Obrazy na stronie

on the production of one effect: the second being which would bear no other plant: the Lobelia shuns also prepared to follow and complete what had been the poisonous ditch which the Hydrocharis prefers, commenced by the first. It is a further proof of and the Ranunculus aquatilis, appointed to this duty such a regular and fore-ordained plan, that while the in that shallow pool which the first heats of Summer general inclinations and structures of the plants evaporate, is equally content to live beneath the water, destined to this end are peculiar, so is there among and on the dry land ; amply provided with means, them a still further gradation of inclination and as with inclinations, for each mode of life. But he structure: a succession of distinct desires and powers, who would scan the whole of this great design, must which enable some to commence that portion of the investigate all this ; while, if he would see, under one general duty which others are to take up, and others striking view, what the Author of nature effects in again to terminate, while none of these can perform this manner, he must not confine himself to the the office of their associates in the work. In every rivers or the lakes, the marshes or the coasts of our case, even under the absence of all analogy, we must own country, but turn the eye of botany and geogrant that such a mode of proceeding bespeaks a graphy on the singularly rooted mangroves, the design : it is impossible to doubt it for a moment, gigantic reeds, and other uncounted plants, which when we find man himself pursuing the same system, cover the swamps of the torrid climates, and are and, whether he knows or not that he is imitating daily converting unnumbered miles of sea, and river, nature, sowing vegetation to secure and consolidate and lake, into habitable land. He will not doubt the mud which his piers and dams have detained, the ultimate value of the result, when he finds the that he may gain a new territory from the waters. marshy woods of Borneo, occupying hundreds of

In the proceedings of nature, however, the plan is square miles, all gained from the ocean by the labours more perfect ; and while the results are more nume of the vegetable world. rous, the provisions for each are as minute and The plants, however, which had performed the accurate, as the effects themselves are unfailing. work thus far, can do no more when once the new Not only is the new land consolidated, but the plants land has surmounted the surface of the water. A are constructed with powers to detain what would new set therefore has been appointed to carry it on otherwise have floated on with the stream, to be lost to its completion. The Salicornia, Arenaria, &c., in the ocean; that most valuable portion of the perform, on the sea shores, that for which there are whole deposit, on which the unceasing fertility of provided, near fresh waters, marsh plants beyond these new lands is to depend. And while the living numbering, including even trees, like the willows plants serve to detain and to bind, the dead ones are with us, and the palms in hot countries, which aid in ordained in their generations, to fertilize, and, still the great work. Thus does the marsh at length further, to aid in elevating the new plains beyond the become a plain, fitted for pasturage or agriculture, eventual inroads of the waters. A short list, selected or demanding only the further labours of him for from a numerous catalogue of plants, will furnish whose use it was rescued from the waters. The last that detailed evidence which the reader can easily race has deserted it, as preceding ones had abandoned verify and extend.

what they had produced : yet each is still performing In the sea, it is the Zostera chiefly, which, with its its appointed duties : and, if excluding itself by its long, numerous, and firm roots, lays the first foun own actions when it could no longer be useful, condation of that which will afterwards become a salt- tinuing to prepare a new place for its successors,

to marsh ; acting beneath the water, like those far dif- surrender it again when it has executed the will of ferent plants which consolidate the dry sands of the Him, of whom it is the blind but obedient agent. adjoining shores. In fresh-water lakes the Scirpus An analogous but different proceeding must here ocicularis, Subularia aquatica, and others, perform the be noted, independently of water. This consists, same initial duty: and when we find that all these fundamentally, in the deposition of sand on sea plants have been created to live and to propagate shores ; the winds performing, in this case, what the entirely under water, we cannot doubt that they were water does in the other. And however injurious the appointed to the very office which they execute so consequences may occasionally be, in the overwhelm. well. But in fresh waters, if not, with us at least, ing of fertile lands, I have little doubt that the general correspondently, in the sea, the detension and conso results are beneficial, as that the whole was designed. lidation of earthy matters are effected by many more Mankind is ever more ready to complain of injuries plants, not purely subaqueous; but of an amphibious than to be thankful for advantages. nature. These root beneath the water, but grow Įf this sand is not universally calcareous, it is such above it ; acting by means of their stems and their far most commonly: while, as the produce of sea crowded growth, in detaining what their roots con- shells, the levity of the fragments allows this kind, solidate, or checking that action of the waves which at least, to be most widely dispersed, so as to become would diffuse the earths along the bottom, and retard calcareous manure to places within its reach, and thus the desired effect. Such are the bulrush and the producing valuable collateral effects, in addition to common reed. The student of nature should examine the accession of territory thus gained from the for himself the various plants, Nymphæas, Charas, bottom of the sea.

in this useful work. But it is most important to prime object was consolidation, that the winds might remark that there is some one, or more, adapted to not destroy what they had produced; and the second every possible situation and circumstance under which

was to induce a more fertile surface, by the addition this work may be carried on. Thus have structures of vegetable matter. And both are accomplished by and inclinations been provided, not merely for the the same means, through a special creation of plants, sea and for fresh water, but for every variety of each: provided with inclinations to occupy those places, for the pure ocean, and the brackish æstuary of a and powers to effect these purposes. All of them river, for the clear lake, the rapid river, the alpine are willing to grow in sand and some will grow pool, the heated pond, and the foul and stagnant nowhere else ; while the others, equally prospering ditch. The Scirpus maritmus and the Ruppia thrive on the incipient pasture, form the connecting link where the bulrush and the Potamogetons could not through which it is to be completed. Here alone we exist; the Lemna does its best to reclaim that pond see the proofs of design : but no doubt can remain

when we examine the long roots of these plants, imperfect. He has made an exception to the general tenacious as they are numerous, and intersecting the law: the principle of life is not withdrawn, and they sand in every direction, as if the root, rather than are ready to revive and resume their functions at the the plant, was the contrivance and the object, and slightest return of moisture. thus rendering it a firm mass.

In whatever way the foliaceous and the shrubby liAmong these, on our own shores, the Elymus, Tri- chens may assist, the result is to lay the foundation of ticum, Arundo, and Carex of the sand, are the most a soil on the naked rock, partly through their own lifamiliar, as they are the pioneers in this great work; ving structures, partly through their decomposition, but few can be unacquainted with the Convolvulus, and partly through the flying particles of earth which Bunias, and Euphorbias, of the sea shores, with the they detain. But the soil thus produced is unfitted to Eryngo, the Matthiola, the Kali, &c. : while, knowing give a hold or a place to the larger and more perfect the general desires of plants for soil and water, we vegetables. A new tribe of plants, of a higher orgamight wonder at a choice so apparently unreasonable, nization than their precursors, yet inferior to those did we not know by whom that choice was directed. which are to follow, has been created for this end.

Though the chemical powers of nature convert the These are the mosses, and their variety resembles that rock into soil, that operation is often slow. There of the lichens. These have scarcely the power of rootare situations also where soil cannot rest; or else it ing themselves on a naked surface, if we except the becomes removed, from the flow of water. Here it barks of trees; but they attach themselves readily to is, that the vegetable agents are ordained to act, as the least quantity of soil, as formed and collected by here they are made to inhabit; and from this point the lichens : and that they execute the office of formtheir actions are most easily traced. And when we ing additional soil, the least observation will show. find that a specific family of plants, utterly unlike Their office being at length performed, there is room all others, in their instincts or affections, as in their and lodgment afforded for plants of greater bulk and nature, their structure, and their powers, execute more perfect structure: and he who examines the this prime office, surrendering their places afterwards summit of a wall where the grasses, the Arabis Tunito a second, scarcely less remarkable in these re- tis, Sedum, &c. are rooted in their mössy cushions, spects, yet approaching nearer to the general vegetable will see those plants which are destined to replace world ; as they are also the immediate precursors of their immediate predecessors, still adding to that soil those more perfect and more widely useful plants, we which may one day bear the trees of the forest. cannot for an instant doubt the design. It is in the Let him who reads or observes never forget that in multitudinous and incomprehensible tribe of lichens all this, as in everything else, there is nothing casual, and analogous plants, that we find these pioneers of nothing purposeless, nothing undesigned : that good vegetation, seeking their places where no others could ends have been intended, as good purposes have been exist; demanding no water, requiring no soil ; root- effected; and that all creation everywhere presents to less, leafless, flowerless, if not seedless, perpetuated him who will examine it, the most incontrovertible we know not how, unsusceptible of injury short of proofs of a Great Artist, intending, designing; perfect destruction, and, if not immortal, tenacious of life in wisdom, and absolute in power. as are the seeds of plants themselves, and capable of [Abridged from Maccullocu's Proofs and Illustrations of the almost equal dormancy. What their anatomy is, no

Attributes of God.] one has ascertained ; and if they do produce seeds to be spread by the winds, we have still to explain how that which must be lighter than the winds themselves, and which the microscope cannot discover,

TO A WATERFOWL. should adhere to the solid rock.

Whither 'midst falling dew, But the Creator has only to will, and it is done : While glow the heavens with the last steps of day, nor can we contemplate this extraordinary form of ve Far through their rosy depths, dost thou pursue getable life, without reflecting on the power which has

Thy solitary way? given that life to such an organization, so unlike to

Vainly the fowler's eye almost all else, yet so perfectly adapted to the pur

Might mark thy distant flight to do thee wrong, poses which it was created and commanded to serve.

As, darkly painted on the crimson sky And if the species are so numerous that they are yet

Thy figure floats along. uncounted, so are there kinds allotted for different

Seek'st thou the plashy brink

Of weedy lake, or maze of river wide, qualities of rock, and for different surfaces ; for the

Or where the rocking billows rise and sirk calcareous and the finty, for the smooth and the

On the chafed ocean-side ? rough, for the precipice, or the wall, or the bark of a

There is a Power whose care tree. Thus also are there individuals appointed for

Teaches thy way along that pathless coast the damp and dark forest, the sunny and arid cliff, The desert and illimitable air, the frozen Alpine summit, and the salt sea shore, the

Lone wandering, but not lost. climate of Bengal, and the snows of Greenland.

All day thy wings have fanned, It is a general law for plants that water is essen At that far height, the cold thin atmosphere ! tial to their existence, and that deprived of this, once Yet stoop not, weary, to the welcome land, dried, they are irrecoverably dead; though many have

Though the dark night is near. · been enabled to retain it with almost miraculous ob.

And soon that toil shall end, stinacy under the most unfavourable circumstances.

Soon shalt thou find a Summer-home, and rest, But had this law involved the lichens, it would have

And scream among thy fellows : reeds shall bend

Soon o'er thy sheltered nest. been fatal to their appointed duties; while their bulk and structure are commonly such as to have rendered

Thou’rt gone, the abyss of heaven

Hath swallowed up thy form; yet, on my heart, the retention of moisture impossible. Exposed to a

Deeply hath sunk the lesson thou hast given, burning sun, on naked rocks, and without the means

And shall not soon depart. of resisting its influence, they are often so dried as to

He, who from zone to zone, crumble at a touch : while this condition is sometimes

Guides through the boundless sky thy certain flight, of daily occurrence. Their very races might have been In the long way that I must tread alone, exterminated; but the Creator never leaves his work

Will lead my steps aright. - BRYANT.

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THE MANGROVE, (Rhizophora manglier.) The regard to the general rules of morality is what is pro

perly called a sense of duty; a principal of the greatest The trees of this tribe are peculiar to the shores of consequence in human life, and the only principle by which the oceans and large rivers of the tropics, where they the bulk of mankind are capable of directing their actions. form dense forests, reaching almost to the waters. There is scarce any man who, by discipline, education, and The Mangrove is a tree about fifty feet in hight, and example, may not be impressed with a regard to these its mode of growth is very singular, resembling that general rules of conduct, as to act upon almost every occasion

with tolerable decency, and through the whole of his life, of the banian, or Indian fig. The tree is only found avoid a tolerable degree of blame. Without this sacred in marshy places : its branches, after growing for regard to the general rules of morality, there is no man some time in the usual manner, suddenly bend down whose conduct can be much depended upon. It is this wards and grow towards the earth ; as soon as they which constitutes the most essential difference between reach the moist soil, they take root, and thus each

a man of principle and honour, and a worthless fellow. branch forms a stem capable of supporting itself

The one adheres on all occasions, steadily and resolutely to

his maxims, and preserves through the whole of his life, without dependence on the parent tree; in this man

one even tenour of conduct. The other acts variously and ner one tree will, in course of time, form a complete accidentally, as humour, inclination, or interest, chance to grove. The forests thus formed by an assemblage of be uppermost.-ADAM SMITH. Mangrove trees are almost impenetrable, and in addition to the difficulties offered by the thickness of The willow which bends to the tempest, often escapes better their growth, their recesses are the favourite haunts

than the oak which resists it; and so, in great calamities, of myriads of musquitoes, sufficient to deter the their elasticity and presence of mind sooner than those of a

it sometimes happens, that light and frivolous spirits recover most enduring from the attempt to explore them. loftier character.-—Sir Walter Scott. An innumerable quantity of birds, chiefly aquatic, take shelter under their branches, while the shallow Youth is the time of enterprise and hope ; having yet no pools which abound among them form the lurking occasion of comparing our force with any opposing power, places of thousands of crabs and of aquatic insects. imagine that obstruction and impediment will give way

we naturally form presumptions in our own favour, and These amphibious forests are at times inundated by before us. The first repulses rather intiame vehemence the sea, and on the retreat of the water, numerous than teach prudence; a brave and generous mind is long oysters and other shell-fish are found adhering to the before it suspects its own weakness, or submits to sap the trees. So that, although the difficulty of penetrating difficulties which it expected to subdue by storm... Before these thick shades is very great, the enterprising disappointments have enforced the dictates of philosophy, sportsman is tolerably sure of being well rewarded

we believe it in our power to shorten the interval between for the dangers he has to undergo by an abundance delays

of brooding industry, and fancy that by increasing the first cause and the last effect; we laugh at the timorous

the fire we can, at pleasure, accelerate the projection.-A singular fact is attached to the history of the Johnson. Mangrove, namely, the germination of the seeds while they are yet attached to the branches of the

LONDON: tree; these afterwards fall and take root in the



The wood of the Mangrove is good for little else Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.

of game.


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departed. In our last paper upon this subject we related how,

About an hour afterwards, the Lord Treasurer, the immediately upon the breaking out of Sir Thomas Bishop of Winchester, the Lord Steward, and the Wyat's rebellion in February, 1554, the Princess Earl of Sussex, entered with a guard, and removed Elizabeth was arrested in her house at Ashridge, by all the servants of Elizabeth, substituting others of the orders of Queen Mary, and brought up to Lon the Queen's; and there were stationed " an hundred don with as much speed as was compatible with her of Northern soldiers in white coats, watching and delicate state of health. When the princess reached warding about the garden all that night; a great fire Whitehall, she was shut up a close prisoner, under being made in the midst of the hall, and two certain the charge of the chamberlain and vice-chamberlain, lords watching there also, with their band and comwithout being permitted to hold communication with pany." any one, for nearly a fortnight. On the Friday before Upon Saturday following, (says Holinshed, that is on the Palm-Sunday, Gardiner, the Bishop of Winchester, next day,) two lords of the council

, (the one was the Earl and nineteen others of the council, came from the of Sussex, the other shall be nameless,) came and certified Queen, and charged her with being privy to Wyat's her grace that forthwith she must go unto the Tower, the conspiracy, alleging that she was concerned with the barge being prepared for her, and the tide now ready which

tarrieth for nobody. In heavy mood, her Grace requested Carews, and other gentlemen in the west. The

the lords that she might tarry another tide, trusting that princess positively denied the accusation, and steadily the next would be better and more comfortable. But one asserted her innocence; but her visitors informed of the lords replied that neither tide nor time was to be her that it was the Queen's will and pleasure that she delaied. And when her Grace requested that she might should go to the Tower, while the matter underwent be suffered to write to the Queen's Majesty, he answered examination. Elizabeth was terrified at the idea of that he durst not permit that: adding, that in his judgbeing sent to so “ notorious and doleful a place ;" ment, it would rather hurt than profit her Grace in so

doing. But the other lord, more courteous and favourable, she again asserted her innocence, and desired the (who was the Earl of Sussex,) kneeling down, said she councillors to intercede with her sister on her behalf. I should have liberty to write, and as a true man, he VOL. XII.


would deliver it to the Queen's Highness, and bring an time, and the same lord offered her his cloak, but, answer of the same whatsoever came thereof. Whereupon “putting it back with her hand with a good dash," she wrote the following letter:

she stepped forth, and as she set her foot upon the To the Queen.

stair exclaimed, “ Here landeth as true a subject, If any ever did try this olde saynge, that a kinge's worde being a prisoner, as ever landed at these stairs, and was more than another man's othe, I most humbly beseche before thee, O God, I speak it, having none other your Majesty to verefie it in me, and to remember your friend than thee." last promis and my last demande, that I be not condemned without answer and due profe; wiche it seems that now I

On entering within the building, she expressed her am, for that without cause provid I am by your Counsel surprise at finding the guards and warders drawn frome you commanded to go unto the Tower; a place more out in order ; and being informed that it was the wonted for a false traitor than a true subject. Wiche, custom on the reception of prisoners, she desired that thogth I knowe I deserve it not, yet in the face of al this if it were so, for her cause they might be dismissed; realme aperes that it is provid; wiche I pray God I may dy the shamefullist dethe that ever any died, afore I may

“ whereat the poor men kneeled down, and with one mene any suche thinge: and to this present hower I pro

voice prayed God to preserve her, for which, on the test afor God, (who slal juge my trueth whatsoever malice next day they were all discharged." Proceeding a shal devis,) that I never practised, consiled, nor consented short distance she sat down on a stone and there to any thinge that migth be prejudicial to your Person any rested herself. The lieutenant pressed her to rise out way, or daungerous to the State by any mene. And

of the rain, but she answered, “ Better sit here than therfor I humbly beseche your Majestie to let me answer afore your selfe, and not suffer me to trust to your Coun

in a worse place, for God knoweth whither you will selors; yea and that afore I go to the Tower, if it be pos- bring me ;" and turning to her gentleman usher, who sible; if not afore I be further condemned. How beit, I was weeping, she rebuked him, saying, “ You ought trust assuredly, your Highnes wyl give me leve to do it rather to comfort than dismay me, especially for that afor I go; for that thus shamfully I may not be cried out I know my truth to be such, that no man shall have on as now I shal be; yea, and without cause. Let con

cause to weep for my sake." She then arose and sciens move your Hithness to take some bettar way with

was conducted to her prison. me than to make me be condemned in al men's sigtb afor my desert knowen. Also I most humbly beseche your

Elizabeth's imprisonment in the Tower was of the Higthness to pardon this my boldnes, wiche innocency most rigorous description. After she had been for procures me to do togither with hope of your natural kind some time closely confined, permission was granted, nes: wiche I trust wyl not se me cast away without desert; | through the intercession of Lord Chandos, the lieuwiche what it is I wold desire no more of God but that you tenant of the Tower, for her to walk in the queen's truly knewe.

Wiche thinge I thinke and beleve you shallodgings, in the presence, however, of the constable, never by report knowe, unless by yourselfe you here. I have harde in my time of many cast away, for want of the lieutenant, and three of the queen's ladies, and on comminge to the presence of their Prince and in late condition that the windows should be shut. She was days I harde my Lorde of Sommerset say, that if his then indulged with walking in the queen's garden, brother had bine sufferd to speke with him he had never for the sake of fresh air, but the shutters of all the sufferd; but the perswasions wer made to him so gret that windows which looked towards the garden were he was brogth in belefe that he could not live safely if the ordered to be kept close. Admiral lived; and that made him give his consent to his dethe. Thogth thes parsons are not to be compared to your

About the end of May Elizabeth was removed from Majestie, yet I pray God, as ivel perswations perswade not

the Tower, under the command of Sir Henry Bedingone sistar again the other; and al for that the have harde field and Lord Williams of Thame, to the royal false report and not harkene to the trueth knowin. Therfor manor or palace at Woodstock. " The xx daye of ons again kniling with humbleness of my hart, bicause I May," says an old chronicle, “my lady Elizabeth, am not sufferd to bow the knees of my body, I humbly the queene's sister, came out of the Tower, and toke crave to speke with your Higthnis: wiche I wolde not be so bold to desier if I knewe not my self most clere as I her barge at the lower wharffe, and so to Richmond, knowe my selfe most tru. And as for the traitor Wiat, he

and from thens unto Wyndsor, and so to Wodstoke," migth paravantur writ me a lettar; but on my faithe I It was at Richmond that the princess rested the first never receved any from him. And as for the copie of my night of her journey; she was there watched carelettar sent to the Frenche kinge, I pray God confounde me fully by the soldiers, her own private attendants being eternally if ever I sent him worde, message, token, or lettar prevented from having access to her. These meaby any menes; and to this my truith I will stande in to

sures of severity led the princess to suppose, that Your Highnes most faithful subject

orders had been given to put her to death privately, that hathe bien from the begin

when she called her servants together to take leave, ninge and wylbe to my ende, she desired them to pray for her, “ For this night,"

ELIZABETH she added, “I think I must die.” The servants I humbly crave but only one

broke into tears and lamentations, and the gentleman worde of answer from your selfe.

usher went down to the Lord Williams in the court, The princess was taken to the Tower on the fol- desiring him unfeignedly to show whether his lady lowing day. As that happened to be Palm Sunday, and mistress that night were in danger of death, an order was issued throughout London, with the whereby himself and fellows might take such part as view of enabling her removal to be effected with more God would appoint. “Marry, God forbid," exclaimed privacy, that overy one should keep his church and Lord Williams, “ that any such wickedness should carry his palm. Besides the two lords and the guards, be intended, which rather than it should be wrought, there went with her three of the queen's gentlewomen, I and my men will die at her feet.” On the second three of her own, her gentleman usher, and two day she reached Windsor, where she was lodged in grooms of her chamber. In passing London Bridge the dean's house, near St. George's Collegiate Chapel. the whole party narrowly escaped with their lives, in She then passed to Lord Williams's seat at Ricot, in consequence of the great fall of the water. On reaching Oxfordshire, where she was verie princelie enterthe Tower the barge was directed to the dismal en tained, both of knights and ladies.” trance, known by the name of the Traitor's Gate. On arriving at Woodstock Elizabeth was lodged in Elizabeth felt strongly the indignity thus put upon the gate house of the palace, in an apartment which her, and would have refused to land, but that one of remained complete in the early part of the last centhe lords, whose name Holinshed has withheld, plainly tury, with its original arched roof of Irish nak, told her that she should not choose. It rained at the curiously carved, and painted blue, with sprinklings

my dethe.

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