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ence by Chiti in the last part of the sixteenth century.-Santa Eufrosina, poemetto sacro di Filippo Alfonsi, Roma, 1702— Santa Eufrosina, oratorio da contarsi in Perugia, di un pastore Arcade (D. Tommaso Giannini), Perugia, 1713.

In Catalan: prose translation in a collection made by Ramon Ros de Tarraga, circ. 1320 (Cf. Gröber's Grundriss II, 2, 91).

In Portuguese: a literal prose translation of the Vita which we have called A. This is preserved in MS. 266 (fourteenth century), formerly of the library of the convent of Alcobaça, now at Torre de Tombo, Lisbon. Published by Cornu in Romania, XI, 357 ff. In this MS. as in MS. O of our poem the Life of Saint Euphrosine is immediately followed by that of Sancta Maria Aegyptica. Cf. Romania, XVIII, 218.

In German: the version of the Veterbûch. Fragments have been published by Roth (Denkmäler der deutschen Sprache) from a MS. of the first half of the thirteenth century and by Zingerle (Wiener Sitzungsberichte, vol. 64), from a fourteenth century MS.

There has been considerable uncertainty regarding the exact date of S. Euphrosine's life. According to the statement found at the beginning of the Vita ascribed to Simeon Metaphrastes (Cum Romanorum sceptro Theodosius Arcadii filius pie regeret, vir quidam, etc.) the saint was not born before 408, the date of the death of Arcadius. As she was eighteen years of age, when she entered the monastery and spent thirty-eight years there, the date of her death would be probably about 470, cf. Acta Sanctorum, Feb., p. 536. In the Vita on which the French poem is based the name of Theodosius occurs but twice. In the first case, it is after the departure of Paphnutius for the monastery, when E. sends a servant to summon a monk to counsel her and bids him vade in monasterium Theodosii. The phrase is translated in all the MSS. of the poem. In Vita (B) the sentence reads: Vade in ecclesia quem construxit Theodosius imperatur. This shows that it is the emperor and not the abbot that is meant. However the version of Vita (A) may have given the French poet the name of the abbot who is anonymous in the Vitae. The second case occurs in a speech in which the abbot tries to console Paphnutius (Vis colloquium habere cum uno Fratre spirituali qui venit de palatio Theodosii. Here the ref

erence is obviously to the emperor. This phrase with a few changes occurs in Vita (B) and Vita (C). In the French poem (v. 524) E. announces herself in these words: Canbrelains del palais Teodoise ai esté. It should be noted that this reading is found only in MS. O, but since the other MSS. have versions which are metrically (BH) or grammatically (A) incorrect, there is no reason to doubt the correctness of O.10 From the above citations it is evident that the Greek and Latin versions of the story assigned Euphrosine to the age of Theodosius. Is it Theodosius the Great or his grandson who is referred to? It would be natural to infer that the former was meant, were it not for the explicit statement at the beginning of the Vita ascribed to Metaphrastes. Since we have no further historical testimony, it is impossible to decide the problem. However E. must have lived in the first part of the fifth century, since Theodosius the Great did not begin to reign until 379 and as she spent 38 years in the convent, she could not have died before 417, whereas, if the statement of Metaphrastes is correct, she probably lived until about 470. It is evident in any case that neither the date of 394 found in one MS. (cf. Acta Sanc., Feb., pp. 535 f.) nor that of 400 given by Marc Antoine Alegraeus as the date of her death is authentic.

Furthermore the authorities do not agree upon the date assigned to her in the Church calendar. In that of the Roman Church it is January 1, whereas in the Greek calendar it is September 25, and according to the records of the Carmelites it is February 11, the date used in the Acta Sanctorum.

The original Life was probably written not long after the death of the saint. From this original Greek copies were made and from these were translated the Latin versions, one of which has been shown to be the source of the French poem.

YALE UNIVERSITY

RAYMOND T. HILL

10 It is noteworthy that in the two passages where the name of the emperor is given, MS. O has Teodoise, whereas the name of the abbot is always written Teodose, Theodose or Theodosius.

(To be continued)

MISCELLANEOUS

HISPANIC NOTES: azar; aziago; в for U.

AZAR.-Erly Catalan chanjed dz after a vouel to the dental fricativ 8, hwich became v az a final and waz lost between vouels: feu <*fev <*fed < *fedz < fecit, veína <*vedina < *vedzina < uicina. Modern Catalan has dz (commonly speld tz) for ôlder ddz, az in dotze <*dodedze; and also in words borrod from Spanish, az atzar <azar, atzerola < azerola, atzur-azul. Such loan-words ar ov interest with regard to Spanish fonolojy: they wer borrod at a time hwen dz waz uzed in spôken Spanish corresponding to ritn z, and after Catalan dz had become 8.

AZIAGO. Meyer-Lübke explains Spanish aciago az a derivativ ov aegyptiacus, in his Romanic diccionery. He has ôverlookt Portugees aziago, with the voist sound ≈ hwich cannot reprezent ti after a consonant. Aziago comes from the stem ov acidus, combined with the suffix seen in embriago: *acidācus.

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B for U. It iz wel known that Inglish speech has somtimes bin corupted by faulty spelling: exampls ar advance (< ab-ante .) and anthem (<antefn). So too the formerly silentov fault (<faute) iz perhaps parcialy artificial, tho it may also hav come from the influence ov historic l in false. The simpl sound-sistem ov erly Spanish did not ofn permit such developments, but in a feu names we find u chanjed to v under the influence ov defectiv spelling. Thus Iváñez iz prezumably derived from *Iohannici: ritn Iuannez (for Juannez) waz mis-red with iv, befoar the grafic distinccions ov i-j and u-v wer establisht. Pavlo iz evidently a corupcion ov bookish Paulo (=Portugees Paulo), cauzd by the rarity ov spôken au in erly Spanish. It may be suspected that Uvaldo iz a grafic alteracion ov Waldo; a Spaniard has informd me that ritn Waldo iz regularly mis-red in acordance with the other spelling. Nouadays thees names ar ritn with b: Ibáñez, Pablo, Ubaldo.

NORTH HAVEN, Conn.

E. H. TUTTLE

ETYMOLOGIES AND ETYMOLOGICAL NOTES1

THIS

1. RUMANIAN ageat

HIS word, which takes also the forms agit and ageà, is translated in the Dictionary of the Rumanian Academy (Vol. I, pt. I, p. 67) as "désir, envie, disposition (à faire ggch)." The authors of that dictionary recard merely that the etymology is unknown, tacitly rejecting the derivation from Latin agito (cf. cuget <cogito co+agito) which seems to have been sponsored by Hasdeu (in Etymologicum Magnum Romaniæ, vol. I, column 502, where the accent is wrongly placed on the first syllable). In reality the word is Turkish hajet (< Arabic hajat, "anything necessary, requisite; want, need; necessity; object; utensil; desire, wish "2), which, like its Rumanian reflex, is applied to felt needs. Thus Rumanian mi-e (or am) ageat să . . . 'I want to,' finds an exact counterpart in (Vulgar) Turkish hažetîm var (dîr).

2. RUMANIAN asturcan

The Dictionary of the Academy (Vol. I, pt. 1, p. 334) explains this word (which occurs also as astrucan and asturcon) as "(cheval) de race perse" and says its etymology is unknown. In this case we have to deal with a word of classical origin, directly modelled on Latin asturco, ‘Asturian horse' (found in Pliny the Elder, Petronius, etc.). The definition of the Academy is wrong in part, inasmuch as the term is not limited to Persian horses. It goes without saying that this is a learned word, and not one of Folk Latin origin.

3. RUMANIAN buflea, buflis

The Dictionary of the Academy (Vol. I, part I, p. 676) enters under the one heading buft several words differing from one another in form, in meaning and, in some cases at least, in origin. The filiation of these words is all the more difficult to trace inasmuch as, both semantically and phonologically, they have contaminated one another. In the present writer's belief, however, the 1 Continued from ROMANIC REVIEW, IX, 313-316. Full bibliographical indications previously given are not here repeated.

2 F. Steingass, The Student's Arabic-English Dictionary, London, 1884, p. 257.

word buflis ('dumpy, squabby; humpty-dumpty') is etymologically distinct and is derived directly from Transylvanian German Bậflîsch or Baflêsch. The dialectal German word (H. G. Backfleisch < Bache (n), cognate with O. F. bacon, whence our bacon), besides its original meaning of 'flitch of bacon,' is applicable to fat persons (Siebenbürgisch-Sächsisches Wörterbuch, Vol. I, p. 374), as in Rumanian. The Rumanian variant buflea is easily explained on the assumption that the ending -iş (-es) in buflis was felt to be a suffix and as such replaced by -ea, a suffix formative of proper names with a pejorative tinge.

4. RUMANIAN dichiciu

This rare word found in the writings of Ioan Creangă (“şanuri, calupuri, astrăgaciu, bedreag, dichiciŭ," apud Tiktin, Rumänisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch, Vol. II, p. 544) is explained as 'a sort of knife for leather' by Professor Tiktin, according to whom its etymology is unknown. It is the same as Hungarian dikis (pronuonced dikiş), 'paring knife,' with change of suffix and consequently of accent. The Hungarian word was adopted as dikisch, "Zuschneidemesser des Tschismenmachers (ohne Griff)" in the so-called Nösnisch, the dialect of the German settlers around the town of Bistritz.

5. RUMANIAN fărmac

According to the Academy Dictionary (s. v.) this is a Moldacian measure of length equivalent to about .44 cm. The derivation from fărâmă, 'morsel, crumb'+the suffix -ac is so obvious (cf. palmac Turkish parmak, interpreted by the people as palmă+ -ac) that it is surprising to read the statement in the Academy Dictionary that the etymology is unknown. It is possible that, here too, the editors were apprehensive of popular etymology. Yet even in scientific metrology a unit of measure may be derived from a word connoting smallness. Thus Greek póv gives us micron, 'the thousandth part of one millimeter.' Compare also Modern Greek NETTÓ, 'a minute (of time and circumference),' in Late Greek 'a small coin,' literally 'a peel' (from λéπw, ‘I peel'); and our minute.

3 G. Kisch, Nösner Wörter und Wendungen. . . . Bistritz, 1900, p. 33.

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