingly many attempts were enormities which he relates, and in the relation of made to render the oysters more prolific of Pearls. which he seems to take as much delight as he ascribes These schemes appear to have been of three kinds.
First, to prick the oyster ; second, to perforate the to the actors in the perpetration of them.
shell; and, third, to introduce five or six small beads within the shell. The mode in which these processes
acted was as follows. ON ARTIFICIAL PEARLS.
First.-The Indians, after catching the oysters and Among those decorations, which have at all times opening the shells, pierced the oysters with a sharp obtained a large share of admiration, may be reckoned instrument, when a few drops of glutinous liquid Pearls. The delicate hue of these little globules has oozed out, which they received in little iron moulds, made them a very favourite ornament in nearly every formed into a globular shape. When the globule had part of the earth, especially in the East, where per- hardened, it assumed all the appearance of a Pearl. sonal decoration is carried to a much greater extent This description, which is met with in but one or two than in most European nations. It is evident, from ancient authors, is not considered to be of sufficient different allusions in the Old Testament, that Pearls authority, as nothing ‘of the kind is known at the were looked upon, several centuries before the present day. Christian era, as the same costly and precious gems Second.—When the shell of the oyster is perfothat they are in the present day. We will instance rated with a small hole, the little inhabitant, to exone from the Book of Job, chap. xxviii. v. 17; speak- clude unwelcome intruders, fills or stops the inner ing of wisdom, Job says, “The gold and the crystal edge of the hole with a glutinous matter, which cannot equal it: and the exchange of it shall not be hardens into Pearl, not equal to the natural Pearls, for jewels of fine gold. No mention shall be made but still possessing some value. This statement rests of coral, or of pearls : for the price of wisdom is above on better authority than the former, for Linnæus, rubies." The readers of Roman history are familiar the great botanist, announced that he had produced with the story of Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, who, the same phenomena with mussels. It is necessary as it is said, dissolved in vinegar a pearl, valued at to remark here, that Pearls have been found in 50,0001., and drank it off. This silly exhibition of mussels off the coast of France, and that in the extravagance sufficiently shows what an enormous museum of the late Sir Joseph Banks, a mussel-shell value was placed upon Pearls in those days; and we was deposited, in which a small fragment of iron was can scarcely wonder that attempts should have been found sticking, round which a pearl-like substance made, at a very early period, to produce something had collected. It was supposed that the iron was that should present a similarity to Pearls.
part of a sharp instrument, broken off in the act of « We have already given a description of the Pearl piercing the shell. Fishery in Ceylon*, so that we need not describe, at Third.—The Chinese have a mode of enticing the any length in this place, the mode of 'procuring oysters to the surface of the water, and inducing natural Pearls, except so far as we have anything new them to open their shell, (rather more successful it to say upon the subject. Some of our readers, then, would appear than the mode of catching birds by are probably aware, that Pearls are extracted from putting a little salt on their tails,) the artful fishermen the shells of a large species of oyster, (about three then drop into the cavity of the shell a string of five times the size of common oysters,) which grow in the or six small beads, made of mother-of-pearl, and then shallow seas about Ceylon, Sumatra, Japan, the Per- allow the oysters to escape. This takes place in sian Gulf, and other places on the shores of Asia. the Spring of the year and in Autumn, when the These oysters are brought from the bed of the sea, Pearl Fisheries occur, the Deads are found to be enseveral feet below the surface, by divers, who follow crusted with a sort of enamel, which gives them a that perilous avocation as a means of living, and are close resemblance to Pearls. This deception is believed able to remain under water for several minutes at a
to be carried on at the present day in the Indian time.
Seas. The best Pearls are found imbedded in the soft
It may be as well here to state, that mother-of-pearl pulpy substance of the oyster itself, but others, of an is the interior surface, or scale, of the shell of another See Saturday Magazine, Vol. II., p. 5 and Vol. VI., p. 178. species of oyster, existing in the same seas ; indeed
it is often seen in the shell of the common oyster, The mode of making the bead and coating the and being therefore much more plentiful than Pearls, inner surface may be thus briefly explained. All can be substituted for them in the above piece of vessels made of what is called blown glass, such as trickery at a small expence.
drinking glasses, bottles, &c., are formed when the All of these schemes, however, are productive of glass is in the state of paste. A hollow tube about pain to the poor little inmates, and we cannot but three or four feet long is dipped into a pot containing condemn them as cruel modes of providing decora- melted glass, a portion of which adheres to the tube. rations for the persons of our fair countrywomen. The workman then blows through the tube from the It is, however, less objectionable than a method prac. other end, and the glassy paste becomes hollow, in tised by the ladies of South America, who cover a manner similar to the soap bubbles blown from a portions of their dresses with living diamonds, which tobacco pipe. The blowing is continued until the the light emitted by the fire-flies of the country | glass has assumed nearly the form requisite, after affords. The poor insects are attached by means which the finishing is performed by hand. But in of pins.
making glass beads a different process is adopted. A We now propose to show, that very accurate fac- very fine and narrow tube of glass is taken, one end similes of Pearls may be produced, although still, we is placed in the flame of a lamp, and the operator regret to add, at an immense sacrifice of animal life ; blows through it from the other end. When the end but we may previously remark, that attempts have of the tube is melted, he blows it out into a globular been made to melt or soften small or broken Pearls form, breaks it off, and then proceeds with another. into one larger one. A large Pearl is worth a great This is done with such rapidity, that an expert workdeal more than two Pearls of half the size, and this has man is said to produce from five to six thousand of induced many to try that transformation Accounts these glass globules in a day; but, as some attention have been given of a mode of softening the small is paid to the shape and appearance of these beads, Pearls, by steeping them in a mixture of strong a great number are rejected on account of their illvinegar and Venice turpentine ; but it does not appear shape. In order to resemble nature more closely, that the success was such as to induce a continuance these beads are often purposely made with blemishes, in that plan.
and of forms somewhat irregular, such as pear-shaped, In the sixteenth century glass-beads were con oval, or flattened on one side, in imitation of natural structed at Venice, and coated with a kind of pearl- Pearls, which are set in such a way as to show only coloured varnish, which gave them a rough resem
one side. blance to Pearls; but the result seemed to show that The beads for the mock Pearls, are made in this the resemblance was not very good, for they were manner, the glass of which they are formed having shortly afterwards superseded by little balls of wax, a blueish tinge to assist the imitation of Pearl. covered with a pearl-like enamel ; but, unfortunately, The Essence d'Orient (or Pearl Essence, we may the enamel was not capable of resisting moisture, perhaps call it,) is then heated; a single drop is taken and it soon became eaten into small holes, so that up on the end of a tube and dexterously blown into these artificial Pearls required frequent enamelling. the centre of the bead through one of the two holes
We are not aware that any further improvement which always exist in them. The bead is then shaken took place in these attempts to imitate nature, until about either in the hand, or in a machine, until the about the year 1656, when M. Jaquin, a bead-maker interior surface is completely covered with the paste. in Burgundy, happening to look into a vessel in It is then left to dry, and the cavity of the bead is which some small fish (the Cyprinus alburnus, called then filled up with white wax, which answers two in England the blay or bleak fish,) had been kept, he purposes, namely, to strengthen the bead, and to perceived a pearl-like powder, which had evidently make its weight more nearly equal to that of real come from the scales of the fish, and, by following pearl. A hole is then bored through the wax to this process, he obtained the powder at pleasure. receive the string. He put a number of the scales into a small quantity Thus has this curious branch of business been of water and washed them well, then poured away brought to perfection, a pleasing instance of the the water, and repeated the process with clear water manner in which the manufacture of a mere trifle or several times in succession, until nothing further toy may be made a source of honourable and lucracould be washed from the scales. The water was tive emolument. We believe that, up to a recent then put by; a sediment fell to the bottom; and on period, the descendants of M. Jaquin still carried on pouring the water from the sediment, the latter the manufacture in Paris, while in different towns of appeared as a thick creamy liquid, having that deli- France large numbers of these little mock Pearls are cate silvery appearance which distinguishes pearls. being made daily. It instantly occured to him, that the discovery might The blay, or bleak, is a fish about four inches in be made a source of profit to himself. He therefore length. They are found in great abundance in some constructed small beads of plaster of Paris, and rivers, and being exceedingly voracious are taken coated them with this new substance mixed with without much difficulty. The scales of 250 of these isinglass. The close resemblance to pearls was im- fish will not weigh above an ounce, and this again mediately acknowledged, and a great demand for does not afford more than a quarter of an ounce of them quickly arose. But the heat of the fire, as also pearl powder; so that, it is computed, that 16,000 the moisture of the human body, was found to injure fish are necessary in order to obtain one pound of the surface of the beads, and some ladies of Paris essence of pearl. proposed to Jaquin that he should make hollow beads The river Seine, although abounding with this fish, of glass, and coat them on the inside with his new does not furnish an adequate suppy. The scales of pearl composition, which he called Essence d'Orient, the fish are therefore sent to Paris from other rivers or, Oriental Essence. He acquiesced in the pro- in large quantities in bottles containing solution of posal, and thus arose the mode of making artificial ammonia, which preserves the scales. Pearls, which has existed but with few alterations to We
may observe in conclusion, that it is remark. the present day. The attempt succeeded, and the able that the only substance hitherto successfully manufacture of bead Pearls became an important employed in this imitation, is, like the Pearl itself, branch of business.
derived from fish. And when we observe, (which we