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of gold ornaments, and which to the last retained | fied the nocturnal operator with the name of the Just the name of its illustrious captive. Holinshed men

Devil of Woodstock. It afterwards appeared that the tions three lines which the princess wrote with a

whole was contrived by the ingenuity of an adroit and

humourous royalist, named Joe Collins, who had procured diamond on the glass of her window:

the situation of secretary to the commissioners, for the Much suspected by me,

purpose of imposing on their credulity. When the jest Nothing proved can be,

was discovered, Collins was stvled the Merry Devil of Quoth ELIZABETH, prisoner.

Woodstock. The German, Hentzner, who travelled in England

The furniture was soon afterwards sold, and the in 1598, has recorded a sonnet, written by her with a buildings portioned by Cromwell or his agents, piece of charcoal on a window-shutter, to the follow- among three persons. Two of these about 1652, ing effect :

pulled down their portions for the sake of the stone ; 0, Fortune! how thy restless wavering state,

the portion of the third, which consisted of the gateHath fraught with cares my troubled wit!

house in which the Princess Elizabeth was imprisoned, Witness this present prison, whither fate

and some adjoining ruinous buildings was left standHath borne me, and the joys I quit.

ing. At a subsequent period this gatehouse was Thou causedest the guilty to be loosed

converted into a dwelling, by John Lord Lovelace, From bands, wherewith are innocents enc ed;

who was captain of the band of pensioners to Causing the guiltless to be strait reserved,

William the Third ; and here that nobleman resided And freeing those that death had well deserved ; But by her envy can be nothing wrought,

for many years. The adjoining ruins were standing So God send to my foes all they have thought.

sometime afterwards; and there were persons living A.D. MDLV.

ELIZABETH, Prisoner. towards the close of the last century, who could In the Bodleian Library there is an English trans-remember a noble porch and some walls of the hall, lation of St. Paul's Epistles, printed in the black the walls and magnificent windows of the chapel, letter, which the Princess Elizabeth used during her several turrets at proper distances, and who could confinement at Woodstock; and on a blank leaf is

trace out many of the apartments. While Blenheim the following paragraph, written with her own hand, palace was building, Sir John Vanbrugh laid out and in the style characteristic of the age :-" I walke 20001. in keeping up the ruins of Woodstock. But many times into the pleasant fieldes of the Holye the Lord Treasurer Godolphin afterwards observing Scriptures, where I plucke up the goodliesome herbs to Sarah the Duchess of Marlborough, that a pile of of sentences by pruning, eate them by reading, chawe ruins in the front of so fine a seat was an unseemly them by musing, and laie them up at length in the object, all the old buildings, including the Princess hie seate of memorie by gathering them together ; Elizabeth's gatehouse, were entirely demolished and

removed. that so having tasted the sweetness I maye the lesse

Our engraving contains a view of the perceave the bitterness of this miserable life.” The Princess Elizabeth's Chamber,” and its adjoining covers of this book are of black silk, and the princess had ruins, originally taken in 1714, a few years before amused herself with curiously working, or embossing, their destruction. various devices and Latin inscriptions in gold twist.

Elizabeth was strictly guarded during her stay at CONNEXION BETWEEN THE SOUL AND Woodstock, though she was sometimes allowed to

BODY. walk in the gardens of the palace. In this situation SCARCELY can I conceive even to myself, this union it is no marvell,” to use the words of Holinshed, between my body and my soul. How is it that I bear “ if the hearing upon a time out of her garden at

upon me the stamp of the Divinity, and that at the Woodstocke, a certain milkmaide singing pleasantlie, same time I grovel in the dust? Is my body in wished herself to be a milkmaide as she was, saying health, it wars against me. Is it sick, I languish that her case was better and life merrier.” A fire with it in sympathy. It is at once a companion that broke out during the princess's imprisonment in the I love, and an enemy that I dread. It is a prison, room under her room ; it was promptly extinguished, that frightens me, a partner with whom I dwell. If and seems to have been the result of accident.

I weaken it by excess, I become incapable of any. At a very early period Woodstock was a royal thing noble ; if I indulge it, or treat it with too much residence, and as late as the reign of Charles the consideration, it revolts, and my slave escapes me. First, all our kings were in the habit of occasionally It fastens me to the earth by ties I cannot break; taking up their abode here. The palace, or manor and prevents me from taking my upward flight to house, was besieged by the Parliamentarians in the God for which end alone I was created. It is an enemy grand rebellion ; and after being stoutly defended for that I love, a treacherous friend whom it is my duty some time by an officer of great skill and devoted to distrust. To fear and yet to love! At once what loyalty, it sustained much damage, and was sur union and what discord! For what end, with what rendered by commissioners from the king. In 1649 secret motive, is it that man has been thus organized ? commissioners were assembled here by order of the Is it not that God has seen it fit by this means to Rump Parliament, for the purpose of surveying the humble our pride, which may otherwise have carried royal property. They made the king's bedchamber us to the height of disdaining even our Creator, in their kitchen, the council-hall they converted into a the thought that being derived from the same fount brewhouse, and in the dining-room they collected, for of being, we might be permitted to regard ourselves the use of their fires, logs sawn from a noble tree,

as on terms of equality with Him? It is then to which had long flourished in the park under the name recall us incessantly to the sense of our entire deof the King's Oak.

pendence on him, that God has reduced our bodies But their triumph was soon interrupted by circumstances to this state of frailty, which exposes it to perpetual which filled that credulous age with wonder, and afforded combats; balancing our nobleness by our baseness ; an apt subject of laughter to the era which succeeded. holding us in suspense between death and immorFrightful noises assailed their ears in the night; dreadful phantasms glided before their eyes; nor were their sight

tality, according to the affection which inclines us to and hearing alone rendered subject to terrific visitations;

the body or the soul; so that, if the excellences of many round blows were given; their bed-clothes were torn

our souls should inspire us with pride, the imperin fragments, and sundry noxious ingredients were dis fections inseparable from our bodies may bring us charged on their amazed foreheads. The populace digni- | back to humility.--St. GREGORY; Book of the Fathers.

CONFECTIONERS PREPARING SWEETMEATS.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE So great was the anxiety of the Egyptians to get MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY.

rid of the Israelites, that they would not permit them No. XII.

to bake their provisions, but compelled them to take

the dough in their kneadingtroughs. We have The EXODUS.

shown in a former section, that baked meats and The destruction of all the firstborn of Egypt was confectionary constituted the greater part of the food so fearful a visitation, that the wicked Pharaoh no

of the Egyptian people, and consequently the kneadlonger dared to brave the rightful anger of the Om-ingtrough was an important article of furniture. It nipotent, and he gave a reluctant consent to the was probably made of metal, like that depicted in the departure of the children of Israel. There are some accompanying engraving, and could be applied to a circumstances in the account of the preparations variety of useful purposes. In the present instance which the chosen people made for their perilous journey requiring a brief comment, and we shall therefore make an extract from the sacred narrative.

And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of caitle. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead. And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as ye have said. Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also. And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men. And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders. And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of the two figures are engaged in the manufacture of gold, and raiment: And the LORD gave the people favour piped sweetmeats, not unlike maccaroni both in in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them shape and consistency, which is at the present day a such things as they required. (Exodus xii. 29–36.)

favourite luxury with the natives of Hindustan. It In this passage we must first remark that the

seems probable that the preparation of these and destruction of the firstborn took place at a time similar sweetmeats, was one of the tasks imposed when the Egyptians were buried in sleep, for it upon the Hebrews during their bondage in Egypt; appears from the monuments that they went early to for we learn from the book of Samuel, that the prerepose, at least we can discover no representations paration of these confections was looked upon as a of lamps or candles, nor are fragments of lamps degrading toil, and among the evils which the prophet among the articles of Egyptian pottery, discovered predicts to the people from their determination to in the ruins of their cities in anything like the abun-elect a king, we find this circumstance put very prodance in which they are found at Herculaneum and minently forward. “And he will take your daughPompeii. This must have added awfully to the ter-ters to be confectionaries, and to be cooks, and to be rors of the miracle, and it is no wonder that Pharaoh bakers.” (1 Sam. viii. 13.) in the midst of darkness, desolation, and death, Our translation states that the Hebrews borrowed should have hurried away those whom he regarded jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, from the as the source of so fearful a visitation.

Egyptians, by the direction of Moses, and thus seems It is mentioned that among the sufferers was " the to cast an imputation of dishonesty on the transacfirstborn of the captive in the dungeon;" although tion which is far from being warranted by the orithere is no distinct representation of a prison on any ginal text. In the first place, the verb shaal signifies of the Egyptian monuments which have been yet not to borrow, but to demand, and secondly, the word discovered, there can be doubt that women and kelím signifies not jewels, but vessels or implements. children shared the captivity of their husbands and The plain meaning of the passage then is, that the fathers; we find them driven like herds of cattle to Israelites demanded payment of the wages due to the slave-market, led as memorials of victory in them for their labours, and as these were considertriumphal processions, and forced to bear a part in able, the amount paid must have exhausted the imthe onerous labours imposed upon slaves. In the mediate resources of the Egyptians. There is nothing East at the present day, women and children continue that more excites astonishment in viewing the monusubject to the calamities of war; in the revolutions ments, than the vast amount of gold and silver plate of Persia, during the last century, many ladies of displayed on the sideboards and in the palaces of the exalted rank might say in the sad words of the pro- Egyptians, and it is not improbable that before the phet, They that did feed delicately are desolate in use of coinage became common, such vases were the streets : they that were brought up in scarlet em- sometimes employed as a medium of exchange. But brace dunghills.” (Lam. iv. 5.) There is no impro- the monuments suggest to us another meaning of bability therefore in the statement of the tenth the word kelím; they show us that the Egyptians in plague having aggravated the miseries even of the the early ages used ring-money, that is, bullion made prison-house, and swept away the firstborn of the up in the shape of annulets like the bangles worn by captive, as well as the firstborn of the king. And the Hindús, which are frequently used for money in as we have shown in preceding sections of this series, India. Indeed, in consequence of bullion circulating that the reigning Pharaoh was most probably a in this shape, we find that balances were erected for foreign intruder, it is not difficult to believe that the weighing money, and assay-masters appointed to amount of captives in the Egyptian dungeons must determine the purity of the vessel in all the prinhave been very considerable.

cipal market-places. And this custom prevailed in

[graphic]

Judea so late as the time of the prophet Jeremiah, for we find him recording the circumstances of a remarkable bargain and sale.

as proper vestments were provided by the giver of the feast. But all the circumstances attending the eating of the Paschal Lamb, were designed to mark urgency and haste. Instead of being divided into joints, and served up with variety of cookery, it was to be roasted whole ; its only accompaniment was to be bitter herbs, for it was not an entertainment of luxury, but an acknowledgment of deliverance from the most cruel servitude recorded in the annals of history.

[graphic]

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN BALANCE

Hanameel, mine uncle's son, came to me in the court of the prison, according to the word of the Lord, and said unto me, Buy my field, I pray thee, that is in Anathoth, which is in the country of Benjamin : for the right of inheritance is thine, and the redemption is thine; buy it for thyself. Then I knew that this was the work of the Lord. And I bought the field of Hanameel my uncle's son, that was in Anathoth, and weighed him the money, even seventeen shekels of silver. And I subscribed the evidence, and sealed it, and took witnesses, and weighed him the money in the balances. (Jeremiah xxxii. 8–10. Bangles, or ring-money, are still employed as a

BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF AN EGYPTIAN TABLE. medium of exchange in India and the interior of The next circumstance to which our attention is Africa; very little attention is paid to the beauty of directed, is the course pursued by the Israelites after their manufacture, and hence they might well be their departure from Egypt. called kelím by the sacred historians, for that word is

And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people properly applied to articles coarsely made for ordi- go, that God led them not through the way of the land of nary use, but never, we believe, to anything like orna. the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest mental work. It appears from what we have said, peradventure the people repent when they see war, and that the transaction which has so often furnished they return to Egypt: But God led the people about, materials for revilings and objections, to those who through the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea; and

the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of “ sit in the seat of the scornful," was a mere act of Egypt. And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: equity, a demand of what was justly due.

for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God The passover was strictly a Hebrew institution, and will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away we cannot expect to find any illustration of it, save

hence with you. (Gen. xiii. 19.) very indirectly on the Egyptian monuments; we The Philistines appear to have been a people of the may, however, see that the directions given respect same race as the Hyksos, by whose ravages we have ing the manner in which it was to be eaten, are already shown that the Egyptians were very severely directly the reverse of the habits which were adopted harassed. During the period of their bondage, the at meals in the valley of the Nile.

Israelites had not been permitted to learn the use of And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your weapons, they were, therefore, likely to be daunted shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye if immediately brought into collision with the most shall eat it in haste: it is the Lord's passover. (Ex. xii. 11.) warlike nation of antiquity. It was necessary that

The Egyptians were particularly formal at their they should undergo a long course of preparation by dinners, which always commenced at noon, and a their wanderings in the desert, that they might learn great variety of viands were displayed at their tables.

confidence in themselves and in their God. So very formal were they at these entertainments,

Joseph's anxiety to have his bones buried in the that we find dresses provided for the guests, a custom sepulchre of his fathers, is a feeling common in most which had not fallen into disuse so late as the coming nations, but it was one likely to be greatly strengthof Christ, as we learn from the parable of the mar

ened by a residence in Egypt, where kings looked riage of the king's son.

upon their tombs as of greater importance than their And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw

palaces. We find from the monuments, that the there a man which had not on a wedding garment: And Egyptians had family cemeteries, and that it was conhe said unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not sidered a great disgrace to be excluded from them; and having a wedding garment ? And he was speechless. to ensure that none but the worthy should be admit. Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and ted there was a solemn judgment of the dead, through foot, and take him away. (Matt. xxii, 11-13.)

which ordeal even the king's corpse should pass before There was no excuse for the disrespect shown, it received interment.

RUSSIA. No. VIII.

ing is of crimson or pink velvet, or cloth, frequently CEREMONIES OF THE GRECO-RUSSIAN CHURCH. of white satin, and the head of the deceased rests upon

sumptuously fringed with gold or silver : the lining is FUNERAL RITES AND CEREMONIES.

a pillow of the same material. At the head and also The calm sublimity, the deep and tender pathos, the at the feet are placed two enormous wax tapers, in chastened hopes, that pervade the beautiful and purely massy silver or plated tripods. There formerly existed spiritual service of our national church, must have

a practice of hiring mourners, or persons whose sole been deeply felt by all who have once followed to their occupation it was to attend upon funerals, long home the mortal remains of one beloved : and

To feign a woe they could not feel. who is there that has not done so ? and who is there, This repulsive custom, although not extinct, is though he may have bent over the grave with tears, nevertheless banished from the capitals, excepting that has not quitted it with hope, for the time "a among the more ignorant classes. The writer of this wiser and a better man," beneath the influence of its article has witnessed it repeatedly in the provinces, soothing promises ? Far from repressing the tender and once or twice in the ancient metropolis of Russia. est emotions of our nature, it encourages, whilst it | Not only unauthorized by, but utterly, at variance regulates, ennobles, and sanctifies them.

with, the form prescribed by the Greek church, it has The whole the Greco-Russian church-service for in all probability been adopted in imitation of the the burial of the dead is highly impressive, but at the customs of the Jews and Romans, among the latter same time much too exciting. They have a singular of whom, as with the Russians, only women, called form, peculiar to themselves, of making known the prefice, were employed. death of a person. The individual sent round to the According to the laws of Russia, the body must friends and relatives to convey the tidings, would, be deposited in the church, there to remain until supposing the name of the deceased to be John, and the final ceremonies, which are as follows:that of his father James, announce it thus :—Ivan The streets from the house to the church, and thence Jakovitch vam jclaët dolgó jcet ;—" John, the son of to the cemetery, through which the hearse passes, are James, wishes you to live long," adding generally the strewed with sprigs of the aromatic juniper. First family name of the individual,

come ten or twelve torch-bearers, in long black cloaks, The last struggle over, and the filmed eye closed by the collars and narrow capes of which are bound with the hand of the nearest relative, the body, having first white, and wearing round hats with enormous brims, been washed, in accordance with the practice of eight or nine inches in width, that hang upon the ancient and modern times, is habited in its ordinary shoulders and back, and flap over the face. Each bears apparel, as is the practice of most countries on the a flambeau of resinous gum. As the interments invaContinent. The hands are crossed on the breast, riably take place in the morning, in the full blaze of and above them is laid a picture of the patron day, the effect is most absurd. Although the funerals saint. If the individual had been in the service of of private individuals were always performed by torchthe crown, the corpse is generally arrayed in full dress light and at night, yet the Romans it is well known uniform. The priest is then summoned: after fumi- celebrate all public obsequies in the forenoon; and it gating the apartment with incense, and blessing it by is generally imagined, from a passage in Plutarch, also the aspersion of holy water, he reads a short formula : with torches. From thence, in all probability, the a few verses are then sung by the attendant choir, in a custom has descended through the early Greek mislow impressive tone, and the service is then concluded sionaries in the first ages of Christianity; at any with prayers for the soul of the deceased. It is gene- rate, the high antiquity of the practice is unquestionrally the practice among the wealthier classes to retain able. Next come the clergy habited in their sacera deacon or other inferior member of the ecclesiastical dotal robes, usually, on these occasions, of black body, to read night and day selections from the Gos- velvet, embroidered with silver, the priests bearing pel, whilst the body remains in the house: this, how- tapers, the deacons censors with incense, and repeatever, is not ordained by the church.

ing at intervals, in recitative, short prayers for the Receiving intimation of the event, in the terms we repose of the soul of the deceased, the responses and have mentioned, the friends and relatives of the de- the chorus to which are chanted by the choir which ceased throng to the house of death, to offer their follows next in succession. Should the deceased condolence. The custom of paying a visit of this have obtained any marks of distinction in the service, kind in mourning is not observed in Russia : indeed the badges of his orders, and the insignia of his on entering the saloon the assemblage might almost office, are borne before the hearse on cushions of be mistaken for one gathered on some ordinary occa crimson velvet, carried by persons as nearly as may sion. The sombre attire, the quiet subdued tone of be of his own rank ; a custom decidedly of classic manners, the suppressed voice, the noiseless tread, origin. To these succeeds the corpse, the coffin exare wanting. The rustling of silks, the jingling of posed to view on an open hearse, and supported by spurs, the unstifled laugh, the elevated tone of voice, servants attired in mourning. In some cases the lid are little in harmony with the solemnity of the occa is carried before, the body being covered as far as sion. The wreaths of fragrant incense that curl the chest by a rich pall of coloured velvet, gorgeously through the opened door of the adjoining room, the embroidered. In the obsequies of persons of rank monotonous sound of the reader's voice as he recites or wealth, a canopy of crimson velvet, fringed with the Gospels in low and hurried tones, the sob of the gold lacings, is placed over the coffin. Then follow bereaved, heard perhaps at intervals of silence, alone the mourners and friends in carriages, whilst the tell that the hand of the spoiler has been there. slaves and supernumerary servants on foot, flank and

By turns the visitors are introduced into the apart- terminate the procession. ment, where the body lies in state. The coffin, placed After a brief halt in the narthex of the church upon a trestle covered with crimson embroidered vel. when the lid, if it have remained on, is removed, the vet, differs altogether in shape and ornament from coffin is borne into the nave, and deposited on a bier those used in England, rather resembling the ancient of embroidered velvet, before the steps of the chancel. sarcophagi, but accommodated in length to the human Large wax tapers are placed round it, and each of figure. It also stands in the same way upon four the attendant friends is also furnished with one of claws : these are generally plated or gilt' The cover- smaller size. These kindled, and the choristers sta

tioned at each end of the chancel, the service begins | Lord's and the fulness thereof, the round world and with the 91st Psalm, which is sung in an under they that dwell therein." He then dismisses the voice; afterwards follows the 119th Psalm, chanted assembly with the doxology and benediction. in louder tones. At the end of each verse the Hal Services are performed, and the absolution and lelujah Chorus is sung by the whole choir, invocations remission read at the church, or at the grave, on the to the Virgin, and prayers for the dead, are then third, ninth, and fortieth day, on the birthday, and offered up, accompanied by the chanted response of the on the anniversary of the demise of the individual. choristers. Among the hymns sung on the occasion The two last are continued for an indefinite length of is the following, attributed to Joannas Damascenas. time. These services are not ordained by the rubric At the conclusion of the prayers, the priest and of the church, but have been sanctioned by long deacons descend from the altar, and walking three usage, and adopted from the practice of the primitive times round the bier, perfuming with their censors oriental Greek church, which practice is itself clearly and sprinkling the by-standers with holy water, then deducible from the Paternalia of the ancients. stationing themselves around, a solemn and affecting It is worthy of remark, that the Mussulmans obfarewell hymn is sung, and the mourning friends serve also the third, ninth, and fortieth days, and hasten to pay their last honours and give the parting provide feasts upon the occasion, as is done in Russia. kiss; this is termed the Aspasmos, or last embrace. The service on the third day is called the Tretinui, Draw near, my brethren ! ascribing glory to God, let us

that on the ninth the Devatinui; the popular belief give our last kiss, and bid our last farewell, to our departed is, that the soul of the deceased has not, till this brother; engrossed no longer by the vanities or the cares period, or till the expiration of the fortieth day, of the world, he hath forsaken his kindred, and approacheth wholly shaken off the trammels of earth. This serthe tomb. His kindred and his friends where are they? vice has a parallel in the Novendiale of the Romans, Behold we are separated. May the Lord grant unto him

a solemnity grounded upon the same superstition. repose !

But what a separation my brethren! what lamentation Another practice, evidently of high antiquity, prevails and woe attend this mournfúl hour! Draw near! Embrace throughout the country and amongst all classes. him who was lately one of yourselves. He is abandoned During the celebration of the service, a dish called to the grave, he sojourneth in darkness and must moulder the Kootiyah composed of rice, dressed with honey, with the dead. Now is he cut off from his kindred and

to which raisins are sometimes added, is placed his friends. May the Lord grant unto him repose !

near the coffin; after the burial, each of the guests Every unboly connexion with life and its vanities is dissolved. The spirit hath left its tenement, the clay is invited to the feast, usually prepared on such occadisfigured, the vessel broken. We bear a motionless, sions, takes three spoonfuls of the Kootiyah, and speechless, senseless carcase to the tomb. May the Lord repeats a short ejaculating prayer for the repose of grant unto him repose !

the deceased's soul. What is life? a blossom, a vapour, the light dew of On the fortieth day prayers are again said, and a morning. Come near, then, let us attentively contemplate service performed, called the Sorotchénui, after which the grave! Where now the graceful form? Where the sparkling of the eye, the beauty of the cheek? all, all

, the priests, with the friends, are assembled to dinner, withered lik grass, have vanished from our eyes.

and commence by partaking of the “ Kootiyah," Come, let us prostrate ourselves with tears, before Christ accompanied with the usual prayer for the dead. our Saviour.

Sometimes a daily service is performed till the expiWhat lamentation and woe, what tears and agonies when ration of the forty days : this is termed the Corothe soul is torn from the body! Hades and the bottomless köoustië. It would be idle to record the numberpit yawn around. Life is a fleeting shadow, a dream of less silly popular superstitions as to the origin of error, the fruitless toil of transitory being. Fly then the contaminations of the world, that ye may

these ceremonies, that are prevalent, not only among lay hold of the kingdom of heaven. Let us approach, my the lower classes, but even amongst those who from brethren! and view the dust and ashes of which we are rank and education might be expected to know better. formed. Whither are we bound? What shall be our From the prevailing imagination that the souls of the destiny? Who is poor, who is rich ? Who is master? deceased-hovered about the graves, it is well known Who is slave ? All, all, are but ashes. The glory of man that the ancient heathens were in the habit of prepapasseth away: the flower of youth is plucked by death.

See the limbs now motionless which were lately strung ring a feast for the dead and the living called the Siliwith rigour. Lo! now they are powerless, the eyes are cernium, and that a portion of this was deposited on closed; the feet fast bound; the hands at rest; the ears the tomb or within the temple. The fondness with have ceased from their office; the tongue hath no utterance. which some of the early converts clung to these pracAll are given up to the grave, behold all things terrestrial tices of their forefathers, blending them with the pure are vanity.

rites of their newly adopted worship, and the eagerThe scene is impressive, but everything around too ness with which their steps were followed in succeed. strongly tends to arouse the imagination, and stimu- ing ages, by the indiscriminating żeal of those who late the feelings to a pitch of unnatural excitement, had not the same blinding associations of kindred and incompatible with the solemn and holy thoughts of country, will sufficiently account for the transwhich should occupy the mind at such a moment. mission of these customs to later ages and more en

Even to the casual stranger the excitation is irre- lightened times, although unsanctioned by the authosistibly powerful, “he catches the trick of grief," rity of the church, and in direct opposition to the and shares in the sorrow of the mourners, as he sees simple character of its ritual. friend after friend with grief swollen cheek and Another coincidence is not unworthy of remark: streaming eyes, ascend the steps of the platform, the term Bustirupus, (the robber of the pyre,) was falter out the valedictory prayer, and imprint the among the Romans one of the deepest execration and parting kiss on the lips and brow of the dead. contempt. The Russians have a corresponding ex

The last embrace given, and the farewell hymn pression Kootyanik, a word signifying the “stealer sung, the procession resumes its way, in the same of Kootiyah," one of the most opprobrious epithets order, to the cemetery, where no further ceremonial | that can be applied to the vilest criminal. is observed, excepting that the officiating priest casts The will of the deceased is read, and his papers are first a little earth, in the form of a cross, into the examined on the fortieth day, when the seal placed vault, upon a coflin, and then pours upon it some on his property by the police is removed by the holy oil, pronouncing the words, “ The earth is the

proper authorities.

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