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friends nor enemies, as we learn of historians; for Vegetius, I. ii. de re milit. cafi. 20. tells us, that each legion had a purse in the hands of the ensign-bearer, wherein each soldier put a piece of money, to contribute his portion towards the burial of the soldiers of that legion, who died in war. We see also by the testimonies, both of Tully in the oration for Milo, and of Cornelius Tacitus, /. i. that the generals, who were victorious, allowed their enemies to bufy the corps of their dead soldiers, or else buried them themselves.
Lucian, in his treatise of mourning, has made a pleasant and useful description of the ceremonies used about dead persons, some few of which I shall hint at. *' After the nearest relation has received a dead person, and closed his eyes, he washes the body with warm water, he perfumes him, crowns him with flowers, and puts on his best clothes. All is accompanied with mourning, tears and sobs, to agree with the master of the ceremony, who orders all matters, and recites with a mournful voice all his former calamities. Then some tear their hair, others beat their breasts. Some rend their clothes, and cast dust upon their heads, or fall down upon the ground, &c. &c. After all this, some treat the company, where the friends comfort you, and desire you to eat. How long, say they, will you lament the dead '. You can't recal them to life again,by all your tears," Sec.
Let us here examine a little into the sentiments of the- facetious Horace, of whom Sir William Temple is pleased to say, that " he was the greatest master of life, and of true sense in the conduct of it." Lib. i. Od.28. he introduces Archytas praying, that he may not have the misfortune to lie unburied. And what a curse he thought it to be so, one may learn from the end of epod. 5. His commentator has these remarkable words, "Amongst the ancients it was deemed the most grievous of evils for one to have his body unburied; because the soul was believed to have no rest, but to wander up and down, until its body was deposited in a grave."
Agreeable to this is that famous passage in Homer, iliad 23. where the ghost of Patroclus is introduced .complaining, that his funeral rites had not been performed;
"Thus the phantom said,
"Sleeps my Achilles, his Patorclus dead?
"Living1, I seem'd his dearest, tend'rest care;
"But now, forgot, I wander in the air.
"Let my pale corse the rites of burial know,
"And give me entrance in the realms below.
"Till then, the spirit finds no resting place,
"But here and there th' unbody'd spectres chase
"The vagrant dead around the dark abode,
"Forbid to pass th* irremeable flood."
Homer makes this a matter of such'importance, that he introduces Iris as dispatched upon an embassy from the gods to stir up Achilles to fight, and to pay this duty to his dear friend Patroclus. Here Mr. Pope remarks, it was the common opinion of the ancients, that the souls of the departed were not admitted into the number of the happy, till the bodies had received the funeral rites. They supposed, those that wanted them, wandered about an hundred years, before they were wafted over the infernal erier. The emperors Dioclcsian and Maximinian ordered, that thv people should not . hinder the burying even of those who had suffered punishment by death, the Romans being of opinion, that the souls of such bodies aft were not buried, wandered up and down an hundred years, as not being able to get into the Etysian fields. Virgil also hath the same sentiment, concerning the state of departed souls; at least had in his view the above passage of Homer, as appears from the following words. •
"The ghosts, rejected, are the unhappy crew,
"DepnvM of sepulchres and funeral due.
"An hundred yean they wander on the there',
M At length, their penance done, they're wafted o*eT."
To transcribe all that is to be found for the purpose in ancient authors, would be to write a volume, rather than a part of* short essay. For, the Heathens not only accounted the burying of the dead to be a thing so holy and inviolable, that they attributed the original invention thereof to one of the gods, viz. to him whom the Greeks called Pluto, and the Romans Dis or Summanus; but likewise, they had always a regard to the care that was taken of sepulchres, as a religious duty grounded upon the fear of God, and the belief of the soul's immortality, though they had no notion of the resurrection from the dead: insomuch, that the violation of a sepulchre, or the defiling of a grave, was a crime of an enormous size with them. How then may many, very many, in a Christian country, blush, and be ashamed i if yet a blush remains! But more of this in its proper place.
So sacred did the Heathens look upon burying-grounds to be, that they reckoned them in the number of holy and unalienable things; and accordingly, those who violated the sepulchres of the dead, or searched them, were hated by all nations, and very severely punished. The pyramids of Egypt, which were built for sepulchres to the kings, are standing monuments of that singular regard and veneration for dead bodies, even among the Heathens, which I fen now insisting upon. Some of them are of a vast height; and Pliny speaks of one, for the building of which 32,000 men were employed for twenty years, and says, it took up eight acres of ground. This is also plain from the accounts we have of their embalming, and from their mummies, which ate frequently found to this day whole and entire, though some of them have lain above three thousand years in their graves. But, though the Heathens entertained so religious a respect for the body after death, for the reasons above specified; yet, they had no notion of the resurrection from the dead, as already observed; but, on the contrary, scoffed at it with their whims of transmutations of bodies, and transmigrations of souls. [To be continued.}
By William Hamilton Reid. THE heavenly concave's everlasting
frame, The azure canopy where meteors
flame, The selfpois'dearth beneath and these
accord To join in owning their eternal Lord. Day speaks his praise in heaven's
all clearing light, Repeated by a thousand tongues at
night, AH nations learn the mighty theme to
sing; All look with rapture to the day's
His presence shining thro' th'ethe
rial round, Draws the dark forest from the earth
profound; The de w-fraught clouds, he from the
ocean tills Distill'd anew, or stream'd ado\vn the
A verdant robe he for the earth prepares Bedeck'd with flowers, whose various tissue bears
Each hue that on liis cloud-wrought cincture glows
The azure violet, or crimson rose. His purple throne he in the East displays;
His vast domain unwearied he surveys;
UnnumberM realms arc in his presence blest,
His course triumphant ends in glorious rest. From his exhaustless sea of lambent light.
He richly fills the silver orb of night.
The morning star, and brother choir advance,
And, wreath'd with rays, perform their mystic dance.•
Through boundless space, thus sun and stars proclaim Th' Almighty hand that fbrm'd this
EMANUEL, A MORAL ECLOCt'S.
After the manner of the Messiah. I came not that ye might have Ijfe, but that ye might have it more abundantly.
LO! a new sera unto mortals given; The dove-like spirit now discends from
heav'n ( The day-spring now hath visited the
earth, And teeming nature owns her second
birth: The living verdure of the vernal
year, ComparM with that, a desert shall appear; To this bright sun the paler stars give
way, 'Tis Heaven's own light, and shining
reason's ray! The small still voice, confusion now
must hear, And heavenly music sooth the opening
car, While young experience the dumb
doth teach To vent their transports, in melodious
speech; And abject minds in sensual fetters
bound, Now rise exulting at the joyful sound. Where dragon passions spread their
brutal rage j Where thorny cares th' unstable mind
engage; Where serpent craft, low cunning,
bent on guile, Where lion tempers urge the haughty
smile; Where wolfish avarice would seize its
Where aspish slander would its sting
convey; Each nobler view oppos'd, its power
doth prove, Or new desires infuse a generous love. Like this blest lore the healthful
hreezes blow; The starry orbs not with more brilliance glow; Less constant not the parent planets
shine, Nor light's fair efflux from its source
divine; Not more delectable the flowery hue That decks the summer, or autumnal
view; Nor richer plenty in her golden years.
Xor more harmonious heaven's im- Unvarying-still, God's saving power
mortal spheres. remains,
But aid no more the muse exhausted "His realm forever lasts, his on
brings, Messiah reigns."
From nature's stores, or pomp of Orth. Ch. Mag.
Memphian kings; m
For regal thrones and empires meet '"""
their fate, The following lines viereviritten by the
Once like the son in his meredian i?es.Samuel.Wesley,ufionDr. Watts'
state, *"}i?ig, that a form of prayer %sat a
Their moons and stars, each tributary crutch.
beam, FORM stints thespirit, Wattt has said.
Fleet thro' expansion like a morning And there fore oft is wrong;
dream. At best a Crutch the weak to aid.
Yet tho' the noblest works of man A cumbrance to the strong.
. decay, Old David, both in prayer and praise.
And time's rude hand, each vestige A form for Crutches brings;
sweeps away; But Watts has dignified his lays,
Tho'here he sees his utmost wish And furnished him with whips.
Tifi* VI 11
Fall'n grandeur frowning thro' oblivi- E'en Watts, a form for praise can on's mail; „ choo9e. u L
Tho' monumental stone and letter'd „ For prayer, who throws it by;
_aBe Crutches to walk he can refuse,
Lie scatter'd victims to his rutliless But uses them to fly. rage,
■a *»® «• «■s—
FROM THE ORTHODOX CHURCHMAN'S MAGAZINE.
An ACCOUNT of the CEREMONIES performed on the DAY of EXPJATION....hev\t. xvi. THIS was one of the most solemn days amongst the people ofthe Jews. It was celebrated on the 10th day of the month Tisri, which was the first month of their civil year; and was named the great fast, or tliefast, only, because they fasted all the day long, and began even the day before; but, especially, because this was the only fast enjoined by the law. It is probable this is the same as mentioned, Acts xxvii. 9, where it is said, that they were afraid of a storm* because the font iua* already jiast; that is, it was about the beginning of October, when sailing becomes dangerous. It may, however, be understood of a fast of the Heathens, which was celebrated about this time.
The institution of this day of expiation, and the ceremonies performed upon it, are related in the xvith chapter of Leviticus, (if these ceremonies, some were to be observed both by the priest and people; as the abstaining from all kinds of food, and all manner of work: others related only to the high-priest, who, seven days before the feast, left his house, and went into the temple to purify and prepare himself for the approaching solemnity. Sec Lev. xvi. 29, and xxiii. 27, 28. On the 3d and 7th of those days, some of the ashes of the. red heifer were put upon his head, which was a kind of expiation. The night before the feast, he washed several times his hands, his fuet, and his whole body, and changed his garments every time. When the day was come, after the usual sacrifice, he offered several others, both.for the priests in general, and for himself and his family
vn particular.* For his family he offered a young bullock, on which he laid his hands, and confessed his own sins, and those of his house. He afterwards cast lots upon two goats, which were offered for the people; one whereof was to be sacrificed, and the other sent into the desert. See Lev. xvi. B. This done, he slew the calf and the ram that were appointed for the expiation of his own sins, and those of his brethren the priests.
When all these preparations were over, he went into the holy of holies, in the dress of a common priest, because this was a day of affliction, and burned before the mercy-seat the perfume which he had brought from the altar. This perfume raised a kind of a cloud, that hindered people from looking into the ark, which was reckoned an heinous offence.... 1 Sam. vi. 19. He then came out to receive fi'om one of the priests the blood of the young bullock, and carried it into the holy of/iolies, where, standing between the staves of the ark, he sprinkled some of it with his £nger on the mercy-seat; and by thisceremony made himself fitto atone for the sins of thej>eople: afterwards he came out of the holy of holies, to take the blood of the goat which he had slain. This he sprinkled upon the mercy-seat, as he had done that of the bullock before. He then once more came out of the holy of holies, and took some of the blood of the goat and bullock, which he poured into the horns of the inner altar (made hollow for that purpose) near the veil which divided the holy place from the most holy; and also on the basis of the outer altar. Each of these sprinklings was repeated seven times. Lastly, the high-priest laid both his hands upon the head of the other goat, and had him conveyed into the wilderness, by afit person, after he had confessed over him the sins of the people, and laid them upon his head.
This was a very expensive ceremony. The sins of the people were done away by the sacrifice of the first goat; and, to 6hew that they would be no more had in remembrance, the second was loaden with thetn,t and carried them with him into the wilderness, which was thought by the ancient Hebrews to be the abode of devils, the authors of all vice and iniquity; (see Malt. xii. 43. Rev. xviii. 2.) and therefore the people were wont to insult over and curse him, to spit upon him, to pluck off his hair; and, in short, to use him as an accursed thing. There appear no footsteps of this usage in the law; but it is certain that it was very ancient, since St. Barnabas, who was contemporary with the apostles, makes express mention of it in his Ep. p. m. 22. which epistle must have been written not long after the destruction of Jerusalem. The ill treatment which Jesus Christ met with from the Jews, had great conformity with this custom; and it is evident, that his enemies dealt with him in the same manner, as they were used to do with the goat azazel, as Tertullian observes, adv. Jul. lib. III. cap. 3. It is very probable, that the ancient Jews took occasion from some passages out of thr prophets (as Isai. i. 6, 1. 6, liii. 3,) to bring in the custom of this insulting the goat azazel, and crowning him with a red ribbon; or, as Lamy observes,
* They offered on that day fifteen sacrifices, viz. Twelve whole burnt-offerings, and other expiatory sacrifices both for the people and priests.
f This goat was called Azazel, which the LXX have rendered by a word which signifies to remove or turn a-aay evit.