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Patriot, the truest, and the greatest Reflection, Art of, 15

Soland Goose, 163

Turner, Sharon, selections from, 7, 99
Hero,

Religion, a guide and protector. 103 Sophistry dangerous to Virtue, 174 Turnips, cultivation of, 206
Pearl-tishery of Ceylon, 178

and Government, opinion of Souffleur, description of, 77
Perrly Nautilus, description of, 149

Addison on, 71

Southey, selections from, 6, 11, 20, 38, Ulm, Wirtemberg, the Townhouse and
Peel, the late Sir Robert, Bart., Bio- Reuben and Rachel, 107

104, 115, 118, 139, 173, 206

City of, 90
graphical notice of, 108

Reverence towards the Creator, 6 Squire's Pew, lines on the, by Miss Uncle Toby, his humanity, 11
Persian Doctor and Electrical Ma. Rice, 245

Taylor, 176

Universe. insignificance of Man in
chine, 31

Rich Man and his Goods, a sable, 94 Starch, nature of, and mode of manu- the, 93
Philosoj hy, true and false, compared, Riddles, lindoo, remarks on, 156

facture, 233

Useful Arts, importance of, 201
148
Rocking stone in the tale of Tall, 23 Stennis, Druidical Stones of, 254, 236

11., gathering and

pre-
Physalia pelagica, or Portuguese Man- Rogers's Italy, lines from, 133

Stone, Feat of breaking ou a man's sertation of Crops, 128
01. War, 181
Roger, Dr., on the beauty of Vegetable
chest, 5

W., Breadl, Starth, Bar.
Picture Writing of the Mexicans, 47

forms, 173
Stornaway, account of, 87

ley, Malting, &c., 237
Pilgrims. Uindoo, 18
on Animal and Vegetable Life,

Funerals at, 164

IV., Brewing, Iudiad
Pity and Hatred, difference between, 189

harbour of, 252, 254

Corn, Rice, 243
183

Progressive Motion in Man, 243 Storr Head, 81
Places of Puł Ic Worship, their effects, Rouen, the Palais ile Justice at, 26 Strath Aird, celebrated Spar Cave of, 35
67
Royal Palace at Eltham, Kent, lá Streets, &c., origin of Names of, 239

Vaporization, 60
Plants, Mode of Preserving, 80 Rural Chroniclu for April, 141

Strength, Feats of, 4

Vegetable Forms, remarks on their
Plongh, the, form and varieties of, 205

Stromuess, 253

beanty, by Dr. Roget, 173
Poisonous Fungi, 236-7
Sago, how manufacmred, 62
Success, remark on its uncertainty, 174

Vegetable Lite, 189
Poor Richard, Sayings of, 14
Sailor's Evening Song, 183
Suffolk, Churches in, 67

Vegetable Productions of Ceylon, 153
Popular Superssitions, No. III. А Saragossa, Cathedrals and Bridge of, Sunderland, Coal Trade of, 3

Village Pastor, the, 80
Night Alarm, 197

111
Sunshine and Shade, their effect on

Vinegar, Aromatic, how prepared, 207,
Portuguese Man-of-War, or Physalia,

Leaning Tower of, 2
Colours, 13

Virtue, attainable by all, 183
181
Scene after a Summer Shower, 340 Superstition of the Pearl-divers in

practical, its adrantages, 104
Prayer, remark on its efficacy, by Schwartz, Lines on, 54

Ceylon, 178

productive of happiness, 148
Quarles, 149
Science, pursuit of, its advantages, 20 Superstitions of the Highlands and

the profession of, 137
Printing-press, establishment of a, in Scotland, Sketches of the Highlands Islands, 83

Volcano, remarkable, in Owhyhee, 55
the Society Islands, 69
and Islands of, 82, 162, 250

Popular, No. III. A

Voyage on the Mississippi, 27
Priory.church of St. Botolph, at Col. Scriptures, remark of Queen Eliza- Night Alarm, 137
chester, 199

beth on, 204

Swallows, remarkable instinct of, in Walion, Izaak, remark by, 67
Progressive Motion in Mau, 343 Scripture texts, benefit to be derived building their nests, 207

Water-clocks, or Clepsydræ, mories of
Proverbs, No. V, 76
from their recollection, 230

constructing, 188
Providence, remark on by a Persian Sea, the, remarks on, 227

Tanjore, Lines by the Rajah of, 54 Water-filter, simple, 62
poet, 222
Sensitive Plant, the large-flowering, Taylor, selections from, 7, 54

Wealth and Civilization, remarks on
Prndence, value of, 115

140

Taylor, Jeremy, selections from, 40, 150 their rapid advance, 231
Pulque Plant, 128
Shark-Charmers, Ceylonese, 178 Taylor, Miss, lines by, 176

Wealth, Progress of Society in, consi-
Sharp, Archbishop, and the Highway. Temperance in all things, vecessity dered, 102
Quartern Loal, how made out of a

man, 150

of, 118

Wheal Friendship Copper-mine, the
Deal Board, 6
Sheep, effect of Music on, 173
Terms, on misuse of, 52

Inclined Plane at, 231
Queen Elizabeth, her respect for the

Shiant Isles, basaltic character of, 88, Thonghts on the Beauties of the Crea. Wheat, 228

162
Bible, 201

tion, 179

Whisky, illicit Distillation of, in Scot.
Shirbourn Castle, Oxfordshire, 71 Thrushes, remark on their mode of in. land, 167
Shoes, and their various forms, 130

cubation, 187

Wight, Isle of, No. V., 21
Rainbow, the, by Campbell, 245 Sky, Island of, 82

Time, misery of not improving, 71 Wild Beasts, fight of, 77
Raja Paxa, 160
Smelling.salts, how prepare 1, 182

on the misuse of, 199

Winchester Cathedral, 202
Rajah of Tanjore, lines by the, 54 Snake-charmers, Indian, 194

the swiftness of, 14

Windmill, 229
Ratisbon, City of, 186
Snakes, &c. of Ceylon, 143
Toadstool, 236

Winter, remarks on, 54
Reading, Sir J. Herschel on a taste Soames' Anglo-Stron Church, extracts Tulinen, in Cornwall, account of, 64 Witches and Witchcraft, remarks on,
for, 6

from 220, 230

Trial by Jury, introduction of, into 131
Real Life, a tale of, 175
Sobriety and Industry, pleasures of,

Ceylon, ios

Worla, ill dispositions of the, 183
Reaping, 299

235

Truth; remarks on the love of, 154 Writing, the history of, 78
Reason, remarks on, by Dryden, 231 Social feelings, remark on, 13

opinion of Philip de Mornay
Reason and kindness, the Language Society Islands, establishment of a concerning, 197

Y Maen Chwyf, or Rocking Stone, 23
of; 6

Printing Press in the, 69

INDEX TO THE ENGRAVINGS.

Pearl Fishery o? Ceylon, 177
Physalia pelagica, Physalia, or Porta-

guese Man-of-War, 181
Public Library at Constantinople, 137
Pulque Plant, 128

Raja Paxa, chief of the Ceyloneso

Cinnamon-peelers, 160
Ratisbon, on the Darbe, Scene in the

Porch of its Cathedral, 185
Rocking-stone in the Vale of Taff,

Glamorganshire, 24

at, 65

Accabah, Fortress of, 217

Dunvegan Castle, Isle of Sky, 87 Liège, Bishop's Palace at, 49
African Lion, 8

Druiilical Rentains, near Keswick, in Lion, African, 8
Agriculture, illustrations of operations ('uniberland, 152
in, 205, 206

Madrid, Great Street, and Fountain of
Asaph, St, Cathedral of, 33

Elephants, wild, Method of catching Good Success, at, 209
Auxerre, Cathedral of, 225
in Ceylon, 113

the Royal Palace at, 213
Elephant, Ceylon, 120

i Maize, or Indian Corn, 245
Babylon, Fall of, (from Martin's Elk, Ceylon, 144

Mexican Costumes, 45
print) 97

Eltham, Kent, Remains of the Royal Mexican Water Carrier, 128
Bacon, Lorri, portrait of, 248

Palace at, 16

Mexico, the Great Square and Ca.
Basie, Switzerland, Gate of St. Paul Ennan-dowan Castle, Ross-shire, 83 thedral of, 41
Escurial, general view of the, 216

view of the City of, 121
Benares, scene in the City of, 57

Church of Nuestra Senora de,
Bowing, process of, in Hat Making, 12 French Gypsies, 40

Guadalupe, near, 125
Fungi, three species of, 237

Mimosa grandiflora, or large-flowering
Ceylon Elephant, Portrait of, 120

Sensitive Plant, 140
Ilk, 141

Göttingen, a City of Hanover, 241 Mississippi, River, overflowing its
Natives of, 93

Guildford Castle, Surrey, remains of, Banks, 29
Pearl-fishery, 177
208

American Steamer at a
the Jury Court of, 105
Gypsies, French, Group of, 40

Wooding Station on, 32
Champignon, 236

Mowing aud Reaping, 228
Clepsydra, or Water-clocks, Engray- Hat-maker's Battery, 13

Murano, near Venice, the Convent in
ings to illustrate, 188, 139

Hats in different stages of manufac- the Isle of, 145
Cockle, 291

ture, 13

Mushroom, the, 236
Colchester, Ruins of St Botolph's Heat, illustrations of its effi cts, 60, 61
Priory at, 200

Heights and Distances. vignettes to Natural History, objects of, illustra-
Cologne, View in, 169

illustrate the measurement of, 104 tions of the method of preserv-
Columbo, Ceylon, view of, 101

Ilerefordshire Peacon, View of, 53
Columns, Grecian and Roman, 95 Hindoo Pilgrims, 17

ing, 172

Nautilus pompilius, or Pearly Nauti.
- Ilindoo and Egyptian, 96 Hopkins, Matthew, the Witch-finder, 133

Saragossa, Bridge across the Ebro ats

112
Saragossa, Leaping Tower at, I
Sensitive Plant, 140
Shiant Isles, Scotland, 161
Shirbour Castle, Oxfordshire, 72
Shves, various forms of, 129
Suake-Charmers, Iudian, 193
Solanıl Goose, 163
Sonfleur, Mauritius, view of, 77
Stone, feat of breaking on a man's

chest, 5
Stones of Stennis, 256
Stornaway, in the Isle of Lewis, 163
Storr Heal, Isle of Sky, View of, 8L
Strength, feat of, 4
Stromness, View of, 253

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lus, and its beak and shell, 149
Constantinople, Library at, 137
Hop-picking, in Kent, 214

Niagara Falls of, as seen from the
Cordova, in Spain, 233

Table Rock, 9
Cormorants, 168
Jury Court of Ceylon, 105

Norris Cas:le, Isle of Wight, View
Costines, ancient Mexican, 45
Cowviray House, Midhurst, Sussex, Kirkwall Abbey, Orkney, 219

of, 21
Ruins of, 136

Knaresborongh, Yorkshire, the Drop. Owhyhce, View of the Volcanic Region
Crichton, the Admirable, portrait of, 196 ping Well at, 184
Durid's, St., Cathedral of, Pembroke- Lac Insect, in its different states, 117

Oxford Cathedral, 153
shire, 73
Launceston Castle, Ruins of, 224

Oyster, section of, 220
Ruins of the Episcopal

Remains of a gate-
Palice at, SO

way of, 224

Paintings, Mexican, Specimens of, 48
Diagrams to illustrate the motion of Leaning Tower at Saragossa, I

Palace of Justice at Rouen, in Nor-
the Larth, 37
Lemming, 69

mandy, 25

Toadstool, 236
Tolinen, Coruwall, 61

Ulm, Wirtemburg, Town-house of, 89

at, 56

Valves of the Unio Batava, 220
Volcanic Region of Owhyhee, 56

Wheal Friendship Copper-mine, ine

clined Plane at, 232
Winchester Citthedral, 201
Windmill, interior of, 229

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COMMITS

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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THE LEANING TOWER OF SARAGOSSA.

began to bombard the city. Shells and grenades The curious building represented in the engraving were showered down in fearful profusion, and there contained in the preceding page, is an object of con- was not one building which was bomb-proof within the siderable interest in the Spanish town of Saragossa. walls. The inhabitants, however, worked well and It bears the name of Torre Nuevo, or New Tower, - bravely against their powerful assailants. “ They which is rather inapplicable now, considering that it tore down the awnings from their windows, and has been erected since the year 1594; its present formed them into sacks, which they filled with sand, use is that of a belfry. We need hardly tell our and piled up before the gates, in the form of a readers that it does not stand upright; they will see battery, digging round it a deep trench. They broke it in the view, leaning rather fearfully towards the holes for musketry in the walls and intermediate church, which stands on the opposite side of the buildings, and stationed cannon where the position street. It looks, indeed, like its famous rival of was favourable for it. Women of all ranks assisted; Pisa *, as though every moment it were going to fall; they formed themselves into companies,—some to but it has looked the same for nearly the last two relieve the wounded, some to carry water, wine and hundred and fifty years, and has not fallen yet. It is provisions, to those who defended the gates. The rather lofty, the ascent to its top being by 280 steps; Countess Burita instituted a corps for this service; and from the upper balcony a noble prospect is she was young, delicate, and beautiful. In the midst gained. The style of its architecture is pretty and of the most tremendous fire of shot and shells she ornamental; and the material employed in its con- was seen coolly attending to those occupations which struction is brick.

were now become her daty ; nor throughout the " At first sight of this curious edifice,” says Mr. whole of a two months' siege, did the imminent Locker, from whom we have borrowed our view danger to which she incessantly exposed herself, proof it,

“ the question, “How it came so ?' instantly duce the slightest apparent effect upon her, or in the occurred to us; but we found it not so easy to obtain slightest degree bend her from her heroic purpose.” a solution, for the critics of Saragossa seem as much Nor was she the only heroine. On one occadivided in opinion as those of Pisa; and though sion, it happened that all the men who defended a their tower is not so old by four centuries, the cause battery against which the French directed a tremenof its declination is involved in equal perplexity. It dous fire, had been killed; Augustina Saragossa, a is not improbable that the foundation may have sunk young woman of the lower ranks, happened to arrive during its erection, and that the architect may have with refreshments, at the moment when the citizens carried up the remainder of his work as a triumph were hesitating to re-man the guns. She sprang of his art, counterbalancing the inferior side, in order | forward, “over the dead and dying, snatched a match to prevent the fabric from oversetting, in the same from the hand of a dead artilleryman, and fired off a manner as the antiquaries profess to have discovered six-and-twenty pounder ; then jumping upon the gun, in the construction of the Pisan tower."

made a solemn vow never to quit it alive during the The city of Saragossa possesses many attractions siege.” She lived, however, throughout the rest of that in an architectural point of view, and before the siege and the whole of the second, after the terminaterrible sieges which it had to sustain against the tion of which, she fell, with other prisoners, into the French, did boast many more. The first siege of this hands of the French. Colonel Napier is disposed city is one of the most wonderful known; indeed, to view these efforts of female heroism rather more to use the words of Mr. Southey, “there is not, in coldly than the writer from whom we take the the annals of ancient or of modern times, a single above extract--Mr. Southey. “The current romantic event recorded, more worthy to be held in admiration tales,” he says, “of women rallying the troops, and now and for evermore.” Saragossa was one of the leading them forward at the most dangerous periods few cities which succeeded in holding out against of this siege, I have not touched upon, and may, Buonaparte, when he first attempted to make himself perhaps, be allowed to doubt, although it is not master of the kingdom of Spain, and the conduct of unlikely, that when suddenly environed with horrors, its inhabitants, in the midst of the calamities to the delicate sensitiveness of women driving them to a which they were exposed, affords truly a noble kind of phrensy, might produce actions above the example of constancy and valour.

heroism of men; and in patient suffering, their It was on the 14th of July, 1808, shortly before superior fortitude is manifest; wherefore, I neither the first British army, under the Duke of Welling- wholly believe, nor will deny, their exploits at Saraton, sailed for Portugal, that a French force, undergossa ; merely remarking, that for a long time afterLefebvre Desnouettes, first advanced to take pos- wards, Spain swarmed with heroines, clothed in half session, as was thought, of Saragossa. The city was uniforms, and loaded with weapons.” unfortified, being only surrounded by a brick wall, At length, on the third of August, the French from ten to twelvë feçt higli; nor did its situation opened their breaching-batteries; the slight walls afford any advantages for defence. It is curious that were quickly knocked down, and the besicgers rushed a writer, who lived more than a century back, speaking forward to the attack. They entered the street of of its want of fortifications, adds, “but this defect is St. Engracia, so calle: after a famous convent of repaired by the bravery of the inhabitants.” After that name, and passing down to its extremity, set the proofs which the inhabitants have given of their fire to the General Hospital. A hideous and revolting courage, this praise, as Mr. Southey observes, ap- spectacle ensued; the sick and wounded threw thempears like prophecy. On this occasion they were selves from the windows to escape the flames, and the under the orders of Palafox, and that general took madmen, who were confined within the building, such measures as he deemed best suited to the “issued forth," says Colonel Napier, “among the emergency.

combatants, muttering, shouting, singing, and On the morning following their arrival, the French moping, according to the character of their disorder, attempted to storm the city, but, after much loss, while drivelling idiots mixed their unceasing cries were obliged to desist from their attack. A delay with the shouts of contending sol liers.” After of nine days ensued, and the assault was then much fighting, the French succeeded in forcing renewed; but, meeting with a fresh repulse, Lefebvre their way into the street called the Cozo, in the very . See Saturday Magazine, Vol. II., p. 242,

centre of the city; and before evening, they were in

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possession of one half of Saragossa. Lefebvre now

THE COAL TRADE OF NEWCASTLE AND thought it the time to make proposals for a surrender,

SUNDERLAND. and he addressed this brief note to Palafox :

The number of working collieries on the river Tyne in the “IIead Quarters, St. Engracia. Capitulation." year 1829 was forty-one; on the north side twenty-three,

and on the south side eighteen. On the river Wear, six on The reply of the Spaniard was equally laconic:

the north, and twelve on the south side, making eighteen; “Ilead Quarters, Saragossa War to the knife.” the whole number on both rivers being fifty-nine. The contest which ensued was indeed terrific; Mr. The collieries on the Tyne are capable of raising double Southey calls it "unexampled in history," and their present quantity of coals with the same machinery,

but not with the same number of men.

« One describes it with his usual graphic power.

Those on the

Wear are capable of raising one-half more. The reason side of the Cozo,” he says, “a street about as wide why these collieries do not work to their full extent, is, that as Pall Mall, was possessed by the French; and in there is not a sufficient market to take off the quantity of the centre of it, their general, Verdier, gave his orders coal, that could be so raised. from the Franciscan convent. The opposite side was A much greater proportion of superior coals comes from maintained by the Aragonese, who threw up batteries the collieries on the Wear, than from those on the Tyne. at the openings of the cross-streets, within a few lieries on the Wear has increased, and collieries of larger

Within the preceding fifteen years, the number of colpaces of those which the French erected against power have come into action during that time. Several them. *The intervening space was presently heaped new collieries have also been opened on the Tyne, whilst with dead, either slain upon the spot, or thrown out on the Tees there has been a considerable increase in the from the windows. Next day, the ammunition of the export of coals. citizens began to fail ;

the French were expected In some cases, the coal which is obtained from the pit is every moment to renew their efforts for completing system of working the mines, all the coal

, or nearly all, is

about 90 per cent.; and, according to the present improved the conquest, and even this circumstance occasioned got out of the earth; that which remains behind being no dismay, nor did any one think of capitulation. scarcely worth mentioning. One cry was heard from the people, wherever Palafox There are collieries in the North which have cost from rode among them, that, if powder failed, they were ten or twelve thousand to 150,000 pounds, in sinking the ready to attack the enemy with their knives—for- pits, the establishment of machinery, and every thing remidable weapons, in the hands of desperate men.” For-quisite for putting the coal on board the craft, whetlier into

keels or barges, or into ships. This sum includes railways, tunately, however, fresh supplies arrived, and the con

wagons, and machinery. test was then renewed, being continued from street to

Collieries are usually worked by adventurers. On the street, from house to house, and from room to room.

Tyne there are only five proprietors, out of the forty-one colThis state of almost uninterrupted conflict lasted lieries on that river, who work their own mines; on the throughout eleven successive days and nights; neither Wear there are only three; all the rest are in the hands of

. party evincing the slightest disposition to yield. lessees, or adventurers.

The aggregate money-capital employed by the coal-owners The Spaniards fought like men who knew the doom

on the river Tyne, amounts to about a million and a half, which awaited them, in the case of their being van- exclusive of the craft in the river. Some of these persons quished; and the French were maddened with

are owners of the craft, but many hire keels or barges. indignation at such resistance from a town, which all The money.capital employed on the Wear is estimated at the rules of war declared to be untenable. It was from six to seven hundred thousand pounds. almost certain death for either party to appear by | The wages of the colliers, if they could have full employday-light within reach of the houses occupied by the ment, are ample ; but there is not full employment for

them: fourteen shillings a week is their lowest wages; but other; but when darkness came on, the combatants they could earn five shillings per day, if they had work to frequently dashed across the street to attack each enable them so to do. other's batteries.

There are a great number of well-meaning persons who The number of the killed was very great, and their have expressed great anxiety, arising from an apprehension bodies lay where they fell; the atmosphere was

that the time was rapidly approaching when the coal-mines

of Engla would be exhausted, and that future generations tainted, and it was feared that pestilence would ensue.

would be deprived of the solace and comfort of a good coalPalafox adopted the expedient of tying ropes to the fire. In order to allay this natural anxiety, the following French prisoners, and pushing them forward to bring estimate of the extent and produce of the coal-mines of two away the bodies ; for he knew that it would be only counties in England only, and the proportion excavated, is exposing his followers to certain death, were he to given on the authority of Mr. Hugh Taylor, colliery agent send them to perform the task. Throughout the

to the Duke of Northumberland. This estimate does not whole of this dreadful trial, the fortitude of the be- shire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Monmouthshire, Glou

include the coal-fields of Yorkshire, Cumberland, Lancasieged remained unshaken ; their spirit seemed to cestershire, Somersetshire, or Wales. rise with their successes, and at length they left the French only one-eighth instead of one-half of the city. The Durham Coal Field.—- From South Shields south

ward to Castle Eden, 21 miles; thence westward News began to arrive which was very disheartening

to West Auckland, 32 miles; north-east from to the enemy; and on the morning of the 14th the West Auckland to Eltringham, 33 miles; and French columns were discovered in full retreat.

thence to Shields, 22 miles; being an extent or Saragossa was less fortunate on the second occasion area of square mileg

594 of its being besieged by the French, in the month of Northumberland Coal Field. From Shields north November, the same year. After holding out till 27 miles, by an average breadth of 9 miles, being the middle of February in the following year, it was obliged to capitulate.

Total square miles 837

Portion Excavated.-In Durham, on the Tyne, say 39 With the hand we demand, we promise, we call, dismiss, square miles; on the Wear 40 square miles—making 79 threaten, entreat, supplicate, deny, refuse, interrogate, admire , reckon, confess, repent; express fear, express twenty-six square miles; making the

total excavated in those

In Northumberland, say thirteen miles by two, equal to shame, express doubt; we instruct, command, unite, encourage, swear, testify, accuse, condemn, acquit, insult, two counties to be 105 square miles. Thus leaving 732 square despise, defy, disdain, flatter, applaud, bless, abase, ridicule, miles of coal in the counties of Durham and Northumberreconcile, recommend, exalt, regale, gladden, complain, land only, yet to be excavated. afflict, discomfort, discourage, astonish; exclaim, indicate

Estimating the workable coal-strata at an average thick silence, and what not? With a variety and a multiplication be 12,390,000 tons; and of 732 square miles, 9,069,480,000

ness of twelve feet, the solid contents of one square mile will that keep pace with the tonguemMONTAIGNE.

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tons. Deduct one-third for loss by small coal, interceptions

FEATS OF STRENGTH, by dikes, and other interruptions, 3,023,160,000, there remains 6,046,320,000 tons: a quantity adequate to supply Most of the feats performed by jugglers and others, the present vend from Newcastle, Sunderland, Hartley, when properly examined, and stripped of their Blythe, and Stockton, of 3,500,000 tons annually for a false colouring, prove to be either illustrations of period of 1727 years.

some well-known property of matter, the application There is also a considerable extent of coal-field in the of mechanical power in an unusual way, or mere northern and southern districts of Northumberland; but

simple deceptions. the foregoing comprises that which is continuous, and most suitable and available for exportation.

These observations may be illustrated by reference The number of persons employed under ground in the to a curious performance which took place in London works on the Tyne are,-Men. 4937; Boys, 3554; together some years back. The exhibitor, a strong athletic 8491. Above ground-Men, 2745 ; Boys, 718. Making man, allowed a large stone to be laid on his chest, and together 3463; which, added to the number employed broken to pieces by sledge-hammers, without appear

, under ground, will make a total of 11,954. which, in round

ing to suffer either pain or inconvenience. The numbers, may be called 12,000. In the works on the river Wear there are 9,000 men and

performance of this feat would appear to require boys employed; which, with the 12,000 employed in the

Herculean strength and great endurance; but it was works on the Tyne, make the number engaged in digging founded simply on a correct knowledge of the result and raising coal, and delivering it to the ships on the two produced by striking a large body with a smaller one. rivers, to be 21,000. From the best calculations it would

Another very curious feat is related by Dr. appear, that averaging the coasting-vessels that carry coals Brewster. John Charles van Eckenberg, a native to the size of 220 London chaldrons each vessel, there would be 1400 vessels employed, which would require 15,000 under the appellation of Sampson, exhibiting very

of Harzgerode in Anhalt, travelled through Europe seamen and boys to navigate them.

remarkable feats of strength. He was a man of SUMMARY. 1400 Ships of 220 London Chaldrons.

the middle size, and of ordinary strength; and as Navigated by Seamen

... 15,000 Dr. Desaguliers was convinced that his feats were Pitmen, and people employed above ground. . 21,000 exhibitions of skill, and not of strength, he was Keelmen, Coal Boatmen, Casters & Trimmers 2000 desirous of discovering his methods, and with this Making the total number of Persons em

view he went to see him, accompanied by Dr. A. ployed in the Coal Trade on the rivers 38,000 Stuart and others. They placed themselves round Tyne and Wear

the German, so as to be able to observe accurately This enumeration does not include returns from Blythe, all that he did, and their success was so great, that Hartley, or Stockton, or from Scotland, but is strictly con- they were able to perform most of the feats the same fined to the coal-works on the rivers Tyne and Wear.

evening by themselves, and almost 'all the rest when In the year 1827, according to the Custom-House returns, there were 606 collier-ships belonging to the port

of they had provided a proper apparatus. Sunderland, the tonnage of which amounted to 102,454

The performer sat upon an inclined board, placed tons; and the number of ships that cleared out in that year upon a strong, fixed, square frame; round his loins with coals, was 7518. The town of Sunderland is prin- was placed a strong girdle, in the front of which was cipally, if not entirely, supported by the coal-trade; and an iron ring; to this ring a rope was fastened by there are variety of manufactures of different descriptions

means of a hook. The rope passed between his legs dependent upon it. The quantity of coals exported to through a hole in the upright board, against which foreign countries from Sunderland, on' an average of four years, was 34,000 London chaldrons, and those sent coast

the performer's feet were placed, and several men, wise 1,050,000 London chaldrons.

or two horses pulling, were unable to draw him out The collieries on the Tyne and Wear are subject to of his place.

With his hands he grasped the rope, various accidents; more especially those which supply the and seemed to pull against the horses. The duc best coals. The principal catastrophes to which they are subject are explosions, creeps, and drowning by water. One of the difficulties in sinking a shaft is that of passing through quicksands; another is the immense quantities of water which are met with in the cavernous parts of the stratification, generally within forty or fifty fathoms of the surface, which is always dammed back by what is called a "tub," or, more properly speaking, a cast-iron caisson. Mr. Buddle, in his evidence before the House of Lords, on the coal-trade, states that he sunk a skaft which required forty fathoms of cast-iron tubbing. At forty fathoms the strata became perfectly impervious to water. One of the aceidents to which collieries are liable is the breaking of this caisson, performance of this feat depends almost entirely on which has frequently happened, the water then rushing the strength of the pelvis (the hip bones), which down into the mine below and drowning it; thereby occa- forms a double arch, and which it would require an sioning a suspension of the works, and very great expense, immense force to break, if the pressure were directed till the tub could be repaired, and the water drawn off. A directly downwards. The bones of the legs and thighs double-power pumping-engine is then used, and there is then one shaft for the purpose of pumping the water out, also, when standing upright, are sufficiently strong and another for drawing the coal. Pits of 170 fathoms deep to support a weight of four or five thousand pounds, are subject to this drowning:

so that there was no difficulty in resisting the force The quantity of coal worked depends upon the quantity of the two horses, if the legs were kept in a proper required for the market; but the proportion between the position. quantity worked and the quantity sold has been thus cal.

To understand the first deception of breaking the culated : Taking 700,000 as the whole quantity worked, then 500,000 of that quantity is exported to London and

stone with the sledge-hammers, we must consider the elsewhere ; 100,000, is consumed by the collieries, and sold power of resistance possessed by different bodies when from the pits, for land sale and home consumption; and brought into contact with each other. 100,000 is wasted.

The force with which two bodies strike cach The quantity of coals consumed in England and Wales other when brought into contact by some impelling is calculated as follows. In manufactories, 3,500,000 London chaldrons : in household consumption 5,500,000;

power, depends upon two circumstances; namely, making 9,000,000 London chaldrons consumed from inland

the velocities with which they are impelled, and the collieries. The quantity sent coastwise on both sides of the weight of the bodies themselves. Thus, two bodies „sland is 3,000,000 chaldrons, making twelve millious in all, of equal weights, and moving towards each other

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