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and the two passages from Wace, Rou, mentioned a few lines above, I have observed only A quelque chief m'en covient traire (p. 67, v. 114 of the Chastoiement d'un père à son fils, ed. of 1824), and En quelque estat ilz soient (Gerson, Ad deum vadit, ed. Carnahan, line 2428). Some additional evidence for (3) can be drawn from Provençal and Italian; see, for instance, passages in the Evangile de Saint Jean like those noticed above, p. 245; N'At de Mons, i, v. 1742 (cf. the editor's note), ii, 224; Meyer-Lübke, Rom. Gramm., III, § 630; and, for Italian, Dante, Purg., xiv, 69.

An addition, partly, I think, due to Professor Grandgent, should be made to the explanation suggested above of putting que immediately after quel, as in (2), (3), and (4). There are passages in Old French where quelque (quel que) means "whichever one," ," "whatever thing"; that is, where no noun is expressed, though one (or more) may be found in the context. I note the following cases, among them some where quel is preceded by the definite article: Roland, 593 (De quel que seit, "from whichever one," i. e., bataille); Eneas, 7759 (Li quels que seit, morir estuet); Li Quatre Livre des Reis, ed. Curtius, p. 107, v. 12 (si li di que il eslised de treis choses quele que il volt mielz que jó li face); Aliscans, ed. Wienbeck, Hartnacke, Rasch, v. 3167 (Auquel ke soit la ferai comparer); Gautier d'Arras, Eracle, v. 5732 (Al quel que soit l'estuet couster); Rigomer, ed. Foerster, v. 5393 (Ja ne faurés au quelque [sic] soit); Dolopathos, p. 388 (k'il li die Quels k' (rather ke) il est et de quel[le] [sic; rather quel] vie); Renart, ed. Martin, branch xix, vv. 31-34 (Assez vos donroie a mangier De quel que auriez plus chier, Ou bon froment, ou bone avaine, Ou bone orge, etc.); and branch xxiv, vv. 67-70 (Toutes les foiz c'Adens [i. e., Adam] feri En la mer, que beste en issi, Cele beste si retenoient, Quel que iert, si l'aprivoisoient).

I see no reason why both causes could not have contributed to the development of a quelque peine and similar phrases.

E. S. SHELDON

HARVARD UNIVERSITY

(To be continued)

THE DAWN OF ITALIAN CULTURE IN AMERICA

"By every language you learn, a new world is opened before you. It is like being born again; and new ideas break upon the mind with all the freshness and delight with which we may suppose the first dawn of intellect to be accompanied."

TALY, the mother country of many famous explorers and

ITAL

navigators, was destined to derive no material advantages from the discoveries of her illustrious sons. While Spain, France and England acquired most of their American possessions through the successful voyages of Columbus, Cabot and Verrazani, Italy never gained an inch of territory nor planted a single colony on this continent. Before the middle of the 19th century scarcely any Italians emigrated to the United States.1 Yet, in spite of this utter lack of Italian conquest, colonization and emigration, Italian culture began to penetrate into this country at an early date and exercised a marked influence upon the leading American writers. The English classics, which formed an essential part of the private library of every educated man, served no doubt to create an interest in the land of Dante and Michael Angelo. The frequent references to Italy which many of them contain could not pass unobserved by the careful reader. They stirred his imagination and aroused in him a feeling of inquisitiveness which needed to be satisfied: the rest followed as a matter of course.

Students of Latin were naturally led to an acquaintance with Italy because of the important historical characters and events with which she is closely connected. Many of those who looked to that country for ancient monuments discovered that the modern authors. also were no less fascinating, and therefore did not fail to give them

1" From the earliest days of the colonization of North America up to less than a generation ago, the influx from Italy was barely a trickle, so inconsiderable that a microscope is almost needed to distinguish the Italian resident population in 1850." Eliot Lord, special agent for the U. S. Tenth Census, in The Italian in America, p. 2.

their immediate attention. Benjamin Franklin, who began to study Italian in 1733, was one of the first American scholars to understand and duly appreciate its value, and earnestly suggested that together with French it be given precedence over Latin in the school curriculum. "I would offer it to the consideration of those who superintend the education of our youth," he wrote, "whether (since many of those who begin with Latin quit the same after spending some years without having made any great proficiency, and what they have learned becomes almost useless, so that their time has been lost) it would not have been better to have begun with the French, proceeding to the Italian and Latin. For though after spending the same time they should quit the study of languages and never arrive at the Latin, they would however have acquired another tongue or two, that, being in modern use, might be serviceable to them in modern life."2

In 1760 Thomas Jefferson turned to Italian literature and gradually made himself familiar with many of its masterpieces. He read but little of Dante-probably because of his unfamiliarity with old Italian forms and constructions-and had no great admiration. for Petrarch because of the monotony of the poet's constant praise and plaints of Laura, but he enjoyed the epic poems of Tasso and the poetry of Metastasio; he loved the minor Italian poets, and copies of some of their poetic compositions in his own handwriting are still extant. Thanks to his initiative, in 1779 Italian was introduced into William and Mary College, whence it gradually passed to other American institutions of learning.3

Early in the eighteenth century a number of Italian classics had already reached this continent either in their original form or in translations. Boyd's and Carey's Divine Comedy, Fairfax's® Jerusalem Delivered and Rose's Orlando Innamorato and Orlando

2 The complete Works of B. Franklin, compiled and edited by John Bigelow, vol. I, p. 97. Putnam's Sons, 1887.

The instructor in charge was Charles Bellini, a member of the party of Philip Mazzei, who came to this country in 1773 to attempt the cultivation of the vine, the olive, and other fruits of Italy.

♦ London, 1802.

5 London, 1822.

• London, 1600.

London, 1823. (Reviewed in North American Review, 1824, vol. 19.)

Furioso were among the first to find their way to America. Though comparatively few copies were available during the whole of that century and part of the next, it is interesting to note that Charles Brockden Brown, the first American to make a profession of Literature, introduced Italian characters in his Osmond (1799)o and Arthur Merwyn (1800),9 and that by 1826 Richard Alsop, poet and wit, had already published his Enchanted Lake of the Fairy Morganalo from the Orlando Innamorato of Francesco Berni.

As far back as 1799 articles on the most distinguished writers of Italy began to appear in several American Magazines and Reviews with appropriate passages from their works in Italian, or English, or in both. American reprints of articles of the same nature were also widely circulated. "As the protection of English copyright did not extend to America all of them were reprinted here, and since the publisher had nothing to pay for contributions or articles-the heaviest item in the European cost-they were reprinted, at the mere charge of printing and paper and thus secured a very extensive sale." "12, 13 It was mainly in this manner that the average American reader gained a general insight into the social, political, and intellectual life of the Italian people. In some cases this gave rise to a special interest in Italian letters, and persons so inclined eagerly turned to the poetic masterpieces of Italy in English translations. But, as we have already said, these were few in number, and on the whole very unsatisfactory, for, as William Tudor remarked in the first number of the North American Review (1815), "the sublimity of the Italian poets very often can not be translated, because it is connected with the charm of the language,

8 Chapter I.

Book I, Chapter 6.

10 Published by Isaac Riley Co., New York, 1806.

12 J. S. Buckingham, in America, New York, 1841, pp. 144-145.

13 An interesting example of this is the Select Journal of Foreign Periodical Literature, published in 1833 by Andrews Norton and Charles Folsom. “The design of this work," stated by the editors in their preliminary remarks to the first volume, "is to give a selection of the most interesting articles and the most important information contained in the principal foreign literary journals, a design, which it is hoped, may contribute to promote the literature of our country, even if but imperfectly executed."

which gives it a grace and force unknown to the other languages of Europe." It became therefore imperative for such as desired to get a clear understanding of Italian literary works to study the idiom in which they were written. Hence, the more conscientious students did not fail to do so, being further encouraged by the comparative ease with which that language could be mastered. "Italian is simple in its structure and principles of pronunciation, and is more easily acquired, probably, than any other language," wrote Jared Sparks, the American biographer and historian. "Since the task is so easy, and the treasure to reward the student so rich and abundant, it is certainly a little remarkable that the tide of fashionable study has not long ago turned in this direction."14

One of the best guides in the English language for the American student to an acquaintance with the literature of Italy was Roscoe's translation of Sismondi de' Sismondi's Historical View of the Literatures of Southern Europe which was reprinted in this country in 1827.15 The elaborate Biographies of the Medici were also of importance in this connection; for, on the publication of those elegant and popular works, a fund of interesting, new and valuable information was communicated on the subject of Italy, considered in its literary relations, of which there existed before only vague and uncertain notions. "We have in them a comprehensive and lucid view of the most enlightened period of Italian history. We are made acquainted with the characters and literary merits of the best authors of the time and are told what they accomplished and how they ought to be estimated."16

Books of travel, which were next in frequency to the Bible and religious tracts, contributed also to a great extent to disseminate among the American people a knowledge of Italy and her inhabitants. At first these were merely reproductions of books published in England, especially Eustace's Tour through Italy,17 Goethe's Italian Journey, and Madame de Staël's Corinne. Before the first decade of the nineteenth century American books of travel were 14 North American Review, 1817. 15 J. J. Harper, New York, 1827.

16 J. Sparks in the North American Review, 1827. 17 M. Carey, Philadelphia, 1815.

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