Obrazy na stronie

Paule, 745 f.-raint, as far as the form is concerned, may be taken as the pr. subj. of either ramer or of raisnier [rationare]. The first would not accord with this passage, since the father does not fear that his daughter has ceased to love him, but he thinks that she has been spirited away. raint [rationet] offers a reading which is quite satisfactory. There seems to be a touch of irony, for this prayer is answered, P's daughter talks many times with her father, but she is so disguised that he does not recognize her. Another possible solution would be to read m'amaint instead of me raint. ABH have m'amaint both in 813 and 815. This repetition is doubtless an error and might indicate that the original poem had m'amaint in 813 and that the MS. from which ABH are derived had repeated this word in 815, substituting it for ramaint. There is no doubt that m'amaint suits the context excellently and corresponds closely with que rendre le me daint, 814.

856. O Tant il.

frequently falls, show

864. de part for de par of 485. Final t following ing that it was not pronounced in the dialect of O. It is therefore not surprising to find t added, especially in this case, where there is a confusion with part [parte] in such expressions as de ma part.

869. cuce s'en. For other examples of enclisis of the personal pronoun foll. a verb, cf. a similar verse in Vie de S. Alexis, 357: vienent devant, getent s'ad oreisons. For the attitude of prostration in prayer, cf. 478.

881. O si sauoir; ABH si ueoir.


"One soon forgets the man for whom one has no concern.”

896. plete. There is a Latin plecta (Gk. λEKTOS) which DuCange translates: nexio cum virgulis; nexus ex virgulis, vel papyro, vel carecto factus, unde cofinos faciebant. From this form we should expect an O. F. plite, as lectu> lit. Since however in our poem we have lete [lecta] in 1190 which is a Walloon form, it is not surprising to find plecta > plete. The meaning “a knot of a cable" suits the cantext. According to Jal's Glossaire Nautique there is also a form plet, which he translates: un des tours d'un cordage, and also apleitage: lieu où les vaisseaux abordent pour charger ou décharger des marchandises.

918. dame. The scribe of O appears to have first written ƒ and then superposed a d, as if he had begun to write filhe or feme and then corrected himself. Other examples of dame used in addressing Euphrosine are in 1209, 1260.

926. "You would perhaps be able to accomplish anything whatsoever by this means."

927. j'en aroie. O je en aroi. There are three cases of imperf. and cond. in -oi (809, 927, 1261), while -oie is the usual form of O and is the only one proved for the author of the poem. All three exceptions lend themselves easily to emendation, and each change is discussed in a note to the verse where the form occurs. In the present case we have the only instance of je en in hiatus, whereas in 352 and 1069 the elision is proved. We are therefore restoring the language of the poet, when we suppress the hiatus of je en and add -e to the termination of the verb. In Poème Moral, -oi and -oie are both frequently found and both forms are proved by the verse.

943. O none; ABH mones.

944, 5. Vita: quia species vultus emarcuit prae nimia abstinentia, vigiliis et lacrymis.

946. Sc. ele with se prent.

947. Vita: De cuculla autem operuit faciem suam, ne aliquo modo agnosceret eam.

952. Vita: Facta autem oratione sederunt.

957. martys, instead of martyrs, shows a weakened pronunciation of r before s.

968. For other cases of posteé, cf. note to v. 48, and Poème Moral, p. 85. 969. vint... regné, came into power over Egypt."

993. "Your weeping will not keep him from doing what is best." plorer is used as substan.

994-7. Vita: secundum vocem Evangelii, qua dicitur: Qui diligit patrem aut matrem super me, non est me dignus. Et si quis non abrenuntiaverit omnibus quae possidet, non potest meus esse discipulus.

1003. ki la fait al plus gent="who acts most nobly in this matter." There are several examples of la between ki and verb in Poème Moral (15b, 33b, 456d, 470d).

1026. O denez.

1036. O espirs. The editor has corrected so as to conform with the language of the poet.

1048. This verse is not found in O, but is given by the other three MSS. The principal justification for including it in the text is that without it the strophe has but nine lines, whereas ten is the usual number. The verse repeats the thought expressed in 1047 and the rhyme word liez occurs also in 1041, which are two reasons for doubting the authenticity of the line. There are however in the poem other cases where the rhyme word is repeated in the same strophe. Since in ABH both this verse and the preceding begin with the same word (apres), the same may have been true of the source of O. If such were the case, the scribe of O might carelessly have omitted the second line, as often happens when two consecutive lines begin with the same word.

1057. The curious form of scuerr (0) appears to be the result of an attempt to write sain and cuer. The context would lead one to expect sain; cf. S. Luke, XVI, 22, et portaretur ab Angelis in sinum Abrahae. Might not the change to cuer be due to an effort on the part of the scribe to avoid the combination el sain saint? For an example in Old French, cf. Que dex el sain saint Abrahan, Perceval (ed. Baist), 2928.

1069. Vita: jam descendam lugens in infernum.

1071, 2. Vita: videns autem eum Smaragdus vehementer plorantem et nullam consolationem recipientem, ait ad eum: Quid turbaris et temetipsum interficis?

1073. Vita: numquid invalida est manus Domini, aut quidquam est Deo difficile?

1075-9. Vita: Recordare quomodo Patriarchae Jacob manifestaverit Deus Joseph, quem quasi mortuum lugebat. Sed obsecro te, ut per tres dies me non deseras neque derelinquas.

1087. Puescelestre. The sc is the result of the result of the assimilation of the final t of puet and the initial consonant of the following syllable. The Poème Moral has puscestre, 290a, 341a, puessestre, 95c. The cel is usually Norman or Ang. Nor. Cf. Menger: The Anglo-Norman Dialect, p. 117; MeyerLübke, Gram., II, 135; Walberg: Bestiaire de Philippe de Thaün, LXXV. Elsewhere in the poem (926, 1006) estre puet is found.

1092, 3. Vita: exspectavi sicut rogasti, domine mi Frater, et non discessi alicubi per tres continuos dies.

1098. vencus shows by its plural form, which is proved by the rhyme, that the aguit trepasse of O should be plural also. The other MSS. confirm this. Aguait is proved by rhyme in 319, so I have corrected to aguaiz trepassez. For tant before a plural noun (tant chevaliers, etc.) cf. Meyer-Lübke, Gram., III, §53; Aiol et Mir., notes to 2522, 4487.

1110. Vita: nolo autem te jam esse sollicitum pro filia tua Euphrosina, ego enim sum illa misera.

1120-1124. Vita: Et quia promisi Abbati habere multas possessiones, et si potuissem sustinere et perdurare in loco isto, adducerem eas hic. Imple ergo quod promisi.

1126. Vita: et ora pro me. Haec dicens tradidit spiritum.

1131. hastee="swift." For the perf. part. in active sense, cf. Tobler: Verm. Beitr., I, 146 ff.

1136-7. Vita: jactavit aquam super faciem ejus elevavit eum, dicens: Quid habes, domine mi Paphnuti?

1144. O dormir, ABH morir. The latter is more graphic and reproduces the Latin Vita: Dimitte me ut hic moriar, vidi enim mirabilia hodie.

1147. O recois; stostenir.

1156. O carpam.

1158 and 1162. These verses have been supplied from ABH in order to make strophes of the usual length.

1161. O tat.

1169. O La filhe.

1176. MS. O has resort, not tresort, so the correction made by Paul Meyer in his Recueil was unnecessary.

1236. From this point the text of O is quite different from that of the other MSS.

1247. In Paul Meyer's Recueil where the conclusion of the poem has been printed according to O, the editor has supplied at after ans. This makes an excess of syllables in the verse and besides is quite unnecessary, for qu'i vescit puis is merely parenthetical.

1257. Meyer prints qu'i, but there is a tendency for final to fall in the language of the scribe. Furthermore there is no reason for i in this case.

1261. conisoie. The MS. has conisoi ie, but the scribe usually writes -oie for the imperf. and cond.

Besides -oie is proved for the imperf. in 1152 and 1163, for the cond. in 247, 391, 531, 1065, 1123. There are three cases of -oi and all three lend themselves easily to emendation. The editor therefore feels justified in adopting conisoie, a correction already made by Meyer.

1263, 4. The two corrections in the text had already been made by P. Meyer in his Recueil.

1279. The editor has prepared a study of the language of the poet and the phonology of MS. O, as well as a chapter on the versification and another on the classification of the four MSS.

Abe 359, dawn.

afeit 32, insult.


[blocks in formation]

escarcir 359, become bright, break (of dawn).

estoier 170, reserve, keep.

estoïr 318, 1202, keep, save.

Falir, estre fallans 1064, not succeed; estre falie, 896, 1160, become separated, absent.

favele 593, talk, gossip; torner a f. 139, become a subject of gossip.

feu 196, 798, fief.

frecir 867, become cold. Gaimenter v.r. 109, lament. gemel 1067, twin.

gentior comp. 12, 332, finer, more pleasing.

gragnous 578, grainous 734, sad. Ja + subj. 139, 273, etc., even though. jube 682, tunic, undergarment. Laz 576, mesh, snare.

lons prep. 539, according to. Manes 1225, immediately. mergelhier 321, defile, pollute. mialtriz 671, miatris 758, harlot. misel 1110, wretched.

mofon 542, mitten, glove.

movoir la raison 383, begin the conversation.

Noze 165, brooch.

Parentor gen. pl. used as adj. 199, parental.

pessant; a son p. 647, displeasing to him.

plete 896, cable, rope.

Rencluz 408, cloistered monk.
Segre 669, 673, etc., father-in-law.
sorduient 431, treacherous.

Table 1184, metal plate, sort of gong. terrous 747, soiled with mud or dust. Vair; ne v. ne gris 633, nothing of value.

velous 752, covering for a bed.
vene 869, penance, act of contrition.
voilhant subs. 648, waking.

escafer 868, warm.



(To be continued)




URING a considerable number of years, in reading with students Chrétien's1 Ivain, I have from time to time jotted down notes, mostly on passages where I positively disagreed with opinions of Foerster's or thought it well to suggest a somewhat different view, without necessarily denying that he was right. Sometimes these notes were concerned with other than grammatical questions or questions of interpretation; for instance, with Chrétien's sources or his treatment of his sources. These notes I have now revised for publication, omitting or modifying some, amplifying at times considerably, as in the discussion below on quelque, v. 184, and adding some things not previously written out.

From the origin thus indicated of what follows it will be clear that this is not a review, in the ordinary sense of that word, of Foerster's edition of Chrétien's poem. If it were, I should naturally speak in terms of high admiration of his work as an editor. Though I disagree with him in various details and in some matters of wider importance, yet it is hardly necessary to say that without the patient and devoted labor which he gave to the task of editing the works of Chrétien and writing his excellent Anmerkungen, these notes of mine would lack their basis, and it may even be said that if they contribute anything of value to the understanding of the poem the credit is in part due to Foerster himself.

As a cursory glance will show, these notes are arranged according to the order of the lines of the poem. It was not intended to indicate misprints that can cause no difficulty to the reader, nor to point out all the cases where one might object to the punctuation. Some things which one might expect to find discussed are here passed over in silence. This does not necessarily signify either

1 For the poet's name I follow the spelling usual in modern French. The best Old French spelling is Crestiien, in three syllables, with an i followed by the diphthong ie, though in such cases the old scribes often wrote only one i

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