« PoprzedniaDalej »
servants are twelve brethren, the sons of one man in | mark of honour to give some eminent guest a tray or the land of Canaan.” (Gen. xlii. 13). And Joseph's table to himself. There are even now no removes or proof of their integrity," send one of you, and let changes of courses at these entertainments; all the him fetch your brother," manifestly shows that it viands are piled together on the tray or table, and
a means of determining whether they were the number, variety, and delicacy of the dishes are wanderers, like the Hycsos, or settled, and, therefore, usually proportioned to the rank of the guest. peaceful agriculturists.
Hereafter we shall have occasion to notice, that a Now the monuments abound with proofs that such similar plan was followed in making offerings to the suspicions were not unfounded, for they exhibit the gods; indeed, it is exceedingly probable, that the Egyptians as engaged in constant war with the pre- Egyptians derived their first notion of an altar from datory tribes on their eastern frontier, and the cruelty the banquetting tables of their kings and princes. with which the captives were treated, proves that the This custom of ranging separate trays or tables hostility engendered by these wars was more deep for groups of guests, greatly facilitated the arrangeand deadly than was usual, even in the most savage ment of the company according to rank, a circumfeuds of other nations.
stance to which the orientals have ever attributed We find indeed that the Egyptians extended their considerable importance. In the narrative of the hatred of the wandering races even to the innocent ; entertainment given by Joseph to his brethren, we when the lionesty and amicable disposition of the are told “ they sat before him, the first-born accordchildren of Israel were so fully recognised, that they ing to his birth-right, and the youngest according to were invited to dine with the prime minister, we find his youth ; and the men marvelled one at another." it recorded that “the Egyptians would not eat bread (Gen. xliii. 33). Their surprise was occasioned not with the Hebrews, for that is an abomination to the by the circumstance of seeing a distinction made, Egyptians." This passage serves to explain a cir- but by the accuracy with which they were arranged cumstance which has been the cause of much con in their proper order, as they supposed there were no troversy among the commentators,—the reason why means of determining their relative seniority. A the descendants of Abraham were named Hebrews. similar circumstance occurs in an ancient Chinese tale, Some assert that they were thus called from Heber; where the order in which an apparent stranger salutes one of their ancestors,-an untenable hypothesis, as the members of his family, leads to the discovery of his there is no circumstance recorded respecting Heber, identity. Benjamin's portion was probably served on which would entitle him to give his name to a tribe; a separate tray or table; we are told that “ his mess others, with more probability, derive the name from was five times so much as that of any of his brethren;" a Hebrew verb, which signifies to pass over ;” but whence some persons have very absurdly inferred, they restrict the allusion to Abraham's having “passed that he ate five times so much as they did, which, of over" the Euphrates, when he came from the land of course, would be impossible, unless they were very his fathers to dwell in Canaan. But since the word niggardly supplied; but from what we have already Hebrew signifies" a passenger," it is evident that it said, the meaning is clear, the expression simply indimay be received as a designation of the wandering and cates that a greater variety of delicacies were offered pastoral life of the early patriarch. Abraham, Isaac, for his selection. and Jacob were “ dwellers in tents," not inhabitants The monuments show us that, in the very earliest of cities; the Egyptians had no cause for hating the ages, Egyptian luxury had led to the invention of descendants of Heber, or the offspring of any one countless forms of pastry and confectionary, as we who had come from beyond the Euphrates, but they had occasion to remark in noticing the history of had every reason to detest nomades, or wanderers, Pharaoh's baker. and the very name of Hebrew intimated that those When his brethren were about to depart, Joseph so called led a wandering life.
directed his steward to conceal his silver-cup in the The circumstances of the entertainment given by sack of Benjamin. We have more than once noticed Joseph to his brethren, can only be understood by a the early use of ornaments formed from the precious reference to the oriental customs at feasts, which metals among the Egyptians; extraordinary attention have varied very little since the days of the Pharaohs. was paid to the form and decorations of their drinking The guests did not, as with us, sit down to the same cups, and we find that some of the richest tributes table, but a separate tray or table was provided for which the Pharaohs received from the southern every two, or at most every three guests, from provinces, especially Meroe and Nubia, were gold
and siver vases. Joseph's steward declares that this cup was not only used for drinking, but also for divination. “Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and whereby indeed he divineth?” (Genesis xliv. 5.) Divination by the cup is only one form of the divination by a fluid mirror, which, from the earliest ages, has prevailed in the East, and which, after the Crusades, became a popular form of witchcraft in modern Europe. Indeed, the credulous and ignorant in some of the remoter districts of England, still believe that fortune-tellers can predict future events by inspecting the accidental arrangement of the grounds in a teacup or a coffee-cup. We cannot identify this form of divination on the monuments, but the most ancient traditions bear testimony to its prevalence; one of these intimates that those who conjure indiscreetly
with the magic cup expose themselves to great danger, AN ALTAR-TABI.E, WITH FOWLS, CREAD, FRUITS, &c.
and it is possible that the circumstance was mentioned
in order to terrify the sons of Jacob. It must be which they furnished themselves, without paying any recollected, too, that it is Joseph's steward, not Joseph attention to their neighbours. It was a distinguished himself, who speaks of conjuring with the cup.
After Joseph made himself known to his brethren, / speak of each other with a virulence and affected he sent "wagons" to bring his father and family down contempt which could only have been engendered by into Egypt; it appears that such vehicles were un centuries of mutual hatred and mutual injury. But known, or, at least, uncommon, for the moment that with the Egyptians this natural enmity was systema· Jacob saw them, he recognised the land from which tized by the exertions of the priestly caste, who they came. On the monuments, the only wheel- sanctified policy by religion, and forbade their fol. carriages usually seen, are the war-chariots; but lowers even to partake of a social meal with the it is manifest that the use of these conveyances objects of their jealousy and their animosity. must have led to the employment of wagons and The defenceless land of Goshen was, therefore, similar vehicles for the transport not only of goods, worse than useless to the Egyptians; it was the high but of women, children, and sick persons. Indeed, road for the invasion of the pastoral tribes with whom, Joseph expressly intimates that such was the use for then, as now, a foray was esteemed an honourable which these vehicles were intended. “ Take you enterprize, and it could not well be used as pasture, wagons out of the land of Egypt, for your little ones for the Egyptians employed to tend cattle in that and for your wives.” (Gen. xlv. 19.) Within a very region must have, in some degree, adopted the usages recent period the representation of a four-wheel of their enemies. This sufficiently appears from the vehicle, extremely like a farming wagon, or wain, has words which Pharaoh addressed to Joseph, “if thou been discovered among the paintings in a tomb, at knowest any men of activity among them, then make Thebes, wherein the mummy of a person of high them rulers over my cattle.” (Gen. xlvii, 6.) The rank was found.
Hebrew words translated “ men of activity,” more The policy which induced the reigning Pharaoh to properly signify "men of military habits," such as give the land of Goshen to the colony of the Israelites, the Israelites were likely to acquire by a nomade life, may readily be understood by a reference to the map and of which they were certain to need the exercise of Egypt, and to what we have already said respect- in guarding the royal herds of a frontier province. ing the inveterate hostility between the Egyptians The policy of Pharaoh is now intelligible; as Dr. and the wandering tribes of Arabia and Syria. Goshen Hales very properly remarks, "Goshen formed the was the name of the rich pasturage districts between eastern barrier of Egypt towards Syria and Palestine the eastern bank of the Nile, and the upper shores of the quarters from which they most dreaded invathe Red Sea. It was a frontier province exposed sion-whose nakedness was now covered in a short to the ravages of the Arabians and Syrians, and time, by a numerous, a brave, and an industrious was almost useless to the Egyptians, whose habits people: amply repaying, -by the additional security and customs were utterly at variance with the usages and resources which they gave to Egypt, their hosof a nomade life. When we read that “every pitable reception and naturalization." And thus shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians," (Gen. Joseph, while he provided for the comfort of his xlvi. 34,) we must not imagine with many commen- family, conferred an inestimable advantage on the tators that they had any religious objection to the monarch whom he served. mere occupation of tending flocks and herds; indeed, Two years of the famine alone had expired when so far was this from being the case, that we find an Jacob and his posterity came down to colonize the entire caste of herdsmen among the Egyptians, and land of Goshen. Five years yet remained during 'flocks of sheep and goats, droves of black cattle, and which the Egyptians had no resources but the royal herds of other tamed animals are frequently depicted granaries, which had been amply stored by the proon the monuments. The prejudice was against those vident care of Joseph during the seven years of restless tribes, from whose incursions they suffered plenty. Nor is there any difficulty in supposing that so severely, and they probably feared that, if any the granaries could contain a sufficient supply for the native Egyptians settled in Goshen, they might gra- entire population of Egypt during the space of seven dually acquire a taste for a wandering life, and, per- years. The monuments contain ample proofs of the haps, in the end, favour an invasion.
care that the Egyptians bestowed on the storing and This enmity between agricultural and pastoral preservation of corn, and the great extent of their populations brought into close contact, is still exem- granaries. plified on the north-eastern frontiers of Persia. No. Some persons, indeed, have insinuated rather than thing can exceed the mutual contempt and rancorous expressed a doubt, of the possibility of preserving hatred between the Turcomans and Tartars, who lead corn for so long a time; but in a climate so remark, a nomadic life in the steppes and deserts north of the ably dry as that of Egypt, there is no limit to the Oxus, and the settled agriculturists of Persia. They period durinr which grain may be kept sound We
have seen some grains and seeds taken out of the ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor, sepulchres, which were so far from being injured by the father of Shechem, for an hundred pieces of being kept for three thousand years, that they still silver ; and it became the inheritance of the sons of retained their germinating power, and we have actu- Joseph.” (Josh, xxiv. 32.) ally seen a plant grown from one of them.
We have now gone minutely through the entire It was Joseph's policy to make the sovereign lord history of Joseph and his family, and have shown of the soil of Egypt, with the single exception of the how fully every particular is confirmed by existing land belonging to the priests. Hence the rental of testimony, brought to light within our own day. We Egypt was identical with its taxation; the sum paid | have . next to investigate the history of the Israelites for the support of the government being twenty per under altered circumstances, when “another king cent, or one-fifth of the entire produce. The exist arose who knew not Joseph." ence of this singular system is confirmed by the monuments, for we find a superintending secretary present at the winnowing and measuring of the corn,
HISTORY OF WRITING MATERIALS. as was shown in an earlier part of this series.
Both Jacob and Joseph were embalmed after their | There are few subjects capable of affording more death, the body of the former was immediately re-interesting details than the history of the origin, promoved to the land of Canaan, but Joseph's remains gress, manufacture, and use of those articles or subwere not borne to the sepulchre of his fathers, until
stances with which we are most familiar; and yet it the Israelites entered the land of Canaan, after their happens that these are precisely the very subjects departure from Egypt and wanderings in the desert.
about which least is known. Whether the old adage It is unnecessary to dwell upon the care with which that “ too much familiarity breeds contempt," applies the Egyptians preserved their dead; the mummies to a contempt for the knowledge of things familiar to are too well known to require description. There are,
us, we know not; but we certainly cannot understand however, one or two circumstances mentioned in the
the feeling which seeks for information respecting Scripture narrative which require a few brief obser- objects new and strange, and disdains to inquire into vations. When the Israelites had brought Jacob's the many curious properties and useful facts concernbody over the river Jordan, they made a halt for ing familiar things. The very circumstance of fa. seven days to indulge their sorrow,
“ and when the miliarity and utility ought, we think, to afford an inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the additional reason for acquiring information concernmourning in the floor of Atad, they said, This is ing such articles. We propose, therefore, to lay a grievous mourning to the Egyptians ; wherefore
before our readers the history of those familiar and the name of it was called Abel-mizraim, (sorrow of
useful articles-Writing Materials. Having already the Egyptians,) which is beyond Jordan." (Gen. L. 11.) | introduced cursory notices concerning some of them, In confirmation of this narrative, we find that no
more especially those of the ancients, our chief busination, ancient or modern, carried their lamentations
ness will now be with those of the moderns. for the dead to such an extravagant length as the
I. THE HISTORY OF A QUILL PEN. Egyptians. We see the mourners at funerals depicted on the monuments rending their garments, casting It has been said, quaintly enough, that he who first dust upon their heads, beating their breasts, and introduced the use of goose-quills for
pens, borrowed using gestures that seem to belong to almost hopeless from the emblem of folly the instruments of wisdom. despair. Historians assure us, that during the period Without discussing the justice or injustice of this of mourning, which varied with the rank of the satire upon a poor goose, we cannot deny that quill deceased, the relatives and dependents abstained from pens have been the messengers of vast benefit to the use of meat and wine, neglected their persons, mankind, insomuch that it has been sarcastically and went about singing plaintive songs in honour of remarked, that “had the ancients been acquainted the departed. The Israelites adopted this custom, with the art of employing quills as a material for and it was retained by the Jews for many centuries pens, they would, probably, have dedicated to Minerva, after it had been disused in Egypt. But such a prac
-not the owl, but the goose.” But some men have tice was looked upon as unmanly by warlike and made the mistake of honouring the pen as the cause, nomade races, and hence arose the surprise of the instead of the mere instrument, of good. Thus, Canaanites, who regarded such grief as so great a
we have been told of one writer who had the novelty, that they perpetuated its memory by giving pen with which he wrote one of his works, framed a new name to the place in which it occurred.
and glazed, and hung up over his mantel-piece ; It is particularly mentioned that Joseph was put
another pen was put into a golden casket by the in a coffin;" among the Egyptians, coffins were used over-zealous admirer of a celebrated writer; and no only in the burial of people of distinction ; but when doubt it was with a feeling of much complacency they were used, great care was taken in ornamenting and self-satisfaction that Holland, a physician of and decorating them. The wood from which they Coventry, who translated Pliny's Natural History into were formed is of so lasting a nature, that some of English, wrote the following lines :those Egyptian coffins now to be seen in the British
With one sole pen I wrote this book, Museum, and other collections of antiquities, seem as
Made of a gray goose quill. fresh as if they had just come from the hand of the
A pen it was when it I took maker. Hence we see, that there was no very great
I leave it still. difficulty in the children of Israel bearing with them It appears from the best testimony, that the mode the body of Joseph at the time of the Exodus, and of writing in the earliest times was not by the use of carrying it about with them during their wanderings a fluid like ink, but by marking with a blunt point in the desert. It was not until the conquest of on tablets covered with a surface of wax; but when Canaan was completed, indeed, that the body of the the Egyptian papyrus was devised, and a coloured patriarch was committed to its final resting place ; liquid found, which could be used as ink, a new mode for we read in the book of Joshua, " And the bones of procedure was devised, more likely to leave perof Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up manent traces of the writing. The instrument emout of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, in a parcel of ployed was a reed, the nature of which is not precisely
ascertained. Massey, in his Treatise on the Origin of Strutt gives the annexed represen-
during the ten years of his reign he Styles were much used among the Romans, they was not able to write five letters were made of different metals, also of ivory or bone. (THEOD) at the bottom of his edicts. Wooden styles, or skewers, were found in the ink. For this reason the letters were cut for him, (we may horns at Herculaneum. The common material of suppose like our modern stencil plates,) in a plate of styles was, however, iron; for we find that, as the gold, and the plate being laid upon the paper, he Romans were not allowed to wear arms in the city, then traced out the letters with a pen. The Emperor they often, in a fit of wrath, wounded each other Justin, who flourished about the same period, is said with the writing-style, which they carried about to have shown a similar specimen of ignorance, them; hence the origin of the Italian stiletto. Re- Alquin, the friend and teacher of Charlemagne, menspecting the reeds which were substituted for the tions writing pens in the eighth century. After that blunt style and wax tablet, they are described as time, proofs exist which put the question of their use having been small, hard, round canes, about the size beyond dispute. Mabillon saw a manuscript Gospel of a large swan's quill, and fashioned into shape much of the ninth century, in which the evangelists were as we now do our quills. The supply of them used represented with pens in their hands. Calami properly to be obtained chiefly from Egypt, Cairo, in Asia signify the reeds used by the ancients in writing; but Minor, and Armenia. Chardin and Tournefort have modern authors have often used the term as a Latin described in their travels a sort of reed employed for word for pen, and it has been suggested that that this purpose, which grows in Persia, and which they was probably the proper term for quills, before their considered as the best, at that time. These reeds application to the purposes of pens. Reeds were used are not originally hollow, but contain a pith, which, for a considerable time after the introduction of pens; however, afterwards dries up in a manner similar to and in monasteries and convents were frequently used the membranous film in the barrels of our modern for initial letters, as they made stronger marks than quills. These reeds are collected in some places bor- quills. By some letters of Erasmus to Reuchlin, dering on the Persian Gulf, whence they are sent to we learn that the latter sent three writing reeds to every part of the East. They are said to be deposited Erasmus, who expressed a wish that Reuchlin, when for some months after they are cut, under a dung. he could procure more, would send some to a learned hill, when they assume a mixed black and yellow friend of his in England. Erasmus lived between colour, acquire a fine polish and a considerable degree 1.167 and 1536, and it would from this appear that of hardness; this latter quality, however, is rendered quills were scarce at that time. About the period of of less value, by the circumstance that it is accom 1430, the familiar letters of the learned men of Italy, panied with a want of that elasticity which is so made mention of two inconveniences to which they valuable a property in quill pens. This we can easily were subject at that time, viz. ; the difficulty of conceive, for although bamboo-reeds, and canes, are, making good ink, and the scarcity of good quills. in general, elastic in their complete form, yet when The principal birds from which quills have been they are deprived of the internal parts by drying or obtained for making pens, are the goose, the swan, any other process, the shell, or cylinder, is not likely and the crow. Pelicans, and other birds, have also to have much elastic property remaining.
at different times, helped to furnish a portion of Thus much for reed-pens, our information on which quills; but of all these, the goose has furnished by is but limited. Concerning quills, much doubt exists far the larger portion. So immense has become the as to when they were first applied to the purposes of number of quills employed, that in 1832, (notwithpens. An anonymous historian of Constantius says standing the large consumption of steel pens,) thirtythat they were so employed in the fifth century; but three million, six hundred and sixty-eight thousand the oldest certain account is said to be a passage in goose quills, were entered for home consumption, the some writings of Isidore, who died in the year 636; greater part of which came from the Netherlands and and who, in an enumeration of the materials used in Germany. An immense quantity is also imported writing, mentions reeds and feathers. There exists, from Russia and Poland, where vast flocks of geese also, a poem on a pen," written in the same cen are fed for the sake of their quills alone. The quantury, and to be found in the works of Adhelinus, who tity exported from St. Petersburg varies from six to died in 709, and who was the first Saxon who wrote twenty-seven millions. We may form some idea of in Latin. We supply the following translation. the number of geese which must be required to afford
the supply, when we consider that each wing produces CONCERNING THE PEN OF THE WRITER,
about five good quills, and that by proper manageThe shiņing-white pelican (bittern) which sips with open, ment, a goose may afford twenty quills during the
throat, The waters of the pool once produced one white.
year. Hence, it is obvious, that the geese of Great I proceed direct to the whitening plains
Britain and Ireland could afford but a small supply. And leave blue marks on the shining-white ground*,
The quills are the large feathers taken from the Shadowing the glistening grounds with darkened windings *. ends of the wing, and have different names according Nor is it enough to open a track over the plains ;
to the quality, which seem to depend principally on But rather a path continues by numerous turns
the part of the wing from which they are taken. Which has carried to the heights of Heaven, those who wander not.
The operation of preparing the quills is called quill• Blue ink upon white paper,
dressing, sometimes quill-dutching. The quills as
+ Letters. Nor is it enough merely to scribble.
they are taken from the bird, are covered with a
membranous skin, and have a toughness and soft · Many of the quills after this preparation are cut into ness which prevents their being easily split. They pens by means of the pen-cutter's knife, and are also are also opaque, and the vascular membrane on the trimmed. A pen-cutter will cut in a day two-thirds of interior of the barrel adheres to it so strongly, that a long thousand, consisting of 1200 according to the it is with difficulty detached. To remedy these stationer's, computation. A house in Shoe-Lane, defects, and to fit the quills for their destined pur- London, cuts generally about 6,000,000 of pens yearly; pose, is the business of the quill-dresser. He takes and during the year 1834, notwithstanding the introa large bundle of the quills, just as they are taken duction of steel pens, it cut many more than it had from the bird, and proceeds to separate them into done in any previous year.
It is calculated by penthree parcels,—differing from each other in the size makers, not more than one pen in ten is ever mended. and quality of the quills. The value is estimated Swan-quills, which are very large in the barrel, both by the length and the thickness of the barrel; are sometimes employed for pens, and though exthose having the largest and longest barrels being pensive at first, are, perhaps, not dearer ultimately called “primes," which fetch the highest price in the than the smaller quills, their length and capacity of market; the next best in quality are designated barrel compensating for the larger charge. Crowas " seconds," and the third, or smallest size, are quills are generally employed in drawing and designcalled "pinions." The process of sorting being ing, on account of the fine point to which they can completed, the workmen proceed to “ clarify" the be brought. They are particularly useful in that quills, the principal object of which is to remove the kind of etching which is intended to imitate prints. membranous skin. The quills are plunged for a short Quills may be hardened by steeping them in alumtime into heated sand : the heat of the sand makes water, at a boiling temperature for a few minutes. the outer skin crack and peel off, which is further There is a modern contrivance by which six or aided by scraping them with a sharp instrument; | eight pens may be made out of one large quill. The while, at the same time, the internal membrane narrow end, and also the stalk of the pen being cut becomes shrivelled up, and falls down to the point of off, leaving the barrel only remaining, the latter has the quill. The barrel of the quill is also hardened a cylinder inserted through it, a little smaller than its and rendered transparent by this process, in conse own diameter. It is then placed in a machine in such quence of the heat consuming or drying up the oily a way that two cutting edges pass along the barrel, matter resident in it. This latter effect is increased by one on each side, by which the quill is cut longitudirepeated heatings; and when done for the purpose of nally into two semi-cylindrical halves. These pieces hardening the quill, is called dutching, probably from are then placed in a groove with the convex side the circumstance that the process was first adopted in undermost, and the edges are made straight and Holland. (The term Dutch pens, is frequently applied smooth by having a plane run along them. These to quills that have been passed through hot ashes, to half-cylinders of quill are then cut into three or four remove the grosser fat and moisture, and to render pieces, according to their length, and each piece is them more transparent.) For the best pens, the pro- operated on by the nibbing-machine, which is a sort cess of dutching is repeated several times; but care of cutting press. A few strokes with a pen-knife is necessary, in order that the heating should not be then brings each little piece to the form of a pen, carried so far as to injure the barrel. The quills which, fixed in a handle, is fit for use. after this process, arc either of the colour of fine thin horn, or of an impure white; but before they
THE VILLAGE CHURCH. are brought to market they undergo another process,
Mine be the rude and artless pile, with the two-fold object of giving them an uniform
The ivy-mantled turret gray, yellow colour, and to make them split more easily.
Within whose old unsculptured aisle, They are dipped into diluted aquafortis or nitric acid,
The toil-worn peasant kneels to pray. which has the effect desired. It is however thought
The whitened wall, the latticed pane, by some, that this process, although it improves their
The rustic porch, the oaken door ;
Above, the rafters huge and plain, beauty, injures their quality by making them too
Beneath, the footstep-graven floor. brittle, so that the slit is apt to run up on pressing
Not here, where few could pomp admire, with moderate firmness ; for this reason, many per
The sons of wealth their pomp display; sons who write much, such as clerks in mercantile
They throng not here in gay attire, houses, &c., frequently prefer a quill which has not
Who come to gaze and not to pray : undergone this process, as being more durable. The
No high-tuned choral peals surprise, quills having been thus dressed and finished, a portion
Enchanting fashion's languid train, of the barb is stripped off, to occupy less room in
With arts ingenious to disguise
The bard of Sion's raptured strain. packing, and the quills are tied up into bundles of
But here, where lowly hearts are bowed, twenty-five or fifty each, for the market.
By toil and sorrows gentler made, The process of preparing the quills is, however,
Nor earth-born schemes, nor visions proud, subject to some variation. Some dressers adopt the
The unambitious breast invade; following mode. The quills are first moistened, not
More nearly is His Presence felt, by immersion, but by dipping their extremities into
For whom the Heaven of Heaven expands
Its arch in vain, who never dwelt water, and allowing the remaining parts to absorb moisture by capillary attraction. They are then
In temples built by human hands. heated in the fire or in a charcoal chaffer, and are
By viewless Spirit of the air,
The soul's mysterious depths are stirred, passed quickly under an instrument with a fine edge,
More fervent soars the heavenward prayer, which flattens them in such a manner as to render
More deeply sinks the engrafted word : them apparently useless. They are then scraped and
O could my heart, in darker hour, again exposed to heat, whereby they assume their
That calm and reverent mood recall, original form. This is a remarkable fact, and may be
How weak were then temptation's power
lIow frail the world's unhallowed thrall ! R. illustrated by taking a feather and crushing it with the hand so as to destroy it to all appearance; if we now
LONDON: expose it to the action of steam or a similar tem JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND.
PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY Pants, perature, it will speedily assume its former condition.