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DE2 MONACHO. ITER ACTURO.
DE SERVIENTIBUS . De Candeuera: debet uenire unde . xiiij . seruientibus & dimidio dentur per unamquanque ebdomadam . 15 iij . denarios . 7 obolum . Ad natiuitatem uero domini unusquisque debet habere de abbate ueruecem unum 7 per . iiij . 7 . iiij . quartam partem uaccę .
BENEDICTIO. Hée sunt consuetudines huius loci olim concessę & 20 stabilite . Omni benedictione benedicantur à Christo & patrocinio Sáncti Petri apostoli . Sanctique Grimbaldi
1 ROBERTUS ABBAS, erased here, and a few names in subsequent lines, with the following note,'in Astle's handwriting, over the erasures : " Robert de Popham, 23rd Abbot." See the continuation of this list on p. 113, towards the end of the volume.
2 This, and the two following articles, are in a handwriting of the 12th century. Two lines and a half at the top of the page, preceding this article, erased.
3 Perhaps Preston Candover, near Andover, co. Hants. 4 The following collect is preserved in the Saxon MS. Titus D. xxvi, f. 58:
" Defende queso domine intercedentibus sanctis confessoribus tuis Iudoco. atque Grimbaldo ab omni aduersitate congregationem istam , & tibi toto corde prostratam . ab hostium tuere propitius clementer insidiis. per dominum.
And in the companion volume, Titus D. xxvii, f. 93, is a prayer, as follows :
“Ora pro me patrone pretiose monachorum BENEDICTE. Deo dilecte , & tu inclita aecclesie lucerna & sacerdos Christi . IUDOCE . cum clarissimo socio GRIMBALDO . egregio , & cum omnibus sanctis confessoribus liliorum
confessoris & omnium sanctorum quorum reliquiis in honore domini deseruimus . & nostra assidua oratione ante sanctum altare Christi commendentur . & beatificentur omnes qui has nobis custodierint & conseruauerint . Ibique Gaudeant in eternum , ubi beati euo 5 fruuntur SEMPITERNO . AMEN.
[H]ECI EST CONUENTIO INTER NOS & MONACHOS
SANCTI ALBANI. Quotiens aliquis eorum ex hac luce migrauerit : eiusque obitus nobis denuntiatus fuerit : .vii. officia 10
in conuentu pro eo celebrabuntur , & unusquisque sacerdotum tres missas priuatim cantabit. Ceteri
associates, and when departure overtakes any member, and it is announced, then let them ring all the bells and sing xy psalms, and then let each bishop sing three masses for the departed soul. Besides this let him take heed to perform xxx masses, and xxx evensongs, and xxx nocturnes, and in addition LX masses or as many psalters, and set free one man for that soul, and feed one poor man from his table for xxx days, giving him each day also one penny, and upon the xxxth day let him wash as many poor men as he possibly can, all of them foo
m food and drink, and help to clothe them if they require aught. May God recompense as it seemeth best to himself those who with his help carry out this convention. Amen."
From the very earliest times in the History of English and Foreign Religious Houses, we may gather abundant evidence of the existence of a mutual feeling of co-operation, and a practical fraternization which compelled most of the more important foundations to league themselves spiritually together, that by so doing they might enjoy the enhanced benefits of united prayers and advice possessed hitherto by each exclusively. This unity was entered into not only when the houses were in close proximity with one another, but we find long distances bridged over, as it were, by these confraternities, whereby the members of one house entered into a binding agreement with those of the other to share its joys and fears, to lean mutually upon each other for moral and spiritual support, and to benefit by the ghostly exercises and worldly experiences of their fellow labourers in the field of Christ. This was not in any way connected with their revenues (which, as far as I have been able to gather, were always distinct and administered to the sole uses of the community which had acquired them). There was, too, no exchange of inmates, except perhaps very rarely, when, if anyone found himself unable to conform to the peculiar rules of one establishment, he would naturally perhaps conceive the idea of removing, if it were possible, to one of the other houses which were united with his own in a spiritual bondage.
Hickes in his Dissertatio Epistolaris gives the Anglo-Saxon text and Latin translation of a mutual compact of fraternization between Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester (A.D. 1062-1095), and the Benedictine houses of Evesham, Chertsey, Bath, Pershore, Winchelcombe, Gloucester, and Worcester, from a Manuscript at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, Miscell. G. p. 55.
The same author also gives the Anglo-Saxon text and Latin translation of a deed in the Cottonian collection of MSS. Tiberius B. v. f. 75, setting forth the arrangement made between the members of a thegena gild, or fraternity of nobles, in Cambridge, founded for mutual aid and pious intercourse, and the fines to be inflicted for injuries done among them. This may be compared with the terms of Orcy's Guild at Abbotsbury, in Kemble's Saxons, vol. i, Appendix D., P. 511. Another Anglo-Saxon deed in the same MS. relates to a similar institution at Exeter, when priests and laymen were incorporated into one society for reciprocal assistance; the fines for absence at meetings, or violation of rules, as well as the duties expected from each individual member of the corporation being minutely detailed in each case.
The Cotton Manuscript, Domitian vii. ff. 336, 44, known as the Liber Vita Dunelmensis (a Manuscript having several points of resemblance to this now before us), records similar agreements between Durham Cathedral and Chertsey Abbey ; between Durham and Gregory of Bermondsey, a professed writer of Manuscripts; between Durham and Wifravenus, Canon of St. Paul's; between Durham and Pershore Abbey; and between William, Bishop of Durham, and Vitalis, Abbot of Westminster, for themselves and their respective monks. Gloucester, Lastingham, Winchester, Coventry, Canterbury, Fécamp and Caen in Normandy, Glastonbury and Hackness entered into similar fraternity with Durham, attracted probably by the fame of St. Cuthbert.
William of Malmesbury, in his Gesta Pontificum, Ed. Hamilton, P. 293, says that St. Oswald's Priory of Austin Canons at Gloucester was conjoined "affinitate arctissima" with his own monastery of Malmesbury.
uero psalterium integrum iuxta consuetudinem persol. uent ;
We learn from the Chartulary of St. Swithin's, Winchester, in the British Museum, Add. MS. 29436, ff. 446, 45, that celebrated foundation was linked in union of this kind with Canterbury, Burh, that is, Peterborough, Worcester, Gloucester, Reading. Tewkesbury, Chertsey, Burton, Ely, Abingdon, Glastonbury, St. Pancras (at Lewes]. St. Alban's, St. Cuthbert's (Durham), St. Mary of Merton, co. Surrey, St. Aldhelm's at Malmesbury, St. Edmund's (at Edmondsbury). Holy Trinity, Canterbury, St. Peter's, Westminster, Wherwell, Romsey, Bec Tin Normandy), and Battle [co. Sussex). The nature of the agreement entered into here was as follows:
Lecto brevi in capitulo pro defuncto fratre, statim absolvitur, signa pulsantur, et ipsa die si vacans est, vel ea certè quæ primum oportuna occurrerit, fit unum solemne officium vigiliarum et misse in conventu. Singuli sacerdotum unam missam, ceteri vero . L. psalmos dicunt, dehinc reincipientes et commune trigintale et privatum et pro eo et pro ceteris fratribus defunctis . tam suis quam nostris.
Another class of confraternisation is distinctly expressed in the Manuscript in these terms:
"Est apud nos [i.e., St. Swithun's, Winchester,) aliud genus conventionis quod habemus cum aliquibus congregationibus in quo tantum collegimus eos qui vel prescripto vel alio quovis modo societatis nobis junguntur." It goes on to narrate the conditions of membership under the head, in prayers and good deeds, and says, “Haec conventio firmata est inter nos et has ecclesias":Evreux, St. Florence, St. Sergius, St. Martin at Seez, St. Martin at Troarn, Cerisy, St. Nicholas in Anjou, St. Melanius at Redon, St. Faith de Conchis, St. Peter of Caen de cultura, St. Saviour of Tirun, S. Mary de Columbis, St. Victor of Marseilles. Other agreements are mentioned with Shrewsbury, London, and a number of other places and persons. .
The Abbey of Evesham (in its Register, Cotton MS., Vespasian B. xxiv, folio it) was in fraternity with Malinesbury, with St. Mary's Abbey, York (folio 125); and of Whitby, the Register says, "quod héé due congregationes quasi una erunt."
The Cotton MS. Vitellius E. xviii, belonged to a religious house which may , bc now identified with St. Swithin's, Winchester, by the sequence of places being preserved in it exactly as in the Winchester Chartulary already mentioned, which was leagued by conventions with Peterborough, Worcester, Gloucester, Reading, Tewkesbury, Chertsey, Burton, Ely, Abingdon, Glastonbury, Lewes, St. Albans, Durham, Merton, Malmesbury, Bury, Westminster, Wherwell, Romsey, Bec, and Battle.
For the text of the agreement between Cirencester and Brueria, see Madox's Formulare Anglicanum, p. 301.
Further remarks on this interesting subject may be found in Silvestre's Account of the Mortuary Roll of S. Vitalis, plate clxxxii.
My reasons for believing a similar compact of spiritual fellowship to have been in force between the Cathedral of Canterbury and the Religious House of Regulbium or Reculver, in the Isle of Thanet, in the early years of the eighth century, have been laid down at length in my work upon The History, Art, and Paleography, of the Manuscript styled the Utrecht Psalter. A notable instance of a very intimate relationship between two monasteries is afforded in the case of the Benedictine abbeys of Wearmouth and Jarrow, foundations of twin origin, and sometimes indeed governed by the same abbot; their proximity to each other upon the banks of the Wear and Tyne, no doubt assisting this spiritual relationship. The Cotton MS. Vespasian A. vi, folio 63, an early record of Durham, speaking of these abbeys, says, "tanta pace et concordia et eadem familiaritate ei fraterna societate fuerant conjuncta ut .... pro uno in duobus locis posito haberentur monasterio," they were so intimately connected that they came to be regarded as one monastery situated in two places. No doubt a very large number of other notices might be collected to swell this imperfect list, but enough references have been adduced to shew how widely spread this practice of spiritual aggregation was, and we may take it that a very
Henricus ' rex.
great deal of good resulted from this intimacy that was encouraged between different houses ; between the rich abbey with its potent relics, and the modest retiring priory with its precious charms of peace, quiet, and retirement ; between the centres of scientific progress and the strongholds of religious culture. This, no doubt prevented too strong a spirit of exclusiveness from springing up in any one house to the detriment of the religious inmates, whose intercourse with the surrounding world was thereby secured.
i The names written on this page are in four columns; the earliest are those of Henry I, Matilda of Scotland his first wife, who died in A.D. 1118, and their only son, the ill-fated Prince William, who was drowned in A.D. 1119, in the seventeenth year of his age. As the name of Queen Alice, A.D. 1121, does not occur, it is reasonable to conjecture that these first few entries are anterior to the king's second marriage. The list ends with a few entries of later date at the foot of the columns. The personages entered on what was originally a blank page, are no doubt in continuation of the list of royal and noble benefactors which commences with a suitable title on p. 39.
2 In later handwriting. 3 Ralph de Mortemer accompanied William, Duke of Normandy, in his expedition against England, and was one of the principal commanders at the Battle of Hastings. He was sent to Wales to encounter Edric, the Saxon Earl of Shrewsbury, whom he besieged at Wigmore, subdued, and delivered into the king's hands, receiving as a reward the earl's estates. Mortimer took the side of Curthose against William II, but subsequently changed sides, and being constituted general of the army sent to oppose that prince in Normandy by Henry I, totally routed the enemy and brought him prisoner to the king.