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NOTES ON FOREST TREES. No. XXII.
winters, in the open air, further north than the south of England; and, as we have already observed, its appearance will never bear a comparison with its kindred in the American forests.
The beautiful genus contains many ornamental trees and shrubs which have been partially naturalized in the gardens of the milder parts of Europe, where they produce a pleasing effect by the elegance of their form, the shape and magnitude of their leaves, the sweet scent of their large and splendid flowers, and the brilliant colours with which some of them are decorated; the wood itself is partially aromatic. The leaves, in some species, remain on during the whole year; in others they are shed at the beginning of the winter. The name of Magnolia was given to these trees by Linnæus, in honour of a celebrated French botanist, named Peter Magnol, who flourished in the seventeenth century.
The Magnolia can be propagated by seeds, placed in a hot-bed under a frame; but as the seeds seldom reach maturity in our climate, the most usual method of producing new plants is by means of layers, which are prepared by covering the lower branches with earth. These trees succeed best in clayey ground, mixed with a little black mould.
TAE ADVANTAGES OF A BOOK.
Of all the amusements which can possibly be imagined for (Magnolia grandiflora.)
a hard-working man, after his daily toil, or in its intervals, The different species of Magnolia form the most there is nothing like reading an entertaining book, supbeautiful objects in the scenery of a North American posing him to have a taste for it, and supposing him to have forest: in their native country they well deserve the the book to read. It calls for no bodily exertion, of which name of forest-trees, but in Europe they seldom its dulness and sameness, which, in nine cases out of ten,
he has had enough or too much. It relieves his home of attain a sufficient size to entitle them to any other is what drives him out to the alehouse, to his own ruin and appellation than that of shrubs.
his family's. It transports him into a livelier, and gayer, The Magnolia grandiflora, the big laurel, or tulip- and more diversified and interesting scene, and while he tree of the French Canadians,—but this last name is enjoys himself there he may forget the evils of the present more generally applied to another tree, (Lyriodendrum moment, fully as much as if he were ever so drunk, with tulipifera,)—is one of the most distinguished of its his money in his pocket, or at least laid out in real neces
the great advantage of finding himself the next day with tribe. Of all the trees of North America, east of the saries and comforts for himself and his family,—and withMississippi, the big laurel is the most remarkable for out a headache. Nay, it accompanies him to his next day's the majesty of its form, the magnificence of its foliage, work, and if the book he has been reading be anything and the beauty of its flowers. It claims a place above the very idlest and lightest, gives him something to among the largest trees of the United States, and think of besides the mere mechanical drudgery of his everysometimes, though rarely, reaches ninety feet in look forward with pleasure to return to.
day occupation,-something he can enjoy while absent, and height, and two or three feet in diameter, but its or
But supposing him to have been fortunate in the choice dinary stature is from sixty to seventy feet. Its trunk of his book, and to have alighted upon one really good and is commonly straight, and the summit is nearly in of a good class. What a source of domestic enjoyment is the shape of a regular pyramid. Its leaves are like laid open! What a bond of family union ! He may read those of a laurel, but much larger, being from seven
it aloud, or make his wife read it, or his eldest boy or girl, to eight inches in length; they are glossy, evergreen, of it-all contribute to the gratification of the rest, and a
or pass it round from hand to hand. All have the benefit and of a leathery substance. The flowers are white, feeling of common interest and pleasure is excited. Nothing of an agreeable odour, and seven or eight inches in unites people like companionship in intellectual enjoyment. diameter; they are larger than those of any other It does more, it gives them mutual respect, and to each tree with which we are acquainted, and on detached among them self-respect—that corner-stone of all virtue. trees are commonly very numerous. Blooming in It furnishes to each the master-key by which he may avail the midst of rich foliage, they produce so fine an
himself of his privilege as an intellectual being, to
Enter the sacred temple of his breast, effect, that those who have seen the tree in its native
And gaze and wander there a ravished guest soil agree in considering it as one of the most beau
Wander through all the glories of his mind, tiful productions of the vegetable kingdom.
Gaze upon all the treasures he shall find. The fruit is a fleshy, oval cone, about four inches for the ultimate sources of his happiness, warns him at the
And while thus leading him to look within his own bosom in length; it is composed of a great number of cells,
same time to be cautious how he defiles and desecrates which, at the age of maturity, open longitudinally, that inward and most glorious of temples.—SIR JOHN showing two or three seeds of a vivid red colour. HERSCHEL. The seeds soon after quit the cells, and for some days remain suspended from the cone, each attached The books of nature and of revelation equally elevate our to the bottom of its cell by a white filament.
conceptions and invite our piety: they mutually illustrate The wood of the Magnolia is white and soft, but they are both written by the finger of one, eternal, incom
each other: they have an equal claim on our regard, for much inclined to warp, especially if exposed to the prehensible God. -WATSON. weather ; on this account it is only used in the interior of buildings. The beauty of this tree has caused its
LONDON: introduction into the shrubberies and parks of Europe,
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. but it is rarely able to endure the severity of our
PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, I'RICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY Pants
ON WIGS AND HEAD-DRESSES. lands or chaplets of Aowers; it was also bound with
fillets and ribands of various colours. The ribapds
appropriated to the head-dresses of virgine differed The custom of wearing false hair is of much more from those of the married women. ancient date than is usually imagined ; several of the With the decline of the Roman empire the practice nations of antiquity, when their riches and luxury of employing artificial hair fell into disuse, and we were at the highest, were in the habit of adorning hear no more on the subject until about the year their persons by the addition of artificial tresses. It 1600; at which time it became the fashion in France is likely that the ancient Babylonians employed the to supply the deficiencies of a natural head of hair assistance of art in the arrangement of their hair, by artificial tresses, which were on to thin and perhaps wigs were not unknown to the fashion sheep-skin, pared down to the pelt; then thin silk ables of thiat day. That the art of wig-making had was used for the same purpose ; and at last a commade considerable progress among the ancient Egyp- plete peruke was formed. The word wig is evidently tians we are led to infer from the accounts of to be derived from the French name pérruque, which ancient historians, and the remains of Egyptian art in some old dictionaries is spelt perwicke, thence which have been from time to time discovered ; but periwig and wig. The peruke was, in the first inthe matter is now beyond all doubt, a perfect wig, stance, intended to supply a natural deficiency of which once belonged to an Egyptian lady, perhaps hair; but, in the end, this article of dress became so three thousand years ago, having been found in a necessary to all who aspired to the name of fashiontomb in the small temple of Isis at Thebes, in Egypt. able, that the most beautiful head of hair was freThis curious relic of antiquity, of which we give an en- quently sacrificed for the purpose of covering the graving (No. 1,) is now to be seen among the remains head with a peruke. of Egyptian art in the British Museum; its work The court of Louis the Fourteenth of France was manship is excellent, and would not disgrace a modern looked up to, as the “glass of fashion," by the rest pérruquier. The crown of the wig, as low as the cars, of Europe, and this affair of perukes was considered is entirely covered with small curls, while those por- of so much moment, that the king licensed fortytions which fall down over the shoulders are formed eight barbiers-pérruquiers to make this important of a great number of small plaits of pair, each article for the court, and, at the same time, two hun. resembling the thong of a child's whip; the eplour dred others to serve the commonalty, The business is nearly black, but it has a tinge of brown, which, increased to such an extent, that the Minister of perhaps, may be attributed to age.
Finance became alarmed at the quantity of money Long hair appears to have been highly prized in which left the kingdom to purchase hair in foreign the times we are alluding to, by the Jews in parti-countries, and it was gravely deliberated, whether cular; but the habit of shaving the head, and sup- wigs should not be abolished by law, and caps estaplying its place by artificial means, was one of the blished in their place; but the pérruquiers having Egyptian customs, which they did not adopt during proved, by statistical details, that the export of matheir bondage, on the contrary, they held it in utter nufactured perukes produced a greater profit to the contempt.
nation than the purchase of hair did loss, the wigs The Greeks and Romans, the latter people in par- gained the day, and the manufacture increased so ticular, resorted to the use of artifịcial hair, although rapidly, that the number of licenses were increased they did not exactly wear wigs. No. 2 represents to eight hundred and fifty, and the members were the head-gear of a Roman lady; the men in general known under the title of barbiers-pérruquiers-baigneurswore their hair short. The Roman ladies, says Strutt, etuvistes. They received letters patent, and their not only anointed their hair, and used rich perfumes, officers were hereditary; these consisted of a proyost, but sometimes they painted it; they also made it wardens, and syndics. To this body of men, so appear of a bright yellow colour, by the assistance of essential to the members of fashionable life, the washes and compositions made for the purpose, but king gave the sole right of dealing in hair, either by they never used powder, which is a much later inven- wholesale or retail, of making and selling powder tion. They frizzled and curled the hair with hot and pomatum, preparations to remove the hair, drops irons, and sometimes they raised it to a great height for the cure of the toothache, in fact, every applicaby rows of curls, one above the other, into the form tion which was intended for the benefit of the head of a helmet; and such as had not sufficient hair of and face. The only parties who interfered with their their own, used false hair to complete the lofty pile, exclusive privileges were the surgeons; to these men and these curls appear to have been fastened with the newly-constituted company could not deny the hair-pins.
use of the razor in shaving, for it was a surgical inPersons of rank had slaves to perform for them strument, but to prevent their intermeddling with the the offices of the toilet; they held the mirror (spe-art of hair-cutting, it was decided that the insignia culum,) in their hands themselves, to give directions of their callings should be different. The surgeon and Martial tells us, that if the slave unfortunately was to hang up for his sign a copper basin, and could misplaced a hair-pin, or omitted to twist the curls only paint the front of his house either red or black; exactly as they were ordered, the mirror was thrown on the other hand, the perruquier was to exhibit a at the offender's head, or, according to Juvenal, the basin of white metal, and could paint the front of whip was applied with much severity. It appears, his shop of any colour he chose, except red or black. indeed, that a number of women attended on these The use of powder was not at first allowed, as the occasions, for no other purpose than to direct the monarch had an antipathy to it, but at length he operation. The married women used a kind of bod yieided to the wishes of his courtiers, and permitted kin, which they managed very dexterously, to adjust a trifling quantity to be sprinkled even over his own and divide their hair into two portions, one turning perukes. to the right and the other to the left, and by this The expense of perukes in these days was so enorline of separation the married ladies were distin mous, that some of the fraternity commenced dealing guished from those who were unmarried. The hair in second-hand articles, which they manufactured to was adorned with ornaments of gold, with pearls, look like new, and were able to sell at a reduced and with precious stones, and sometimes with gar- price. “It is true they were not very durable, but as
they resembled new articles, they were of great
THE THERMOMETER-STOVE. service to individuals whose fortunes were small."
A BOOK has lately been published by Dr. Arnott, But to prevent abuse in selling second-hand wigs for
On Warming and Ventilating, the principal design of new, the dealers were prohibited from establishing which is to communicate to the public instructions themselves in any other part of Paris except the
for making and using what is called by the inventor Quai de l'Horloge du Palais.
A Thermometer-stove. This stove possesses many Nos. 3 and 5 are from portraits of the queen of valuable properties, and will, unquestionably, be the Henry the Fourth of France, and No. 4 from a
means of effecting some extraordinary changes in head of the queen of Charles the First of England. the domestic habits of the people of this country. During this period, and until the beginning of the As it stands associated with one of the most ordinary, eighteenth century, the men wore amazingly long but at the same time important, operations on which heads of hair, spreading over the head and shoulders; individual and social health and comfort depend, we but at this time hair-powder was used. Towards the present to our readers the following particulars. close of the century, perukes of the strangest form Dr. Arnott is well known as an eminent physician, came into fashion. To illustrate the subject we a popular writer, and a practical philanthropist. He have selected six examples from French engravings, has already gained the thanks of the medical profesnamely:
sion by permitting the unrestricted use of his waterNo. 6, la pérruque à deux queues, is evidently in bed, an
bed, and in the present instance is equally entitled to tended for a man of fashion; No. 7, la pérruque the respect and gratitude of all classes. The Thernaissante, half wig and half natural in its appearance, mometer-stove is equally adapted for the cottage and we may suppose worn by a young man; No. 8, la
the mansion, and with a liberality which does him pérruque à la brigadière, was only worn by military honour, its inventor has given to the public the full men ;
No. 9, la pérruque de l'abbé, was worn by the benefit of his labours. lay clergy of France, who mixed more with society Before we describe Dr. Arnott's stove, let us offer than the priests themselves; No. 10, la pérruque à a few brief observations on the two modes of heating, bonnet, intended more for comfort than show; No. 11,
which, for domestic purposes, are those generally la pérruque à næuds, would become an elderly gentle
adopted in our own country. And first of all, we man, but is more assuming than the last.
refer to the open fire-place, in which peat, wood, or coal, are used as fuel.
For the sake of more simple illustration, we limit
our remarks to an open coal fire; the kindling of COINCIDENCES RESPECTING THE HARMONY OF
which is a somewhat tedious and wasteful process.
But let us suppose the fire to be perfectly alight and some perchance,
burning briskly. It surely cannot escape observation Rude singly, yet with sweeter notes combined
that a valuable portion of the fuel is passing away In unison harmonious. — GISBORNE.
unconsumed, namely, that which ascends the chimney But cawing rooks, and kites that swim sublime
in the form of smoke. At certain intervals, the fire In still repeated circles, screaming loud,
of which we speak requires poking, trimming, and The jay, the pie, and e'en the boding owl
refreshing, by additional supplies of fuel. If it hapThat hails the rising moon, have charms for me.
pen that we have a good fire, when fresh fuel is laid Sounds in harmonious in themselves and harsh, Yet heard in scenes where peace for ever reigns,
on, the waste will bear some proportion to the quanAnd only then, please highly for their sakes. ---Cowpen. tity of ignited fuel already in the grate as compared
with the fresh supply. Sometimes the latter will be The jay, the rook, the daw,
speedily vaporized, as when we have a blazing fire ; And each harsh pipe, discordant heard alone, Aid the full chorus.--Thomson.
at other times waste will occur by coal falling through The screams of the jay and the woodpecker, however the grate before it is properly ignited; whilst it not discordant in themselves, or when out of place, accord unfrequently happens, that by fuel injudiciously apadmirably with the forest. —White of Selborne.
plied, either as respects the mode or the quantity, Sounds do not always give us pleasure according to their
a good fire is suddenly converted into a dull one, sweetness and melody; nor do harsh sounds always dis- which, unless carefully tended, will soon be extinplease. We are more apt to be captivated or disgusted guished. with the associations which they promote, than with the On a moderate calculation, it is estimated that, notes themselves. Thus the shrilling of the field-cricket, from the causes just mentioned, one-fifth part of all though sharp and stridulous, yet marvellously delights some
the coal used for domestic purposes is lost to the hearers, filling their minds with a train of Summer ideas of
consumer. And this is unavoidable even with careful everything that is rural, verdurous, and joyous.— The same.
management. Where cinders and small coal are thrown on the ash-heap, the proportion is, of course,
much greater. THE FOOT OF A HORSE is one of the most ingenious and
But the waste of fuel is a trifling consideration in unexpected pieces of mechanism in the animal structure, and scarcely yielding to any in regularity, and in com comparison with that of heat. The abundant supply plexity of parts, under simplicity of design. The hoof of coal with which in this country we are favoured, contains a series of vertical and thin laminæ of born, so
and its consequent cheapness, is one of the principal numerous as to amount to about five hundred, and fornuing
causes of the long-continued use of an open fire. a complete lining to it. Into this are fitted as many laminą Far be it from us to undervalue the comforts of an belonging to the coffin bone; while both scts are elastic and adherent. The edge of a quire of paper, inserted, leaf by English fire-side, or to appear insensible to the many leaf, into another, will convey a suilicient idea of this ar- delightful associations connected with it. The existrangement. Thus the weight of the animal is supported ence of these we admit, as we do also their influence by as many elastic springs as there are laminæ in all the upon the national character. But dismissing our feet, amounting to about four thousand; distributed in the prejudices on this subject, we believe it will be found most secure manner, since every spring is acted on in an
that the advantages of an open fire are not so great oblique direction. Such is the contrivance for the safety
as we imagine, and that even its comforts are pretty of an animal destined to carry greater weighis than that
Hence we of its own body, and to carry ihose also under the hazard equally balanced by its inconveniences. of heavy shocks. — MACCUlioch.
cannot but venture the opinion, that, by and by, we
(or at any rate our successors) shall become equally in contact with it being thereby impaired, whilst an attached to more rational and more economical modes odour peculiarly disagreeable is diffused throughout of warming as we are now to those in common use. the apartment in which it is placed. There is dan
We have said that the waste of heat by an open ger attending the use of this stove, unless the pipes fire greatly exceeds that of fuel. In an ordinary by which it communicates with a chimney or the fire-place, whatever be its form, the quantity of air external air are fixed at a proper distance from wood which passes by, or over, the fire is much greater and other inflammable materials. To the neglect of than that which passes through it. We need hardly this necessary precaution, in conjunction with careremark that the combustion of the fuel depends on lessly over-heating stoves of this kind, we may attri. an uninterrupted supply of air, and the more rapidly bute some of the most extensive fires of recent the air circulates amongst the ignited fuel, the greater occurrence. is the quantity of heat liberated in a given time. The stove invented by Dr. Arnott differs essentially
A condition essential to the operation of an open from the common hot-air stove, and still more from fire is, that it be placed almost immediately under a an open fire-place. But let us describe it; and in fiue communicating with a chimney, which flue must, doing that we shall find that the following sketch will in some respects, correspond with the size of the fire- materially assist us. It represents the stove with place. To insure sufficient draught in the flue to one of its sides removed, so as to exhibit its interior make the fire burn, and to carry off the smoke, a arrangements. current of hot air must be constantly ascending it. Any defect in this part of the process occasions what is very justly considered a nuisance, namely, a smoky apartment. To the situation of the fire, and the quantity of air permitted to pass over it, may be attributed the loss of heat of which we complain. Under the circumstances just described, the heat which enters the room is only what is radiated from the front of the fire. By its means the air immediately surrounding the fire has its temperature raised, but the moment the door of the apartment is opened, the air thus warmed is propelled into the chimney, and several minutes must elapse before the air which gained admittance will be warmed to the same temperature as that which was so suddenly driven out.
dol Hence it is, that however comfortably an apartment
Da may be fitted up, if it be warmed by an open fire, the temperature of the air within it is partial and The outlines of the figure, a a a a, represent the unequal. We naturally turn towards the fire for case or body of the stove, which might be formed warmth; but who can deny that the nearer they either of cast or sheet iron. It is divided into two approach the fire the more difficult is it to keep warm chambers by the partition, bb; but in such a way that that part of the body which is turned away from it? there may be a free communication at the top and
In the best constructed houses, the crevices in bottom. c is a small furnace, or, as it is called by floors and around doors and windows permit the the inventor, a fire-box, made of iron, and lined entrance of more air than, under ordinary circum- with fire-bricks. The fire-box is not in contact with stances, is sufficient for all the purposes of warming the exterior case of the stove. It communicates at and ventilating. The quantity of air required for the bottom with an ash-pit, the door of which is at d, the combustion of fuel, when that fuel is economically —that of the stove, by which the fuel is introduced, employed, is almost inconceivably small. But in an is at d'. Both these doors must fit very accurately. open fire-place, in proportion that the fire is enlarged, Above the door of the ash-pit is a bent pipe e, by so much the more rapid will be the motion of the which air gains admittance to the fire. hot air in the chimney; a process which necessarily A fire being kindled and the doors at d d' shut, implies the access of an equal quantity of cold air to the only way in which air has access to the fuel is by the room. Thus we may often notice when there is the pipe e; the air so admitted, passing through a large fire in a room, the air will make a whistling the fire before it enters the upper part of the stove. sound in passing through a key-hole ; but the sound That portion of the air not required to aid the comceases when the intensity of the fire has abated. It bustion of the fuel having reached the main body of can be satisfactorily proved, that by an open fire, at the stove, and there mixing with the smoke and other least three-fourths, and in many cases, seven-eighths, products, they circulate slowly in the directions indi. of the heat produced from a given quantity of fuel cated by the arrows, and at length pass into the are absolutely wasted by being permitted to ascend chimney by the pipe f. the chimney.
The slow movement just mentioned as taking place Another mode of heating, and which is adopted within the stove may well be contrasted with what very generally in entrance-halls, shops, offices, and happens in an open fire-place. In one case the public buildings, is by means of the hot-air stove, greater part of the heat produced is rapidly carried which consists of an enclosed fire-place surrounded off by a current of air ascending the chimney-by at the back and sides by an iron case, between which the Thermometer-stove it is detained until almost the and the fire-place air is permitted to circulate, and whole of it has been diffused throughout the apartconsequently becomes heated.
By this stove less ment. heat is wasted than in an ordinary fire-place, but The bent tube g terminating in a cup-shaped openthere are several objections to its use, of which we | ing at g', is a self-regulating valve. The tube is mention the following.
closed at the end g within the stove. ý g' represents The hot-air stove requires a good deal of attention : mercury which occupies the bend of the tube. When almost as much as an open fire. It is liable to be the fire in the stove burns too briskly, the air in the beated red-hot; the salubrity of the air which comes tube occupying the space between g and g" is ex