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Doctor Seabury may succeed in this application, as it will be the means of preserving the Church of England in America from ruin, and of preventing many irregularities which we see approaching, and which, if once introduced, no after care may be able to remove. Given under our hands, at New-York, this twenty-first day of April,

in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty three.

JEREMIAH LEAMING, D. D.
CHARLES INGLES, D. D.

Rector of Trinity Church, New-York.

BENJAMIN MOORE, D.D. Assistant Minister of Trinity Church, New-York; and others.

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[No. III.]
LETTER TO THE ARCHBISHOP OF Tork.

NEW-YORK, May 24, 1783.
MY LORD,

THE Reverend Doctor Samuel Seabury will have the honour of presenting this letter to your Grace. He goes to England, at the request of the Episcopal Clergy of Connecticut, on business highly interesting and important. They have written on the subject to your Grace, and also to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Bishop of London. But, as they were pleased to consult us on the occasion, and to submit what they had written to our inspection, requesting our concurrence in their application, their letters are dated at NewYork, and signed only by the Rev. Mr. Jarvis, the secretary to their convention, whom they commissioned and sent here for that purpose.

The measure proposed, on this occasion, by our brethren of Connecticut, could not fail to have our hearty concurrence. For we are decidedly of opinion, that no other means can be devised to preserve the existence of the Episcopal Church in this country. We have therefore joined with Mr. Jarvis in giving Doctor Seabury a testimonial, in which we have briefly, but sincerely, expressed our sense of his merit, and our earnest wishes for the success of his undertaking.

Should he succeed and be consecrated, he means (with the approbation of the society) to return in the character, and perform the duties of a missionary, at New-London in Connecticut; and on his arrival in that country, to make application to the Governor, in hope of being cheerfully permitted to exercise the spiritual powers of his Episcopal office there ; in which, we are persuaded, he will meet with little, if any opposition. For many persons of character in Connecticut, and elsewhere, who are not members of the Episcopal Church, have lately declared they have no longer any objection to an American Episcopate, now that the independency of this country, acknowledged by Great-Britain, has removed their apprehensions of the Bishops being invested with a share of temporal power by the British government.

We flatter ourselves that any impediments to the consecration of

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a Bishop for America, arising from the peculiar constitution of the Church of England, may be removed by the King's royal permission ; and we cannot entertain a doubt of his Majesty's readiness to grant it.

In humble confidence that your Grace will consider the object of this application as a measure worthy of your zealous patronage, we beg leave to remind your Grace, that several legacies have been, at different times, bequeathed for the support of Bishops in America, and to express our hopes that some part of those legacies, or of the interest arising from them, may be appropriated to the maintenance of Doctor Seabury, in case he is consecrated, and settles in America. We conceive that the separation of this country from the parent state, can be no reasonable bar to such appropriation, nor invalidate the title of American Bishops, who derive their consecration from the Church of England, to the benefit of those legacies. And perhaps, this charitable assistance is now more necessary, than it would have been, had not the empire been dismembered.

We take this opportunity to inform your Grace, that we have consulted his excellency Sir Guy Carleton on the subject of procuring the appointment of a Bishop for the province of Nova Scotia, on which he has expressed to us his entire approbation, and has written to administration, warmly recommending the measure. We took the liberty, at the same time, of mentioning our worthy brother, the Rev. Doctor Thomas B. Chandler, to his excellency, as a person every way qualified to discharge the duties of the Episcopal office in that province, with dignity and honour. And we hope for your Grace's approbation of what we have done in that matter, and for the concurrence of your influence with Sir Guy Carleton's recommendation in promoting the design,

We should have given this information sooner to your Grace, but that we waited for Doctor Seabury's departure for England, which we considered as affording the best, and most proper conveyance.

If Doctor Chandler, and Doctor Seabury should both succeed, as we pray God they may, we trust that, with the blessing of Heaven, the Episcopal Church will yet flourish in this western hemisphere.

With the warmest sentiments of respect and esteem, we have the honour to be,

My Lord,
your Grace's most dutiful sons,
and obedient, humble servants.

JEREMIAH LEAMING, D.D.
CHARLES INGLES, D. D.

Rector of Trinity Church, New-York.

BENJAMIN MOORE, D. D. Assistant Minister of Trinity Church, New-York; and others. His Grace the Archbishop of York.

ON THE OBSERVATION OF LENT. THE season of Lent, having been appointed by the primitive Church to commemorate the time when our blessed Lord endured FASTING and TEMPTATION in the wilderness, has been appropriated to the necessary exercise of HUMILIATION in every age from that time to the present; and the spiritual advantages it bestows will be a powerful inducement with sincere Christians to perform such « an acceptable service” in “ sincerity and truth.”

We find it was the constant practice of devout persons in all ages, as is recorded in regular succession throughout the whole scripture history, “which was written for our instruction by holy men of God, who spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.”

The necessity and importance of such methods hath ever been acknowledged, and indeed they cannot be denied, as a very necessary part of the Christian life, since our great Redeemer, who was fre. quent in this exercise, observed to his disciples, that after he (their bridegroom) was taken from them, “THEN SHOULD they rast in those days," directing them not to do it from a vain ostentation, or “ appearance unto men to fast," by an affected show, but conduct themselves with the same due propriety as at other times, that they might “ do that which was pleasing in the sight of God; and their heavenly Father, who seeth in secret,” and knoweth all the purposes of the heart, “wil reward them openly," by the manifestation of his good pleasure, and make it a powerful means to “ attain the end of their hope," by “perfecting holiness in the sight of God.”

It was called the LENTEN or SPRING FAST, because it was appointed at that season of the year; and the proper observation of it consisted in such frequent exercises of FASTING, PRAYER, and HUMILIATION, with the other useful duties of attending the public service, receiving the holy communion, &c. as were most suitable to the circumstances of each individual, whose sincere use of their best endeavours would certainly be acceptable as a reasonable service to God,“ presented by our merciful High Priest, who ever liveth to make intercession for us” at the throne of grace.

The general method among the primitive Christians was to observe strict fasting till evening, and then partake of moderate refreshment, and continue this for some time, repeating it with short intermissions. Others only continued it till three o'clock in the afternoon, as their situation and circumstances required ; and each employing their best endeavours, according to their several avocations; and thus, like St. Paul the Apostle, they exercised themselves in fast. ings often,” as a fit means to accompany and excite sorrow for our mortal enemy) sin, and most effectual to ensure the success of our addresses under those spiritual calamities.

But as general neglect has produced great carelessness about this duty, it may be urged that none can or will do it, which reflects upon their neglect and enforces immediate compliance. Our excellent Church appoints a weekly fast on Friday; and if that was duly observed, and persons initiated to the practice, there would be no difficulty in the exercise ; and as one fault cannot excuse another, the only consequence is, an immediate amendment and alteration for the better. Yet as this may not perhaps be attempted suddenly, or all at once, on account of the effects it might produce, so we must faithfully exercise our best endeavours, and, beginning with small trials, proceed onward in a regular and persevering manner, until we have ac

complished the arduous and beneficial task ; in order to which, the omission of a meal, or a delay beyond the usual time, may be increased to more material attainments, until the whole can be accomplished in such a manner as will prove most suitable to the condition, and beneficial to answer the ends assigned ; provided we deal impartially with ourselves, “ without dissimulation and without hypocrisy," between God and our own souls ; not making any neglect on our part an excuse for the non-performance of duty in a proper manner; and the time thus gained may be improved by the exercise of devotion in the most advantageous way, by directing it in such a manner as will be most conducive to our benefit, and agreeable to our engagements in life.

By this means we shall not only master the holy season of LENT, and become able to improve it to those admirable purposes for which it was designed, but also the weekly and other fasts of the Church, which are of equal obligation and advantage ; and if such a method was regularly practised and early initiated into the minds of YOUNG Christians, as precious lambs of Christ's flock,” they would be con. vinced of its importance, and have every reason to persevere with i stedfastness unto the end."

The BENEFITS derived from this practice are so numerous as hardly to be repeated ; and the ancient fathers were excessive in their high encomiums upon it, calling it a victory of nature ; the sense of obedience; the death of vice; life of virtue ; the wall of chastity ; fortification of modesty ; the ornament of life ; dispelling of concupiscence ; clearing the mind; making us humble and meek; and the spirit more resolved and firm; acquainting us with ourselves ; the wings of the soul; diet of angels ; purification of the spirit; and St. Basil reckons it, the signet mark of God in the forehead, signed by the angel for the saints to escape his wrath ; and St. Chrysostom calls it, an imitation of angels ; contemning things present ; a school of virtue; nourishment of the soul ; a bridle for the mouth ; mollify ing anger; calms the passions ; excites reason; clears the mind ; disburthens the flesh; acquiring a composed behaviour, free utter. ance, right judgment, and clear apprehensions; with many others, which abundantly testify their high esteem, founded upon those ra. tional motives which always excite to every virtuous and excellent deed.

The great advantages it affords “ to bring the body into subjection," and make it obedient to the higher powers,” are abundantly mani. fest; and the more these predominate in those who find them “a law in their members, warring against the law of their mind,” the more earnestly should they “ strive for the mastery,” by the proper use of such means as are appointed to produce those happy effects, and be truly thankful they are attainable, inasmuch as ETERNITY is at stake ; for in the words of a celebrated father in the primitive Church, “ he loseth all that loseth his soul.” We are assured our spiritual enemy is "continually walking about as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour," and is ever on the watch to deceive the unwary ; therefore it behoveth us to be supplied with “the whole armour of God," that we may be « able to resist" and quench “ all the fiery darts to the necessary exercise of HUMILIATION in every age from that time to the present; and the spiritual advantages it bestows will be a powerful inducement with sincere Christians to perform such“ an acceptable service" in “ sincerity and truth."

We find it was the constant practice of devout persons in all ages, as is recorded in regular succession throughout the whole scripture history, “which was written for our instruction by holy meñ of God, who spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost."

The necessity and importance of such methods hath ever been acknowledged, and indeed they cannot be denied, as a very necessary part of the Christian life, since our great Redeemer, who was frequent in this exercise, observed to his disciples, that after he (their bridegroom) was taken from them, “THEN SHOULD they Fast in those days," directing them not to do it from a vain ostentation, or « appearance unto men to fast," by an affected show, but conduct themselves with the same due propriety as at other times, that they might “ do that which was pleasing in the sight of God; and their heavenly Father, who seeth in secret," and knoweth all the purposes of the heart, “ wil reward them openly,” by the manifestation of his good pleasure, and make it a powerful means to “ attain the end of their hope," by “ perfecting holiness in the sight of God.”

It was called the LENTEN O SPRING FAST, because it was appointed at that season of the year; and the proper observation of it consisted in such frequent exercises of FASTING, PRAYER, and HUMILIATION, with the other useful duties of attending the public service, receiving the holy communion, &c. as were most suitable to the circumstances of each individual, whose sincere use of their best endeavours would certainly be acceptable as a reasonable service to God,“ presented by our merciful High Priest, who ever liveth to make intercession for us” at the throne of grace. • The general method among the primitive Christians was to observe strict fasting till evening, and then partake of moderate refreshment, and continue this for some time, repeating it with short intermissions. Others only continued it till three o'clock in the afternoon, as their situation and circumstances required ; and each employing their best endeavours, according to their several avocations; and thus, like St. Paul the Apostle, they exercised themselves « in fast. ings often," as a fit means to accompany and excite sorrow for our mortal enemy) sin, and most effectual to ensure the success of our addresses under those spiritual calamities.

But as general neglect has produced great carelessness about this duty, it may be urged that none can or will do it, which reflects upon their neglect and enforces immediate compliance. Our excellent Church appoints a weekly fast on Friday; and if that was duly observed, and persons initiated to the practice, there would be no difficulty in the exercise; and as one fault cannot excuse another, the only consequence is, an immediate amendment and alteration for the better. Yet as this may not perhaps be attempted suddenly, or all at once, on account of the effects it might produce, so we must faithfully exercise our best endeavours, and, beginning with small trials, proceed onward in a regular and persevering manner, until we have ac

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