Obrazy na stronie

the senators nor those of the father of Fabius, who had been dictator and three times consul,..could induce Papirius to pardon him, the father of Fabius appealed to the people, and at length, at the earnest entreaties of the people and the tribunes of the commons, the life of Fabius was spared. Papirius named a new master of the horse, and, on his return to the army, defeated the Samnites, and put an end to the war at the time. (Liv., 8, 29, seqq.) Papirius was elected consul a second time, with Q. Publius Philo, in B.C. 320, and again defeated the Samnites; and apparently a third time in the following year, though there appears to be some doubt upon the latter point. (Liv., 9, 7, seqq.) He was consul for the fourth time in B.C. 315 (Liv., 9, 22), and for the fifth time in B.C. 313. (Liv., 9, 38.) He was again named dictator in B.C. 309, to carry on the war against his old enemies the Samnites, whom he defeated with great slaughter, and obtained, on account of his victory, the honours of a triumph (Liv., 9, 38, seqq.); aster which time we find no more mention of him. Papirius Cursor, says I.ivy (9, 16), was considered the most illustrious man of his age, and it was thought he would have been equal to contend with Alexander the Great, if the latter, after the conquest of Asia, had turned his arms against Europe. (Encycl. Use. Knowl., vol. 17, p. 218.)—II. One of this family received the surname of Pratertatus, from an action of his while still wearing the pra:terta, or youthful gown, and before he had assumed the toga virilis, or gown of manhood. . It was customary in those days for fathers to take their young sons to the senate-house when anything important was under discussion, in order that they might sooner become familiarized with public affairs. The father of young Papirius took him on one of these occasions, while a matter of considerable moment was pending ; and it having been deemed advisable to adjourn the debate unto the morrow, an injunction of secrecy was laid upon all who were present. The mother of young Papirius wished to know what had passed in the senate; but the son, unwilling to betray the secrets of that assembly, amused his parent by telling her that it had been debated whether it would be more advantageous to the republic to give two wives to one husband, or two husbands to one wife. The mother of Papirius was alarmed, and she communicated the secret to the other Roman matrons, and on the morrow they assembled in large numbers before the senate-house, bathed in tears, and earnestly entreating that one woman might have two husbands rather than one husband two wives. The senators were astonished at so singular an application; but young Papirius modestly explained the cause, and the fathers, in admiration of his ready tact, passed a decree, that for the future boys should not be allowed to come to the senate with their fathers, except Papirius alone. This regulation continued until the time of Augustus, who rescinded it. (Macrob., 1, 6) Pappus, a celebrated mathematician of Alexandrea, who lived towards the end of the fourth century. He is known by his Mathematical Collections (Maffnuattkai avvayoyai), in eight books, and by other works, among which were a Commentary on Ptolemy's Almagest, a work on Geography, a Treatise on Military Engines, a Commentary on Aristarchus of Samos, &c. His Collections have chiefly come down to us; of his other productions we have merely some fragments. The last five books of the Collections remain entire; the third is acephalous, wanting the commencement. Wallis published a fragment of the second. The first two books contained the Greek Arithmetic. What we have of the work is interesting, on account of the extracts it contains from works that are now lost, and it merits the careful perusal of those who make researches into the history of the exact sciences. Montucla ascribes to Pappus the first idea of the principle

often referred to by mathematicians, the use, namely, of the centre of gravity for the dimension of figures. We owe to Pappus also an elegant though indirect solution of the famous problem of the trisection of an angle. “Pappus,” observes a writer in the American Quarterly Review (No. 21, p. 124), “is the only name worthy of note that occurs to fill up the great blank between Archimedes and the Italian mechanicians of the sixteenth century. He attempted to ascertain the principle of all the simple machines, in the same manner that his illustrious predecessor had that of the lever; his attention, however, was principally directed to the inclined plane. In this he failed, owing to the fundamental error upon which all his investigations proceeded, that some force was necessary to keep a body even on a plane of no inclination.”— Only parts of the Greek text of the Collections have been published. We have a Latin version of six books, from the third to the end of the work, made by Commandino, an Italian mathematician of the sixteenth century. It was printed at Pesaro in 1588, fol, with a commentary by Ubaldi, and asterward revised by Manolessius, and reprinted at Bologna, 1660, fol. A fragment of the Greek text of the second book was given by Wallis at the end of his Aristarchus, Oron., 1688, 8vo, and in the third volume of his Opera Mathematica. The second part of the fifth book was published by Eisenmann, professor in “L’Ecole royale des ponts et chaussées,” Paris, 1824, fol. A part of the preface of the seventh book is given in the Prolegomena of Gregory's Euclid, Oron., 1703, fol., and the entire preface in the edition of Apollonius of Perga, Oxon., 1706, 8vo. Melbomius has inserted some lemmas from the seventh book in his Dialogi de Proportionibus, Hafnia, 1655, fol. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 7, p. 49.-Biogr. Univ., vol. 32, p. 538.) PARAETAcAE or -tace N1, a people of Persia, occupying the mountain range between that country and Media. Their territory was called by the Greeks Paratacene, and Stephanus Byzantinus makes mention of a city in it by the name of Paraetaca (p. 626. — Diod. Sic, 19, 34.—Arrian, 3, 19.-Plin., 6, 26). Paraetonium, a strongly-sortified place, the frontiercity of Egypt on the side of Libya, and situate on the coast of the Mediterranean. It had, including its harbour, a circuit of about 40 stadia. (Strab., 798) Justinian repaired and strengthened it. (Procop., de AEdif., 6, 2.) Strabo gives the distance from Alexandrea at about 1300 stadia: Scylax makes it 1700, and Pliny 1600. Ptolemy removes Paraetonium from Alexandrea 3° 30', or 35 geographical miles.—The modern name is Al Barcton. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 29, seqq.) PARAsANges (TIapacáyymc), in Latin Parasanga, a parasang, or Persian measure of length, which, according to Herodotus (2,6; 5.53; 6,42), was equal to 30 stadia; and if we reckon eight stadia as equal to one English mile, the parasang was consequently equal to nearly four English miles. Hesychius and Suidas also give the length of the parasang at 30 stadia; and Xenophon must have calculated it at the same length, since he says (Anab., 2.2, 6) that 16,050 stadia are equal to 535 parasangs (16,050 -535–30). Pliny (6, 30), however, informs us, that the length of the parasang was reckoned differently by different authors ; and Strabo (518) states, that some reckoned it at 60, others at 40, and others at 30 stadia. The Arabian geographers (Freytag, Ler. Arab., s. v. Farsakh) reckon it equal to three miles, which agrees with the statements of English travellers (quoted by Rodiger, in Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopädie), who estimate it variously at from 3% to 4 English miles. Franklin (Tour to Persia, p. 17) reckons it at four miles: Qusley (Travels, vol. 1, p. 23) at between 3} and 33 miles; and Kinneir (Geogr. of Persia, p. 57) at 33 miles.— Parasang is a Persian word, and is o from the 7

ancient Farsang, which is pronounced in modern Persian Ferseng. It has been changed in Arabic into Farsakh. Various etymologies have been proposed for the term. The latter part of the word is thought to be the Persian seng, “a stone,” and the term might thus be derived from the stones which were placed to mark the distances in the road. Bohlen (quoted by Rödiger) supposes the first part of the word to be the preposition fera, and compares the word with the Latin ad lapidem. (Encycl. Us. Knowl, vol. 17, p. 241.) PARCAE, the Fates, called also Fata, and in Greek Moipat (Moira). In the Iliad, with the exception of one passage (20, 49), the Moira is spoken of in the singular number, and as a person, almost exactly as we use the word Fate. But in the Odyssey this word is employed as a common substantive, followed by a genitive of the person, and signifying decree. The Theogony of Hesiod limits the Fates, like so many other goddesses, to three, and gives them Jupiter and Themis for their parents. (Theog., 904) In an interpolated passage of the same poem (v. 217) they are classed among the children of Night; and Plato, on his part, makes them the daughters of Necessity. (Rep., 10, 617.) Their names in Hesiod are Clotho (Spinster), Lachesis (Allotter), and Atropos (Unchangeable); but he does not speak of their spinning the destinies of men. This office of theirs is, however, noticed in both the Iliad and Odyssey. It is probable that Homer, in accordance with the sublime fiction in the Theogony, regarded the Fates as the offspring of Jupiter and Order, for in him they are but the ministers of Jupiter, in whose hands are the issues of all things. (Nuzch, ad Od, 3,236.) Aschylus makes even Jupiter himself subject to the Fates. (Prom. Vinct., 515.-Keightley's Mythology, p. 195)—According to the popular inythology, Clotho held the distaff, Lachesis span each one's portion of the thread of existence, and Atropos cut it off: hence the wellknown line expressing their respective functions:

“Clotho colum retinet, Lachesis net, et Atropos occat.”

The more correct explanation, however, is to make Clotho spin, Lachesis mark out each one's portion, and Atropos sever it.—The Latin writers indulge in various views of the functions of the Parca, as suggested by their own ingenuity of elucidation. Thus Apuleius (De Mundo, sub fin.) makes Clotho preside over the present, Atropos the past, and Lachesis the future; an idea probably borrowed from Plato, who introduces the Moira singing yeyovára, Övra, uéââovra. (Rep., 10, 617.) So in the Scandinavian mythology, the Norns or Destinies, who are also three in number, are called Urdur, Verdandi, and Skuld, or “Past,” “Present,” and “Future.”—According to Fulgentius (Mythol., 1, 7), Clotho presides over nativity, Atropos over death, and Lachesis over each one's lot in life.—The term Moira (Moipa) comes from utipo, “to divide” or “portion out.” The ordinary etymology for the word Parca deduces it by antiphrasis from parco, “to spare,” because they never spared. (Serp. ad AEn., 1, 26.-Martian. Capell.— Donat.—Diomed., ap. Voss., Etymol.) Varro derives it “a pariendo,” because they presided over the birth of men (Aul. Gell, 3, 16); or, to quote his own words, “Parca, immutata litera una, a partu nominata.” Scaliger makes it come from parco, “to spare,” in a disserent sense from Servius and the other grammarians quoted above; because, according to him, only one of the Fates cuts the thread of existence, whereas of the other two, one gives life and the other prolo, s it. Perhaps, after all, the best explanation (supposing the word Parca to be of Latin origin) is that which makes it come from parco, “to spare,” not by antiphrasis, nor in accordance with Scaliger's notion, but because these deities were invoked in prayer to spare the lives

of mortals. (Consult Scheller, Lat. Deutsch. Wörterb., s. v.) . Paris, the son of Priam, king of Troy, by Hecuba, and also called Alerander. He was destined, even before his birth, to become the ruin of his country; and when his mother, being about to lie-in of him, had dreamed that she brought forth a torch which set all Ilium in flames, the soothsayer Æsacus declared that the child would prove the ruin of his country, and recommended to expose it. As soon as born, the babe was given to a servant to be left on Ida to perish. The domestic obeyed, but, on returning at the end of five days, he found that a bear had been nursing the infant. Struck with this strange event, he took home the infant, reared him as his own son, and named him Paris. When Paris grew up he distinguished himself by his strength and courage in repelling robbers from the flocks, and the shepherds, in consequence, named him Alexander (Man-protector), or, according to the Greek form, 'A2.É;avópoc (dro too d'Aéčew roto ovápac). In this state of seclusion, too, he united himself to the nymph OEnone, whose tragical fate is elsewhere related. (Vid. OEnone.) Their conjugal happiness was soon disturbed. At the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, the goddess of Discord, who had not been invited to partake of the entertainment, showed her displeasure by throwing into the assembly of the gods who were at the celebration of the nuptials a golden apple, on which were written the words "H kazi, watero, “Let the beauty (among you) take me.” Juno, Minerva, and Venus laying claim to it, and Jove being unwilling to decide, the god commanded Mercury to lead"the three deities to Mount Ida, and to intrust the decision of the affair to the shepherd Alexander, whose judgment was to be definitive. The goddesses appeared before him, and urged their respective claims, and each, to influence his decision, made him an alluring offer of future advantage. Juno endeavoured to secure his preference by the promise of a kingdom, Minerva by the gift of intellectual superiority and martial renown, and Venus by offering him the fairest woman in the world for his wife. To Venus he assigned the prize, and brought upon himself, in consequence, the unrelenting enmity of her two disappointed rivals, which was extended also to his whole family and the entire Trojan race. Soon after this event, Priam proposed a contest amo his sons and other princes, and promised to j the conqueror with one of the finest bulls of Mount Ida. Persons were sent to procure the animal, and it was found in the possession of Paris, who reluctantly yielded it up. The shepherd, desirous of obtaining again this favourite animal, went to Troy, and entered the lists of the combatants. Having proved successful against every competitor, and having gained an advantage over Hector himself, that prince, irritated at seeing himself conquered by an unknown stranger, pursued him closely, and Paris must have fallen a victim to his brother's resentment had he not fled to the altar of Jupiter. This sacred place of refuge preserved his life; and Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, struck with the similarity of the features of Paris to those of her brothers, inquired his birth and his age. From these circumstances she soon discovered that he was her brother, and as such she introduced him to her father and to his children. Priam, thereupon, forgetsul of the alarming predictions of Æsacus, acknowledged Paris as his son, and all enmity instantly ceased between the new-comer and Hector. Not long after this, at the instigation of Venus, who had not forgotten her promise to him, Paris proceeded on his memorable voyage to Greece, from which the soothsaying Helenus and Cassandra had in vain endeavoured to deter him. The ostensible object of the voyage was to procure information respecting his father's sister Hesione, who had been given in marriage by Hercules to his follower Telamon, the monarch of Salamis. The real mouve,

however, which prompted the enterprise, was a wish to obtain, in the person of Helen, then the fairest woman of her time, a fulfilment of what Venus had offered him when he was deciding the contest of beauty. Arriving at Sparta, where Menelaus, the husof Helen, was reigning, he met with an hospitable reception; but, Menelans soon after having sailed away to Crete, the Trojan prince availed himself of his absence, seduced the affections of Helen, and bore her away to his native city, together with a large portion of the wealth of her husband. (Consult remarks under the article Helena.) Hence ensued the war of Troy, which ended in the total destruction of that ill-fated city. (Wid. Troja.) Paris, though represented in general as effeminate and vain of his personal appearance, yet distinguished himself during the siege of Troy by wounding Diomede, Machaon, Antilochus, and Palamedes, and subsequently by discharging the dart which proved fatal to Achilles. Venus took him under her special protection, and, in the single combat with Menelaús, rescued him from the vengeance of the latter. The circumstances of his death are mentioned under the article CEnone. (Dict. Cret., 1, 3. 4.—Apollod., 3, 12. — Hygin., fab., 92, 273. – Tzetz. ad Lycophr., 57, 61, 63, 86, &c.) PARisi, a British nation lying to the north of the Coritani, and occupying the district which is called Holderness, or, according to Camden, the whole Eastièuding of Yorkshire. They are supposed to have derived their name from the two British words paur isa, which signify low pasture, and which are descriptive of the situation and uses of their country. Their capital was Petuaria. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 187.) PA Risii, a people and city of Gaul, now Paris, the capital of the kingdom of France. (Wid. Lutetia.Caes., B. G., 6, 3.) PARisus, a river of Pannonia, falling into the Danube; according to Mannert, the Mur, in the Hungarian part of its course. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 489.) PARiuM, now Camanar, a town of Asia Minor, in Mysia Minor, on the Propontis, southwest of Linus, and northeast from Paesus. It was founded by the Milesians and Parians. (Plin., 5, 32. – Paul. Lez., viii., de Censib.) PARMA, a city of Italy, south of the Po, on the small river Parma. It was founded by the Etrurians, taken by a tribe of Gauls called the Boii, and at last colonized by the Romans, A.U.C. 569. (Liv., 39, 55.) From Cicero it may be inferred that Parma suffered from the adverse factions in the civil wars. (Ep. ad. Fam., 10, 33. – Id, ibid., 12, 5, – Id., Philipp., 14, 3.) It was probably recolonized under Augustus, as some inscriptions give it the title of Colonia Julia Augusta Parma. Strabo (216) speaks of it as a city of note. From Martial we learn that its wool was highly prized (14, 53; 5, 13). In the ages that immediately succeeded the fall of the Roman empire, we find this city distinguished also by the appellation of Chrysopolis (Gold-city), but are unacquainted with the causes that led to the adoption of the name. (Geogr. Ravennas, 4, 33. — Donizo, Vit. Machtildis, 1, 10.) The modern name is Parma. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 1, p. 218.) PARMENídes (IIapueviðms), the second in the series of the Eleatic philosophers, was a native of Elea. He was descended from a noble family, and is said to have been induced to study philosophy by Aminias. (Diog. Laert., 9, 21.) He is also stated to have received instruction from Diochaetes, the Pythagorean, to whom he erected an heroum. Later writers inform us that he heard Xenophanes, the founder of the Eleatic school, but Aristotle (Met., 1, 5) speaks of it with some doubt. We read that Parmenidos gave a code of laws to his native city, which was so highly esteemed that at first the citizens took an oath every year to observe it. 6 H

(Diog. Laert., 9, 23.--Plut., Adv. Colot., 32.-Strabo, 252.) The time when he lived has been much disputed. According to Plato (Parmen., 127), Parmenides, at the age of sixty-five, accompanied by Zeno, at the age of sorty, visited Athens during the great Panathenaea, and stopped at the house of Pythodorus. As this visit to Athens probably occurred about B.C 454 (Clinton, Fast. Hell., p. 364), Parmenides would have been born about B.C. 519. But to this date two objections are urged; first, that Diogenes Laertius (9, 23) says that Parmenides j (#kpaşe) in the 69th Olympiad; and, secondly, that Socrates is stated by Plato, in his dialogue entitled Parmenides, to have conversed with Parmenides and Zeno on the doctrine of ideas, which we can hardly suppose to have been the case, as Socrates at that time was only thirteen or fourteen. Athenaeus, accordingly (11, p. 505), has censured Plato for saying that such a dialogue ever took place. But in reply to these objections it may be remarked, first, that little reliance can be placed upon the vague statement of such a careless writer as Diogenes; and, secondly, that the dialogue which Plato represents Socrates to have had with Parmenides and Zeno is doubtless fictitious; yet it was founded on a fact, that Socrates, when a boy, had heard Parmenides at Athens. Plato mentions, both in the “Theatetus.” (p. 183) and the “Sophistes” (p. 127), that Socrates was very young (Távv véog) when he heard Parmenides. We have no other particulars of the life of Parmenides. He taught Empedocles and Zeno, and with the latter lived on the most intimate terms. (Plato, Parmen., 127.) He is always spoken of by the ancient writers with the greatest respect. In the “Theaetetus” (p. 183) Plato compares him with Homer; and in the “Sophistes” (p. 237) he calls him “the Great.” (Compare Aristot., Met., 1, 5.) Parmenides wrote a poem, which is usually cited by the title “Of Nature” (trepi occo.— Sext. Empir., adv. Mathem., 7, 111. —Theophr., ap. Diog. Laert., 8, 55), but which also bore other titles. Suidas calls it ovaložoyia (s. v. IIapluevið.), and adds, on the authority of Plato, that he also wrote works in prose. The passage in Plato (Soph., p. 237), however, to which Suidas refers, perhaps only means an oral exposition of his system, which interpretation is rendered more probable by the fact that Sextus Empiricus (adv. Mathem., 7, 111) and Diogenes Laertius (1, 16) expressly state, that Parmenides only wrote one work. Several fragments of this work “On Nature” have come down to us, principally in the writings of Sextus Empiricus and Simplicius. They were first published by Stephanus in his “Poesis Philosophica” (Paris, 1573), and next by Fülleborn, with a translation in verse, Zullichau, 1795, Brandis, in his “Commentationes Eleatica,” Hafniae, 1813, also published the fragments of Parmenides, together with those of Xenophanes and Melissus; but the most recent and complete edition is by Karsten, in the second volume of his “Philosophorum Graecorum veterum, praesertim qui ante Platonem, floruerunt, Operum Reliquide,” Bruz., 1835. The fragments of his work which have come down to us are sufficient to enable us to judge of its general method and subject. It opened with an allegory, which was intended to exhibit the soul's longing after truth. The soul is represented as drawn by steeds along an untrodden road to the residence of Justice (Atkm), who promises to reveal everything to it. After this introduction the work is divided into parts; the first part treats of the knowledge of truth, and the second explains the physiological system of the Eleatic school. (Encyclop. Useful Knowl., vol. 17, p. 283.) PARMENío, a Macedonian general, who distinguished himself in the service of Philip, father of Alexander the Great. He gained a decisive victory over the Illyrians about the time of Alexander's birth, and the news of both events reached Philip, who *;on absent from his capital on some expedition, together with that of his having won the prize at the Olympic games. Philip, while preparing to invade the Persian empire, sent a considerable force into Asia as an advanced guard, and he chose Parmenio and Attalus as the leaders of the expedition. These commanders began by expelling the Persian garrisons from several Greek towns of Asia Minor. Parmenio took Grynaeum in AEolis, the inhabitants of which, having sided with the Persians, and fought against the Macedonians, were sold as slaves. When Alexander set out on his Asiatic expedition, Parmenio had one of the chief commands in the army. At the head of the Thessalian cavalry he contributed much to the victory of the Granicus; and at Issus he had the command of the cavalry on the left wing, which was placed near the seacoast, and had to sustain for a time the principal attack of the Persians. At Arbela he advised Alexander not to ive battle until he had well reconnoitred the ground. f. in command of the left wing, he was attacked in flank by the Persians, and was for a time in some danger, until Alexander, who had been successful in another part of the field, came to his assistance. Parmenio afterward pursued the fugitives, and took possession of the Persian camp, with the elephants, camels, and all the baggage. When Alexander marched beyond the Caspian gates in pursuit of Darius and Bessus, he left Parmenio, who was now advanced in years, in Media, at the head of a considerable force. Some time after, while Alexander was encamped at Artacoana, a conspiracy is said to have been discovered against his life, in which Philotas, the son of Parmenio, was accused of being implicated. He was, in consequence, put to the torture, and, after enduring dreadful agonies, confessed, though in vague terms, that he had conspired against the life of Alexander, and that his father Parmenio was cognizant of it. This being considered sufficient evidence, Philotas was stoned to death, and Alexander despatched a messenger to Media, with secret orders to Cleander and other officers who were serving under Parmenio, to put their commander to death. The unsuspecting veteran, while conversing with his officers, was run through the body by Cleander. This is the substance of the account of Curtius (lib. 6 et 7). Arrian's account is somewhat different (lib. 3). Whatever may be thought of the trial and execution of Philotas, and it appears to have been at least a summary and unsatisfactory proceeding, the murder of Parmenio, and the manner of it, form one of the darkest blots in Alexander's character. Parmenio was evidently sacrificed in cold blood to what have been styled, in after ages, “reasons of state.” He was seventy years of age; he had lost two sons in the campaigns of Alexander, and Philotas was the last one remaining to him. Parmenio appears to have been a steady, brave, and prudent commander. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 17, p. 283, seq.) PARNAssus (IIapvaagóc), I. the name of a mountain-chain in Phocis, which extends in a northeasterly direction from the country of the Locri Ozolae to Mount CEta, and in a southwesterly direction through the middle of Phocis, till it joins Mount Helicon on the borders of Boeotia. Strabo (316) says that Parnassus divided Phocis into two parts; but the name was more usually restricted to the lofty mountain upon which Delphi was situated. According to Stephanus of Byzantium, it was anciently called Larnassus, because the ark or larnaz of Deucalion landed here after the flood. (Compare Opid, Met., 1,318.) Pausanias (10, 6, 1) derives the name from Parnassus, the son of Neptune and Cleodora. It is called at the present day Liakura. Parnassus is the highest mountain in Central Greece. Strabo (379) says that it could be seen from the Acrocorinthus in Corinth, and also states (409) that it was of the same height as Mount Helicon ; but in the latter point he was mistaken, ac

cording to Colonel Leake, who informs us (Trarels in Northern Greece, vol. 2, p. 527) that Liakura is some hundreds of feet higher than Paleovuna, which is the highest point of Helicon. Parnassus was covered the greater part of the year with snow, whence the epithet of “snowy” so generally applied to it by the poets. (Soph., (Ed. Tyr., 473–Eurip., Pharn., 214.) When Brennus invaded Greece, we learn from Pausanias (10, 23, 3 et 4) that it was covered with snow. Above Delphi there were two lofty rocks, from which the mountain is frequently called by the poets the twoheaded (6trópwooc), one of which Herodotus (8, 39) names Hyampea, but which were usually called Phaedriades. Between these two rocks the celebrated Castalian fount flows from the upper part of the mountain. The water which oozes from the rock was in ancient times introduced into a hollow square, where it was retained for the use of the Pythia and the oracular priests. The fountain is ornamented with pendant rvy, and overshadowed by a large fig-tree. (Dodwell's Travels, vol. 1, p. 172.) Above the spring, at the distance of 60 stadia from Delphi, was the Corycian cave, sacred to Pan and the Corycian nymphs, which Pausanias (10, 32, 2, 5) speaks of as superior to every other known cavern. (Compare Strabo, 417) When the Persians were marching against Delphi, a part of the inhabitants took refuge in this cavern. (Herod, 8,37.) It is described by a modern traveller (Raikes, in Walpole's Collection, &c., vol. 1, p. 312) as 330 feet long and nearly 200 wide. As far as this cave the road to Delphi was accessible by horses and mules, but beyond it the ascent was difficult even for an active man (dvāpi ei sãvo.— Pausan., 10, 32, 2, 5). Above this cave, and near the summit of Parnassus, at the distance of 80 stadia from Delphi (Pausan, 10, 32, 6) was the town of Tithorea or Neon, the ruins of which are near the modern village of Velitza. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 17, p. 284, seq.)—II. A son of Neptune, who gave his name to a mountain of Phocis. PARNes (gen. -étis), a mountain of Attica, north of Athens, famous for its wines. It was the highest mountain in the whole country, rising on the northern frontier, and being connected with Pentelicus to the south, and towards Boeotia with Cithaeron. Pausanias says (1, 32) that on Mount Parnes were a statue of Jupiter Parnethius, and an altar of Jupiter Semaleus. It abounded with wild boars and bears. (Pausan, i. c. Pliny, 11, 37.) The modern name is Nozra. “Mount Parnes is intermingled,” says Dodwell, “with a multiplicity of glens, crags, and well-wooded rocks and precipices, and richly diversified with scenery which is at once grand and picturesque: its summit commands a view over a vast extent of country." (Tour, vol. 1, p. 504.) PAR or Amisus, a province of India, the eastern limit of which, in Alexander's time, was the river Cophenes. According to the ideas of Ptolemy, it lay between the countries which the moderns name Khorasan and Cabul, and it answers to the tract between Herat and Cabul. This province was separated from Bactria by a range of mountains also called Paropamisus, now Hendu Khos, and which formed part of the great chain of Imaus. (Wid. Imaus.-Mela, 1, 15–Plin., 6, 17.) PAros, now Paro, one of the Cyclades, to the south of Delos, at the distance of about seven and a half miles. It was said to have been first peopled by the Cretans and Arcadians. (Steph. Byz., s. r. slapoo.) Its early prosperity is evinced by the colonies it established at Thasus and on the shores of the Hellespont. (Thucydides, 4, 104.—Strabo, 487.) During the time of the Persian war, we are told that it was the most flourishing and important of the Cyclades. (Ephor., ap. Steph. Byz., s. v. IIápot.—Herod., 5, 28, seqq.). After the battle of Marathon it was be: sieged in vain by Miltiades for twenty-six days, and thus proved the cause of his disgrace. (Herod, 5.

I34.) The Parians, according to the historian just cited, did not take part with the Persians in the battle of Salamis, but kept aloof near Cythnus, awaiting the issue of the action. (Herod., 8, 67.) Themistocles, however, subsequently imposed upon them a heavy fine. (Herod., 8, 112.) Paros was famed for its marble. The quarries were on Mount Marpessa. (Virg., AEm., 6, 470.-Pind, Nem., 4, 131–Virg., Georg., 3, 34.—Hor., Od., 1, 19, 5.—Steph. Byz., s. v. Maprmgaa.) Some remarks on the Parian marble will be offered below.—Paros was the birthplace of the poet Archilochus. (Strabo, l.c.—Fabr., Bibl. Gr., vol. 2, p. 107.)—It was in Paros that the famous marble was disinterred, known by the name of the Parian Chronicle, from its having been kept in this island. It is a chronological account of the principal events in Grecian, and particularly in Athenian, history, during a period of 1318 years, from the reign of Cecrops, B.C. 1450, to the archonship of Diognetus, B.C. 264. But the chronicle of the last 90 years was lost, so that the part now remaining ends at the archonship of Diotimus, B.C. 354. The authenticity of this chronicle has been called in question by Mr. Robertson, who, in 1788, published a “Dissertation on the Parian Chronicle.” His objections, however, have been ably and fully discussed, and the authenticity of this ancient document has been fully vindicated by Porson, in his review of Robertson's essay. (Monthly Review, January, 1789, p. 690–Porson's Tracts, ed. Kidd, p. 57, seqq.—Consult also the Encyclopædia Metropolitana, Art. “Arundelian Marbles.”) The chronicle is given, with an English version, in Hale's Analysis of Chronology (vol. 1, p. 107, seqq.)—The following very interesting account of the quarries and marbles of Paros is given by Dr. Clarke. “This day we set out upon mules for the ancient quarries of the famous Parian marble, which are situate about a league to the east of the town, upon the summit of a mountain, nearly corresponding in altitude with the situation of the Grotto of Antiparos. The mountain in which the quarries are situate is now called Capresso: there are two of these quarries. When we arrived at the first, we sound in the mouth of the quarry heaps of fragments detached from the interior : they were tinged, by long exposure to the air, with a reddish, ochreous hue ; but, upon being broken, exhibited the glittering sparry fracture which often characterizes the remains of Grecian sculpture: and in this we instantly recognised the beautiful marble, which is generally named, by way of distinction, the Parian, although the same kind of marble is also found in Thasos. The marble of Naxos only differs from the Thasian and Parian in exhibiting a more advanced state of crystallization. The peculiar excellence of the Parian is extolled by Strabo ; and it possesses some valuable qualities unknown even to the ancients, who spoke so highly in its praise. These qualities are, that of hardening by exposure to atmospheric air (which, however, is common to all homogeneous limestone), and the consequent property of resisting decomposition through a series of ages; and this, rather than the supposed preference given to the Parian marble by the ancients, may be considered as the cause of its prevalence among the remains of Grecian sculpture. That the Parian marble was highly and deservedly extolled by the Romans, is well known : but in a very early period, when the arts had attained their full splendour in the age of Pericles, the preference was given by the Greeks, not to the marble of Paros, but to that of Mount Pentelicus, because it was whiter; and also, perhaps, because it was found in the immediate vicinity of Athens. The Parthenon was built entirely of Pentelican marble. Many of the Athenian statues, and of the works carried on near Athens during the administration of Pericles (as, for example, the temple of Ceres at Eleusis), were exe

cuted in the marble of Pentelicus. But the finest Grecian sculpture which has been preserved to the present time, is generally of Parian marble. The Medicean Venus, the Belvidere Apollo, the Antinous, and many other celebrated works, are made on it; notwithstanding the preference which was so early bestowed upon the Pentelican; and this is easily explained. While the works executed in Parian marble retain, with all the delicate softness of wax, the mild lustre even of their original polish, those which were finished in Pentelican marble have been decomposed, and sometimes exhibit a surface as earthy and as rude as common limestone. This is principally owing to veins of extraneous substances which intersect the Pentelican quarries, and which appear more or less in all the works executed in this kind of marble. The fracture of Pentelican marble is sometimes splintery, and partakes of the foliated texture of the schistus, which traverses it; consequently, it has a tendency to exfoliate, like cipolino, by spontaneous decomposition.—We descended into the quarry, whence not a single block of marble has been removed since the island fell into the hands of the Turks; and perhaps it was abandoned long before, as might be conjectured from the ochreous colour by which all the exterior surface of the marble is now invested. We seemed, therefore, to view the grotto exactly in the state in which it had been left by the ancients: all the cavities, cut with the greatest nicety, showed to us, by the sharpness of their edges, the number and the size of all the masses of Parian marble which had been removed for the sculptors of ancient Greece. If the stone had possessed the softness of potter's clay, and had been cut by wires, it could not have been separated with greater nicety, evenness, and economy. The most evident care was everywhere displayed, that there should be no waste of this precious marble : the larger squares and parallelograms corresponded, as a mathematician would express it, by a series of equimultiples, with the smaller, in such a manner that the remains of the entire vein of marble, by its dipping inclination, resembled the degrees or seats of a theatre.—We quitted the larger quarry, and visited another somewhat, less elevated. Here, as if the ancients had resolved to mark for posterity the scene of their labours, we observed an ancient bas-relief on the rock. It is the same which Tournefort describes (Woy, du Lev., vol. 1, p. 239), although he erred in describing the subject of it. It is a more curious relic than is commonly supposed. It represents, in three departments, a festival of Silenus, mistaken by Tournefort for Bacchus. It has never been observed that Pliny mentions the image of Silenus in this bas-relief as a natural curiosity, and one of the marvels of ancient Greece. The figure of Silenus was accidentally discovered, as a lusus naturae, in splitting the rock, and the other parts of the bas-relief were adjusted by the hand of art. Such a method of heightening and improving any casual effect of this kind has been very common in all countries, especially where the populace are to be deluded by some supposed prodigy; and thus the cause is explained why this singular piece of sculpture, so rudely executed, yet remains as a part of the natural rock. “A wonderful circumstance,’ says Pliny, ‘is related of the Parian quarries. The mass of entire stone being separated by the wedges of the workmen, there appeared within it an effigy of Silenus' (36, 5). In the existence of this bas-relief as an integral part of the natural rock, and in the allusion made to it by Pliny, we have sufficient proof that these were ancient quarries; consequently, they are the properest places to resort to for the identical stone whose colour was considered as pleasing to the gods (Plato, de Leg. 12, p. 296), which was used by Praxiteles (Propert. 3, 7, 16. – Quintil., 2, 19) and by o,”

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