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THE MOUNTAINS—MACGILLICUDDY'S REEKS. while the base is clothed with trees of rich and varied As the two lower lakes at Killarney lie at the foot of shades, almost dipping their foliage in the water the range of mountains upon which the third, or Tomies Mountain, the next in succession to the Upper Lake is situated, the side of them turned northward, and the last whose base is washed by the towards that lake, or, in other words, their western lake, rises more gradually than the others, and at its shores, are bounded by those mountains. The first sloping base presents to view a considerable tract of mountain in the chain which thus separates the i fertile ground, which is under cultivation. Lower Lakes from the Upper Lake is that of Turk. Until the sun has ascended to his meridian height, It forms the boundary of the south-western side of the mountains bordering upon the Lower Lake rethe middle lake, which has from that circumstance main in shadow. Their surface then appears tame received the appellation of Turk Lake. By the side and unvaried, and their summit, if it be in clear of this mountain there is a defile in the chain, through weather, forms a hard outline against the azure sky; which flows the river from the Upper Lake.

but, as the day advances, the sun crosses the line of The next mountain to the northward, or that upon the great chain, and darts his rays on that side of the the opposite side of the defile, is Glena, which bounds mountains which lies next to the lake. All their bold a portion of the western side of the Lower Lake. irregularities are then revealed, their protruding It projects forward beyond the line of Turk Mountain, rocks, their deep glens; "and the lake, illumined by and forms, in fact, a promontory jutting out into the the gleams which pass athwart its peaceful waves, lake; thus it presents two sides to the water, one of appears resplendent amidst the dark and wooded them overhanging the bay of Gleda, as the corner of islands:”the lake to the southward is called, and the other

The horizontal clouds opening to the northward upon the broadest part of

With purple dyes and fissures cdged with gold, the lake. Both of these mountains rise abruptly

Streak the calm ether, while through the sparkling haze

The faint hills glimmer; fainter as their chains from the water, and are marked by numerous bold

Approach the fount of brightness ; fainter still
breaks and projecting rocks. The summit of Glena

Where sunk the parting orb, and with the sky
mountains is "bare, naked, barren, wild, and rugged," In undistinguishable splendour joined.
Vol. XII.



Mr. Weld says that he has sometimes imagined | wards the Atlantic, in a direction at right angles to that the sun set with more splendour at Killarney theirs, or in such a manner that if it ran towards the than in other parts of the country; indeed, he adds, east instead of towards the west, it would cut the lake there can be no doubt that the diversity of light in half. This range bears the name of Macgillicuddy's and colours in the sky is augmented by the vast Reeks, the appellation of Macgillicuddy being decollections of clouds which are attracted by the rived, according to the common account, from an old mountains as they come from the Atlantic, family once flourishing in these parts, and that of Or whirled tempestuous by the gusty wind,

Reeks being applied to the mountains because of their Or silent borne along, heavy and slow,

sharp jagged peaks. One of these peaks called With the big stores of steaming ocean charged. Carran Tual, or Gheraun Tual, (from some resem. These clouds, he says, not only occasion the most blance in it to an “inverted sickle,'') is the loftiest grand and beautiful effects at the approach of evening, summit of all Ireland, measuring 3394 feet. but “exhibit infinite vicissitudes of light and shade As the Reeks lie behind the mountains which throughout the day, altering every hour the face of bound the western bank of the Lower Lake, they the landscape.” An older writer expresses a similar are, of course, not to be seen from every point of opinion, stating that the effect of the view is, in his if the spectator be too close they are hidden. opinion, much heightened by the hourly revolutions From the hills upon the opposite or eastern side of in the face of the heavens.

the lake they appear to advantage, towering above The vast volumes of clouds which are rolled together the heads of Glena and Tomies. But the best view from the Atlantic and rest on the summits of the mountains, of them is obtained from the hills upon

the northern clothe them with majesty: the different masses of light border of the lake; and this is the view which is repreand shade traversing the lakes in succession, as the shifting sented in our engraving, the spectator being placed bodies above float across them, exhibit all the varieties of night and day almost at the same instant : the mists inter

on the hill of Aghadve, close to the ruins of the

The extensive posing their dull yet transparent coverings to the view, raise ancient cathedral of that name. new desires of a fallen and clearer prospect: and the wan prospect which this height commands is constantly dering vapours flitting from cliff to cliff, as if in search of recommended to the tourist; and certainly it is one the clouds from which they have been separated, amuse the of the most remarkable which he will enjoy at Kileye with their varieties and irregular motions.

larney. But “ every white will have its black.” The clouds From hence (says Smith, the historian of Kerry), is to and mists at Killarney, like clouds and mists else be seen one of the most delicious landscapes in Ireland, where, bring with them something more than majesty and perhaps few countries in Europe afford better; but to the prospect; and occasion other " vicissitudes” this is such a masterpiece, that even the Poussins, Salvator than those of light and shade in the face of the land

Rosa, or the most eminent painter in that way, might here

furnish himself with sufficient matter, not only to form one scape. The west of Ireland is remarkable for its

but several entertaining prospects. From this eminence a rains; and certainly in no part of it is that feature survey may be taken of the greatest part of this beautiful of the climate so prominently developed as at Kil lake, and likewise of that stupendous amphitheatre of larney. Hence arises a serious drawback upon its mountains which are raised along the opposite shores. Toattractions ; or as the writer last quoted says,

wards the south-east stands the mountain called Mangerton,

whose feet the lake washes, and whose summit is generally After all this happy spot labours under one disadvantage,

lost in the clouds, it being justly esteemed one of the and one, too, which I am the more averse to mention, since highest mountains in Ireland. More towards the centre so celebrated a writer as Dr. Johnson has thought it suffi- of the lake is a high mole, called Turk, whose sides, down cient in the case of Loch Lomond, to counterbalance so

to the verge of the water, are beautifully clothed with many natural beauties; and this is no other than the im

groves of various kinds of trees. One part of this hill mense rains ; which fall here more abundantly, and that

slopes away like a promontory terminating in the lake, even in the best seasons for visiting the lake, than in all forining one side of a canal, which is a passage into the other parts of the kingdom. Upon this account a lengthened residence at Kil- Glena

, the other side of this strait, which is adorned also larney is necessary to a full enjoyment of its beauties. with forest trees. As a fine contrast to this verdure, at the The space assigned for the regular performance of backs of these mountains stand others shaped into pyramids, the tour is three days,--though, to accommodate all and magnificence of these mountains, not only entertain

being only naked rocks of a vast height. The grandeur classes, a mode has been devised of " doing it" in and surprise the spectator, but he must be also agreeably two, or even in one day. But, for the ordinary tra amused in contemplating the infinite variety of beautiful veller to expect three consecutive fine days under the colouring they afford. For in this part may be seen the sky of Killarney, would be scarcely more reasonable gayest verdure, blended with scarlet fruit and snowy blosthan asking for the ocean in the deserts of Africa.

soms, well known properties of the Arbutus; and in other Yet to this very drawback upon the attractions of caused by other kinds of trees and shrubs, appears; all

places the most elegant variety of brown and yellow tints, Killarney, we trace those attractions themselves; and these are intermixed with rock-work, and, to soften the instead of complaining, we shall do well to recollect whole, a deep, smooth, and noble basin of water extends that the limitations here set to our pleasures are ne itself beneath this scenery; but to give the reader an adecessary to our being pleased at all, that what we at quate idea of this place would require the pencil of some first call a disadvantage is the spring and source of excellent painter rather than the pen of any prose writer. all we admire,

To the west of Glena stands the lofty peak called

Tomish, variegated half-way to its top with a waving forest, That the Hyades are here the handmaids of Flora ; for and down whose sides, especially after rains, run very conthat without their perpetual effusions of rain we complain siderable cataracts into the Great Lake. There are many of, the rocks must resign their vegetable inhabitant, the other hills still running niore west, as far as the eye can rivers mourn their exhausted urns, and the cascades no longer reach, for many miles; the nearest, and most surprising for resound in the dull ear of memory; that the living lake their loftiness, are the Reeks, already mentioned, whose itself must dwindle into an inconsiderable pool, and the tops resemble so many pinnacles, or rather spires, lost in mountains stripped of their honours become a dreary waste, the clouds. the abode of gloom and barrenness.

Carran Tual being the highest mountain in Ireland, We have said that the mountains of Glena and

* When Dr. Smith wrote, Mangerton was generally considered Tomies are seated upon the western bank of the the highest mountain in Ireland, although it is nearly nine hundred Lower Lake. Beyond them, still further to the west

feet lower than its close neighbour Carran Tual;- a fact which

shows most strikingly how fallacious a guide is the appearance of ward, is a range of other mountains which runs to mountains in estimating even their comparative height.

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the ascent to its summit forms a notable exploit with its highest peak, and directing their steps towards the the more active and adventurous of the visiters to Upper Lake, reached a cottage at which they rested. Killarney. The excursion, though a fatiguing one, is On recounting the adventures of the day, and boasting unattended with danger; and it affords many fine of having been on the highest ground in Ireland, an old mountain scenes which, even without the extensive gray-headed man who stood by expressed some doubt of prospect from the summit, would be amply sufficient the fact; adding that if we had really been on the most to reward the traveller for the toil of the ascent. lofty point of the Reeks, it would have been impossible for

us to have returned before night. We appealed to our Even the lower Reeks are well worth the labour of a guides, who, jealous of their reputation, of course confirmed visit; Mr. Weld ascended one of them, which the

our story; to put this matter beyond doubt, however, the old ignorance of his guides led him to mistake for Carran

man requested us to come to the door and point out the Tual, and he described the scenery which he beheld mountain we had ascended. The Reeks rose in full view as sublime in the extreme, The party proceeded before the cottage, and we could easily trace our route to first to Dunloh Gap *, and having advanced into it to

the most lofty peak. This was sufficient to confirm his the distance of half a mile, began to ascend the higher than any of the other points, and was neither visible

first supposition. Gheraun-tuel, he told us, was much mountain on their right. It proved extremely diffi from the valley in which we stood, nor from any part of the cult of access, and in many parts so steep, that, lake of Killarney. It was to no purpose that the guides without the aid of the sapling oaks which spring maintained the contrary, the evidence of our own senses had from their fissures, it would have been impossible to already impeached their knowledge, and their ignorance of

the scale the rocks. On the summit of this mountain

country was now proved by the concurrent testimony

of several mountaineers. they found an extensive tract of ground, less encum

The difficulty of ascending bered with rocks than the valley below, and covered, stranger, we were told, bad ever attempted it. This was

Gheraun-tuel was represented to us as very great, and no as far as the eye could see, with heath and coarse but an additional incentive to undertaking the enterprise; grass, on which innumerable herds of cattle were and the old man having offered his son as a guide, the next fed. Beyond it appeared another mountain extremely day but one was appointed for the expedition, rugged, which they reached at the end of two hours. There are two routes by which the ascent of Carran The ascent was not steep; but it was laborious and Tual is now made. By one of them the traveller tedious, owing to the immense heaps of loose stones proceeds along the northern shore of the Lower Lake in some places, and in others deep rents, which could to Dunloh Castle, and keeps a straight course beyond not be passed without the utmost caution. Along it in the same direction, after skirting the northern this part of the route, the only animals they observed side of the Reeks for some distance, until he arrives were cagles, of which numbers hovered above them at that part of their base above which towers the as if alarmed at the invasion of their lofty solitudes : object of his search. The other route is by the at one moment they counted no less than twelve of Upper Lake, whence he enters a valley which leads them within gun-shot.

him to a similar point on the opposite or southern The craggy tops of the Reeks appeared on reach-side of the Reeks. ing the summit of this latter mountain; and after The valley through which the latter route conducts walking for about an hour over a rugged way, nearly him bears the name of Comme Duff, or the Black similar to that which they had already traversed, they Valley; it is watered by a chain of small lakes gained one of the loftiest pinnacles, which their guides and a river connecting them together. This valley told them was Carran Tual.

bears some resemblance to the Gap of Dunloh; but It is scarcely possible (says Mr. Weld), to convey an idea the scenery is much tamer, and is rather to be adof the sublime view wbich was now unfolded to our eyes. mired for the delightful verdure of the peaceful and On each side lay a vast precipice, beyond which arose other immense mountains: still further on we saw the Atlantic retired meads than for the boldness of the rocks, or Ocean bounding the horizon for a great distance; and in

the height and abruptness of the impending prethe opposite direction a wide expanse of the inland country, cipices. After passing into another valley, which watered by innumerable rivers and lakes, among which that branches off from this, and proceeding for a considerof Killarney was only conspicuous for its superior extent. able distance, he begins to climb a mountain, which, One of the peaks before us seemed to be considerably more though steep, is not difficult of ascent; on the sumlofty than that which we had ascended; but the guides mit is a long plain, which forms the body, as it persisted in assuring us that the appearance was deceptive; and that if from any third station we could compare its were, of the mountain mass out of which the Reeks elevation with that of the point on which we then stood, the rise. At the end of this plain, which is covered with superior height of the latter would be obvious. The inter coarse grass, is seen the conical head of Carran Tual. vening precipices were impassable; as it was out of our Advancing towards it the traveller has to proceed power, therefore, to make the trial, we were satisfied to re four or five miles before it discloses itself fully to his ceive this intelligence as conviction; and, perhaps, none of view; at length he reaches the brink of a precipice, us, after so much fatigue, were willing to entertain a doubt when a complete view of it opens. Mr. Weld thus of having attained the object of our laborious undertaking.

describes its appearance:The mountain here described resembles in shape a

It rose with great regularity in the form of a cone, and wedge; at the summit it presented a long craggy

to appearance stood quite insulated except on the nearest ridge, so narrow, that whilst they stood upon it we side, where was connected with the mountain on which could look into the depths of the precipices at either we stood by a sort of spur, forming an isthmus, and bearing side, or drop pebbles into them from each hand at a resemblance, though on a scale of such great magnitude, the same moment. Large masses of rock are often

to the artificial approach to an old castle. At the height detached from the ridge, through the incessant action

from which we viewed it, this pass did not seem to be wider of mists and vapours prevailing in these high regions, than might be sufficient for a single carriage ; and though

on descending we found it at least sixty feet broad, yet the and especially after the snow begins to dissolve. immense depih and great abruptness of the precipices at They roll down the mountain with a loud roar, but each side so imposed on the senses, that we could scarcely fortunately there are no dwellings which they can persuade ourselves of being in perfect safety in its very reach in their descent.

Here, however, we halted at once to admire the The party descended the mountain by the opposite sublimity

of the scene, and to take some refreshment and side, under the full impression that they had scaled

repose. From this place to the summit the distance did

not appear to be very great, as the slope, owing to our conFor an account of this remarkable defile, see Saturday Magazine, tiguity to the mountain, was fore-shortened; but though Vol. XII, p. 83

we advanced with ardour and the way, except being very


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steep, was not incommodious, we did not arrive at the top was as fine as ever shone from the heavens; it was one day until an hour and a half after we had set out.

in a hundred, as the guide remarked, not a cloud to interrupt

the view, and the whole range of Macgillicuddy's Reeks, The top of the mountain presents a smooth area,

with their peaked and jagged summits lay beautifully before nearly circular; it is about thirty feet in diameter,

me. The prospect was varied, extensive, and grand. On and from every side there is an uniform slope down. the west was the silver stream of the Laune, meandering The stones are split into small flags, which, in many into Dingle Bay, and a little to the left the great cluster of cases, are also broken crosswise ; thus the summit is the Iveragh Mountains; on the south-west, the River and composed of a species of shingle, which, after a Bay of Kenmare; on the south, and close at hand, the heavy fall of snow, is carried down in considerable rounded and unsightly summit of Mangerton, boasting an

elevation of about 2550 feet; and on the east, the grounds quantities in the thaw; for this reason it has been and Abbey of Mucruss; but Ross Castle, with its wellsaid, that the height of the Reeks has probably dimi- planted island, and beyond it the town of Killarney, were nished in the lapse of time.

from this point hidden from the sight. On the summit of From the summit of Carran Tual a most command the Purple Mountain a heap of stones was piled up, on ing view is obtained. To the north, Dingle Bay, and which I suppose the officers employed in the Trigonomethe whole of the sea-coast between it and the river trical Survey of Ireland had fixed their staffs, as these piles

are observable on all the highest points in the island. Shannon; and in the opposite direction, Kenmare River, Bantry Bay, and the other great estuaries in this part of Kerry, are all distinctly spread out.

TWILIGHT. The other rocks appear like so many inclined planes, whose angles of inclination are all equal, so that they In those portions of the globe where the atmosphere is appear to lie in parallel strata. On the tops of several

frequently obscured by clouds and mists, and where are small lakes, like those on Mangerton and other

the nights in some parts of the year greatly exceed the high mountains on the range. The inland view is days in length, we enjoy the cheering influence of light less interesting than that obtained from others of the for a short time before the sun has actually risen, and Reeks whose height is not so great; few of the lakes again after it has set. This mellow and pleasing light, can be distinguished, and the beauty and variety of which we call twilight, arises from the refractive power the scenery surrounding them is lost in the immensity

of the air, by which the rays of the sun are bent from of the distance. The spectator gazes with wonder

their direct course, and partially illuminate the earth upon the stupendous prospect which is spread around

for a limited time after it has set, and before it has him, but the intense cold prevailing at this lofty

risen. elevation, renders unpleasant a stay of any length

The mode in which this beautiful effect is produced on the summit of Carran Tual.

may be illustrated by the following diagram. Let The descent from the isthmus or ridge, which con

D B C represent part of the circumference of the earth, nects Carran Tual with the other Reeks, into the valley

and the line AP the boundary of the atmosphere by of Comme Duff, is tedious but not difficult, the steepness of the declivities rendering it exceedingly fatiguing. Mr. Weld, who descended on this side, speaks of his route as somewhat hazardous. He tells us, that shortly after leaving the isthmus, his party were conducted to a precipice, at least sixty feet deep, down which they were told that it was necessary for them to take their course.

The proposal (he says) startled us, nor did we conceive how it was practicable; but the guide seating himself at

which the earth is surrounded; s is the sun at some the brink of it, on a rock which presented an even face nearly to the bottom of the precipice, slid down it, taking

distance below the horizon, that is, out of the sight the precaution, however, to impede the velocity of the

of an individual placed at B, and consequently a ray of descent, by catching hold of the tufts of long grass which light proceeding in the direction S a E could never grew from the crevices at each side. This example was reach the earth at B, if it was not for some counterfollowed without hesitation; and having accelerated our

acting cause : this cause we find in the refractive power descent down the steepest part of the mountain, by sliding

of the atmosphere. (We have explained the phenoover other rocks of a similar description, we soon reached the bottom.

mena of refraction in the Saturday Magazine, Vol. XI.,

p. 77.-Amusements of Optics.) The ray of light in Having reached the valley of Comme Duff, the visiter makes his way, over a rugged and stony path,

its passage towards a meets with the atmosphere of the

earth soinewhere about A, and is bent from its direct for the distance of about four miles; when he has reached the banks of the Upper Lake, it is customary

course towards B, so that those who live at B on the to have a boat in waiting, by previous arrangement,

earth's surface enjoy the effects of the sun's rays for

a considerable time after that luminary would be to convey him homeward. It will be late before he

otherwise out of sight. arrives at the town of Killarney; sixteen or seventeen

Twilight varies in duration at different times of the hours are scarcely sufficient for the whole day's excursion, so that if he have started as early as five in the

year, and in various parts of the globe. Between the

tropics it is scarcely known, the brilliant nights of morning, he will not return much before midnight. Besides Glena and Tomish there is another moun.

these climates rendering it unnecessary; so that the tain adjoining the Reeks, which is deserving of notice.

passage from day to night, and from night to day, is

almost without an interval. Sir Walter Scott alludes It is connected with that of Glena, and with it forms one side of the Gap of Dunloh, the Reeks forming

to this in his poem of Rokeby, when he puts these

words in the mouth of the pirate Bertram Risingham. the other. This mountain is called the Purple Mountain, from the large loose fragments of stone about

And now, my race of terror run,

Mine be the eve of tropic sun: its summit, the débris of the rugged cliffs of a dark

No pale gradations quench his ray, purplish clay-slate, which give to the mountains that

No twilight dews his wrath allay. hue when viewed from a distance below. From Mr.

With disk like battle target red, Barrow's account it seems to be deserving of a visit.

He rushes to his burning bed ;

Dyes the wide waves with ruddy light, I made the ascent (he says) in about an hour. The day

Then sinks at once,-and all is night.


THE USEFUL ARTS. No. XXXIV". of the entablature immediately over the capitals of the

columns be looked at attentively, a stone will be perceived

between the columns apparently unsupported, for neither When the stone is sawed to the proper size, the surfaces end rests on the column, and the joints of those ends are which will be exposed to view, are to be made smooth and upright, not presenting any character of a voussoir-stone or even. The tools used by the mason for this purpose con arch. The contrivance by which such an architrave stone sist of iron chisels, of different widths, and, principally, is supported deserves to be described. of a sharp-pointed one, called a pointer ; these chisels are

The stone in question has a projecting part, wrought at struck with a mallet made of a conical-formed lump of hard each end, of the form shown in the annexed figure; this wood, fixed on a short handle.

projection is received into a corresponding cavity, cut in the The pointer is used for chipping off the principal rough-end of the stone supported by the column, and the joint is nesses on the face and edges, and for working the whole face thus really an arched or wedge-shaped one, though the over to bring it level, the workman trying his work by bevel line is concealed, and the two stones, when put applying a straight-edge occasionally to it. When the together, present only a vertical joint. front and edges are made true, the face is sometimes tooled over, so as to leave regular

furrows in it, according to certain forms, by which the different kinds of work are distinguished. But this practice is going out of use, now that soft free-stone is so much employed in building. In old edifices, such as St. Paul's, Whitehall, &c., &c., the stone will be found to be wrought on its face in the manner alluded to.

Stones in buildings are not only fixed with mortar, as The mason, in common with the bricklayer, uses squares, bricks are, but are further secured in their places by being levels, plumb-lines, and straight-edges to set out his work, clamped together with iron clamps. These are short iron and trowels and mortar to set the stones with; but the bars, from seven to twelve inches long, one and a half wide, latter is rather used to make the joints water-tight than to and half an inch thick, according to the size of the stone; keep the stones together, this being effected by their weight the ends of the clamps are turned down a little, to afford or by iron clamping. Formerly the mason required far a better hold. A channel is cut in the two contiguous more accurate and extensive knowledge of geometry than stones deep enough for the clamp to lie in, and the ends of is possessed by persons of the trade at present; this was the channel are sunk deeper, to receive the turned-down when he was called on to construct groined and vaulted ends of the clamp; when this is put into the channel, roofs, enriched with carved work and pendent corbels, where niolten lead is poured in to fill up the interstices, to keep the nicest workmanship was required, to ensure the stability the clamp in its place, and to prevent its rusting by wet of the light and graceful columns and vaulting of a Gothic getting to it.

cathedral. It was this possession of superior skill and From the expense of carrying and working stone, the knowledge that caused the establishment of the Society of walls of buildings at a distance from a quarry are seldom, Free Masons, which dates its rise from the tenth or eleventh now, built of solid stone, but a facing of this material is ap- century. plied only on the external surface of the wall, which is built Marble, from its costliness, and the difficulty of working of brick. This kind of work is called ashler work, and both it, is seldom, if ever, used in solid pieces in buildings; the brick and stone-work must be executed with consider-thin facings of it are set upon stone backings, much as rare able care, to enable a wall composed of two materials to woods are used in veneering by the cabinet-maker. The preserve its perpendicularity; it being obvious, that if the marble is sawn into thin slabs, like other stone, and the brick part yielded to the weight, it must, from its construc face is polished by rubbing on it the surface of another tion, do so more than the stone facing, and, therefore, the piece, fine sand, mixed up with water, being used to cause wall would bend inwards and become crippled.

abrasion. The width of the courses of ashlers must, therefore, be made equal, exactly to a certain number of courses of bricks with the intervening mortar, and the brickwork must be executed with such care, that this number of courses PROCESSES BY WHICH THE EARTH IS may be everywhere of the same width in the whole height

CLOTHED WITH PLANTS. of the wall. In every course of ashler there must be solid stones laid quite, or nearly quite, across the width of the No one can have seen a lake, without observing wall, to form a bond to the stone facing, and all the stones that wherever a river flows into it, the borders consist of the ashler must be fixed with iron cramps to one another of meadows, or of marshy land, or both : while the and to these bond-stones. But however carefully a faced marsh is a preliminary to the meadow, and is finally wall may be executed, it is never so firm or durable as one converted into one. If the whole process be watched, built entirely of either material; indeed, if well executed, it will be found to commence in the shoaling of the of good materials, and of competent thickness in proportion bottom at the entrance of the river, sometimes proto its height, a brick-wall is the most durable, light, and efficient structure that can be erected.

ducing islands, or banks, which, gradually attaining When stone is to be cut into cornices, mouldings, &c., the level of the water, become first marshy tracts, the blocks having been sawed, the ends top and bottom are and are finally elevated so as to form solid plains of worked very true and parallel, or perpendicular to each other, meadow land. The progressive deposition of earth and one edge or arris cut to a perfectly straight line; a thin, and stones by the river is here the fundamental wooden mould of the section of the cornice is then applied

cause : and as far as this acts on that land which to each end, and the profile of the mouldings marked out on the stone. The workman being guided by this figure, cuts

has already surmounted the general level of the away the stone down to the general surface of the mould-water, the increase is the result of inundations exings, and then proceeds to get the flat fillets of the mould- tending themselves over it. The consequent effects ings perfectly staight and true by the rule; these again are the narrowing, the shortening, or the dividing of guide him in working the curved mouldings, such as ovolos

, lakes, and ultimately their obliteration, so that cavettos, cyma reetas, and ogees; when these are cut nearly nothing at length remains but a river traversing a are finished off by being rubbed down smooth by thin long plain; while the practical and obviously designed straight-edges of stone.

result is, in all cases, an acquisition of new and Foliage and carved work is executed by a better kind of valuable lands. The object here is to point out that workman, possessing some of the taste of an artist, and portion of the total plan which is effected by the he works on the same general principles as a sculptor when intervention of the living and vegetable creation, executing a statue; it would be foreign to the object of these through the inclinations, or instincts, of plants papers, therefore, to dwell on this branch of the mason's art.

It often, or even most commonly occurs, that the distance appointed for the completion of this great design of between two columns of a portico, is of greater length than clothing the earth. a stone can be obtained, and if the architrave, or that part It is a striking proof of design, that two processes, * Continued from Vol. IX., p. 40.

entirely distinct in their natures, are brought to bear

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