Obrazy na stronie

them as hardly repaying the toils and expense of the journey, it must be recollected that he was already satiated with the wonders of Egypt. Yet, taken as a tout ensemble, he admits that they are more remarkable by reason of their extent (being nearly a mile and a half in length), than any which he had met with ; they have the advantage, too, of being less encumbered with modern fabrics than almost any ancient ruins. Exclusive of the Arab village of Tadmor, which occupies the peristyle court of the Temple of the Sun, and the Turkish burying-place, there are no obstructions whatever to the antiquities. The temple itself is disfigured, indeed, by modern works, but i; is still a most majestic object. The natives firmly believe, Mr. Wood informs us, that the existing ruins were the works of King Solomon. “All these mighty things,” say they, “Solyman Ebn Daoud (Solomon the son of David) did by the assistance of spirits.” King Solomon is the Merlin of the East, and to the genii in his service the Persians as well as the Arabs ascribe all the magnificent remains of ancient art. From the dates in the inscriptions, in which the era of Seleucus is observed, with the Macedonian names of the months, it appears that none of the existing monuments are earlier than the birth of Christ; nor is there any inscription so late as the destruction of the city by Aurelian, except one in Latin, which mentions Dioclesian. “As to the age of those ruinous heaps,” says Mr. Wood, “which belonged evidently to buildings of greater antiquity than those which are yet partly standing, it is difficult even to guess; but if we are allowed to form a judgment by comparing their state with that of the monument of Iamblichus at Palmyra, we must conclude them extremely old ; for that building, erected 1750 years ago” (Mr. Wood published in 1753), “is the most perfect piece of antiquity I ever saw.” (Mansford's Scripture Gazetteer, p. 451, seqq.— Modern Traveller, part 5, p. 10, seqq.) PAMisos, I. a river of Thessaly, now the Fanari, falling into the Peneus to the east of Tricca. (Herod., 7, 132)—II. Major, a river of Messenia, falling into the Sinus Messeniacus at its head. It is now the Pimatza. (Walpole, vol. 2, p. 35.) Pausanias affirms, that the waters of this river were remarkably pure, and abounded with various kinds of fish. He adds, that it was navigable for ten stadia from the sea (4, 34.—Compare Polyb., 16, 16).-III. A torrent of Messenia, falling into the Sinus Messeniacus near Leuctrum, and forming part of the ancient boundary between Laconia and Messenia. (Strab., 361.) PAM phila, a Grecian female, whom Photius makes a native of Egypt, but who, according to Suidas, Dioenes Laertius (1, 24), and others, was born at Epi#. in Argolis. She wrote several works, the contents of which were chiefly historical. One of these was entitled 'Erurouai taropov (Historical Abridgments). Another, which Photius has made known to us, bore the name of Xi'uukra loroptkū ūtrouvâuara (Historical Miscellany). It was a species of note or memorandum book, in which this female regularly inserted, every day, whatever she heard most deserving of being remembered, in the conversations between her husband Socratidas and the literary friends who visited his house, and also whatever she had met with worthy of being recorded, in the course of her historical reading. She was united to Socratidas for thirteen years, during all which time the compilation was being formed. The work, however, was without any systematic arrangement, o it would appear to have contained a vast variety of literary anecdote, some few portions of which have reached us in the quotations of others. Photius only knew of eight books of this collection, but Suidas says it contained thirty-three; and, in fact, Aulus Gellius (15, 17) quotes ths 29th, and Diogenes Laertius (1,24) the 30th. The work is un

fortunately lost. There were some who ascribed it to Soterides, the father of Pamphila. (Suidas, s. v., corrected by Vossius, de Hist. Graec., p. 237, ed. Westermann.) According to Photius, Pamphila lived in the reign of Nero. (Phot, cod., 175—vol. 1, p. 119, ed. Bekker.--Vossius, de Hist. Graec., l.c..—Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 4, p. 106.) Krüger, in his Life of Thucydides (p. 7), calls in question the credit of this female author. (Westermann, ad Voss., l.c.) Pamphilus, I. an Alexandrine grammarian, and a pupil of Aristarchus. He was the author of a large lexicon, in 91 or 95 books, often quoted by Athenaeus, in which he had incorporated the lexicon of the Crotonian dialect by Hermonax, and an Italian (i. e., Doric) lexicon by Diodorus and Heracleon. Other works of his are enumerated by Athenaeus. (Needham, Proleg. ad Geopon., p. 63, seqq. —Schweighacuser, Ind. Auct. ad Athen, vol. 9, p. 159.)—II. A celebrated painter, a native of Amphipolis, but who studied his art under Eupompus of Sicyon, and succeeded in establishing the school which his master had founded. The characteristics of the Sicyonian school of painting were, a stricter attention to dramatic truth of composition, and a finer and more systematic style of design. Pamphilus taught the principles of this school to Apelles. Such was his authority, says Pliny (35, 10, 36), that, chiefly through his influence, first in Sicyon and then throughout all Greece, noble youth were taught the art of drawing before all others; it was considered among the first of liberal arts, and was practised exclusively among the freeborn, for there was a law prohibiting all slaves the use of the cestrum or Ypagic. In this school of Pamphilus, the most famous of all the ancient schools of painting, the progressive courses of study occupied the long period of ten years, and the fee of admission was not less than a talent. Pamphilus, like his master Eupompus, seems to have been occupied principally with the theory of his art and with teaching, since we have very scanty notices of his works. Yet he, and his pupil Melanthius, according to Quintilian (12, 10), were the most renowned among the Greeks for composition. We have accounts of only four of his paintings, the “Heraclidae,” mentioned by Aristophanes (Plutus, 385), and three others named by Pliny, the “Battle of Phlius and victory of the Athenians,” “Ulysses on the raft,” and a “Relationship” or Cognatio, probably a family portrait. These pictures were all conspicuous for the scientific arrangement of their parts, and their subjects certainly afford good materials for fine composition. The period of Pamphilus is sufficiently fixed by the circumstance of his having taught Apelles, and he consequently flourished somewhat before, and about the time of Philip II. of Macedon, from B.C. 388 to about B.C. 348. He left writings upon the arts, but they have unfortunately suffered the common fate of the writings of every other ancient artist. He wrote on painting and famous painters. (Encyclop. Us. Knowl., vol. 17, p. 177.Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.)—III. A bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, and the intimate friend of Eusebius, who, in memory of him, appended “Pamphili” (i. e., the friend of Pamphilus) to his own name (vid. Eusebius). He is said to have been born at Berytus, and educated by Pierius. He spent the greater part of his life in Caesarea, where he .# martyrdom in the year 309. Pamphilus was a man of profound learning, and devoted himself chiefly to the study of the Scriptures and the works of the Christian writers. Jerome states, that he wrote out with his own hand the greater part of Origen's works. He sounded a library, at Casarea, ...; consisting of ecclesiastical works, which became celebrated thoughout the ancient world. It was destroyed, however, before the middle of the seventh century. He constantly lent, and gave away copies of the Scriptures. Both Euro Jerome speak in the highest terms of his piety and benevolence. Jerome states, that Pamphilus composed an npology for Origen before Eusebius; but, at a later period, having discovered that the work which he had taken for Pamphilus's was only the first book of Euschius's apology for Origen, he denied that Pamphilus wrote anything except short letters to his friends. 'The truth seems to be, that the first five books of the “Apology for Origen” were composed by Eusebius and Pamphilus jointly, and the sixth book by Eusebius alone, after the death of Pamphilus. Another work, which Pamphilus effected in conjunction with Eusebius, was an edition of the Septuagint, from the text in Origen's Hexapla. This edition was generally used in the Eastern church. Montfaucon and Fabricius have published “Contents of the Acts of the Apostles” as a work of Pamphilus ; but this is in all probability the work of a later writer. Eusebius wrote a “Life of Pamphilus,” in three books, which is now entirely lost, with the exception of a few fragments, and even of these the genuineness is extremely doubtful. We have, however, notices of him in the “Ecclesiastical History” of Eusebius (7, 32), and in the “De Varis Illustribus,” and other works of Jerome. (Lardner's Credibility, pt. 2, c. 59.)

PAMphus, an early Athenian bard, and a disciple, as was said, of Linus. Philostratus has preserved two remarkable verses of his, which recall to mind the symbol under which the Egyptians typified the Creator of the universe, or the author of animal life. The lines are as follows:

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“Oh Jove, most glorious, most mighty of the gods, thou that art enteloped in the dung of sheep, and horses, and mules.” (Philostr., Heroic., c. 2, p. 98, ed. Boissonade.)—According to Pausanias (9, 27), Pamphus composed hymns for the Lycomedae, a family which held by hereditary right a share in the Eleusinian worship of Ceres. Pamphus is also said to have first sung the strain of lamentation at the tomb of Linus. (Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 33.—Muller, Hist. Lit. Gr., p. 25.) PAM Phylia (IIauðvåta), a province of Asia Minor, extending along the coast of the Mediterranean from Olbia to Ptolemais, and bounded on the north by Pisidia, on the west by Lycia and the southwestern part of Phrygia, and on the east by Cilicia. Pliny (5, 26) and Mela (1, 14) make Pamphylia begin on the coast at Phaselis, which they reckon a city of Pamphylia, but the majority of writers speak of it as a Lycian city. Pamphylia was separated from Pisidia by Mount Taurus, and was drained by numerous streams which flowed from the high land of the latter country. The eastern part of the coast is described by Captain Beaufort as flat, sandy, and dreary ; but this remark does not apply to the interior of the country, which, accordto Mr. Fellows' account (Ercursion in Asia Minor, p. 204), is very beautiful and picturesque. The western part of the coast is surrounded by lofty mountains which rise from the sea, and attain the greatest height in Mount Solyma, on the eastern borders of Lycia. The western part of the country is composed, according to Mr. Fellows (p. 184), “for thirty or forty miles, of a mass of incrusted or petrified vegetable matter, lying imbosomed, as it were, in the side of the high range of marble mountains which must originally have formed the coast of this country. As the streams, and, indeed, large rivers which flow from the mountains, enter the country formed of this porous mass, they almost totally disappear beneath it; a few little streams only are kept on the surface by artificial means, for the purpose of supplying aqueducts and mills, and, being carried along the plain, fall over the cliffs into the sea. The course of the rivers beneath these deposited plains

is continued to their termination at a short distance out at sea, where the waters of the rivers rise abundantly all along the coast, sometimes at the distance of a quarter of a mile from the shore.” (Encycl. Us. Knowl, vol. 17, p. 177.)—The Greeks, ever prone to those derivations which flattered their national vanity, attached to the word “Pamphyli” (Ilaugvāot) that meaning which the component words Tāv and 95% ov would in their language naturally convey, namely, “an assemblage of different nations.” (Strab., 668.) It was, however, farther necessary to account for the importation of Grecian terms among a people as barbarous as the Carians, Lycians, and other tribes on the same line of coast; and the siege of Troy, so fertile a source of fiction, gave rise to the tale which supposed Calchas and Amphilochus to have settled on the Pamphylian shores with portions of various tribes of the Greeks. This story, which seems to have obtained general credit, is to be traced, in the first instance, to the father of history (Herod., 7, 91), and after him it has been repeated by Strabo (l.c.), Pausanias (7,3), and others. Of the Grecian origin of several towns on the Pamphylian coast we can indeed have no doubt; but there is no reason for supposing that the main population of the country was of the Hellenic race. It is more probable that they derived their origin from the Cilicians or the ancient Solymi. Other etymologies may be found in Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v. IIauovăţa). Pliny reports, that this country was once called Mopsopia, probably from the celebrated Grecian soothsayer Mopsus (5, 26.)—Pamphylia possesses but little interest in an historical point of view. It became subject in turn to Croesus, the Persian monarchs, Alexander, the Ptolemies, Antiochus, and the Romans. The latter, however, had considerable difficulty in extirpating the pirates, who swarmed along the whole of the southern coast of Asia Minor, and even dared to insult the galleys of those proud republicans off the shores of Italy, and in sight of Ostia. Pamphylia was entirely a maritime country: its coast is indented by a deep gulf, known to the ancients by the name of Mare Pamphylium, and in modern geography it bears that of “Gulf of Attalia.” The Turks call this part of Caramania by the appellation of Teké-Ili. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 273, seqq.) Mr. Leake gives the following account of the natural features of part of this country, which may be compared with that of Mr. Fellows. “From Alaya (the ancient Coracesium) to Alara (the ancient Ptolema'is) are eight reputed or caravan hours. The road leads along the seashore, sometimes just above the seabeach, upon high woody banks, connected on the right with the great range of mountains which lies parallel to the coast; at others, across narrow fertile valleys, included between branches of the same mountains. There are one or two fine harbours, formed by islands and projecting capes; but the coast for the most part is rocky and without shelter.—From Alara to Menargat (situate near the mouth of the ancient Melas) the road proceeded at a distance of three or four miles from the sea, crossing several fertile and well-cultivated valleys, and passing some neat villages pleasantly situated. The valleys are watered by streams coming from a range of lofty mountains, appearing at a great distance on the right.” (Leake's Journal, p. 130.)—The Melas is described as a large river, and the adjacent valleys as well-cultivated and inhabited. From Menargat to Dashasker (the ancient Syllium) the country is represented as being a succession of fine valleys, separated by ridges branching from the mountains, and each watered by a stream of greater or less magnitude. (Leake's Jourmal, l.c.) PAN (IIáv), the god of shepherds, and in a later the guardian of bees, and the giver of success in fi ing and fowling. He haunted mountains and pastures, was fond of the pastoral reed and of entrapping nymphs.

In form he combined that of man and beast, having a red face, horned head, his nose flat, and his legs, thighs, tail, and feet those of a goat. Honey and milk were offered to him.—This god is unnoticed by Homer and Hesiod; but, according to one of the Homeridae, he was the son of Mercury by an Arcadian nymph. (Hom., Hymn., 19.) So monstrous was his appearance, that the nurse, on beholding him, fled away in affright. Mercury, however, immediately caught him up, wrapped him carefully in a hareskin, and carried him away to Olympus: then taking his seat with Jupiter and the other gods, he produced his babe. All the gods, especially Bacchus, were delighted with the little stran

er; and they named him Pan (i.e., “All”), because

e had charmed them all !—Others fabled that Pan was the son of Mercury by Penelope, whose love he gained under the form of a goat, as she was tending in her youth the flocks of her father on Mount Taygetus. (Herod., 2, 145—Schol. ad Theocr., 7, 109.— Eudocia, 323–Tzetzes, ad Lycophr., 772.) Some even went so far as to say that he was the offspring of the amours of Penelope with all her suitors. (Schol. ad Theocr., 1, 3. — Eudocia, l. c. Serv. ad AEn., 2, 44.) According to Epimenides (Schol. ad Theocr., l. 3), Pan and Arcas were the children of Jupiter and £3. Aristippus made Pan the offspring of Jupitemand the nymph OEneis; others, again, said that he was a child of Heaven and Earth. (Schol. ad Theocr., 7, 123.) There was also a Pan said to be the son of Jupiter and the nymph Thymbris or Hybris, the instructer of Apollo in divination. (Apollod., 1, 4, 1.) —The worship of Pan seems to have been confined to Arcadia till the time of the battle of Marathon, when Phidippides, the courier who was sent from Athens to Sparta to call on the Spartans for aid against the Persians, declared that, as he was passing by Mount Parthenius, near Tegea in Arcadia, he heard the voice of Pan calling to him, and desiring him to ask the Athenians why they paid no regard to him, who was always, and still would be, friendly and willing to aid. After the battle, the Athenians consecrated a cave to Pan under the Acropolis, and offered him annual sacrifices. (Herod., 6, 105. — Plut., Vit. Arist., 11.) Long before this time, the Grecian and Egyptian systems of religion had begun to mingle and combine. The goat-formed Mendes of Egypt was now regarded as identical with the horned and goat-footed god of the Arcadian herdsmen (Herod., 2, 46); and Pan was elevated to great dignity by priests and philosophers, becoming a symbol of the universe, for his name signified all. Moreover, as he dwelt in the woods, he was called “Lord of the Hyle” ('O rio wanc kiptor); and as the word hyle (tom), by a lucky ambiguity, signified either wood or primitive matter, this was another ground for exalting him. It is amusing to read how all the attributes of the Arcadian god were made to accord with this notion. “Pan,” says Servius, “is a rustic god, formed in similitude of nature, whence he is called Pan, i. e., All: for he has horns, in similitude of the rays of the sun and the horns of the moon; his face is ruddy, in imitation of the ether; he has a spotted sawnskin upon his breast, in likeness of the stars; his lower parts are shaggy, on account of the trees, shrubs, and wild beasts; he has goat's feet, to denote the stability of the earth; he has a pipe of seven reeds, on account of the harmony of the heavens, in which there are seven sounds; he has a crook, that is, a curved staff, on account of the year, which runs back on itself, because he is the god of all nature. It is feigned by the poets that he struggled with Love, and was conquered by him, because, as we read, Love conquers all, “Omnia vincit amor.” (Serp. ad Virg., Eclog., 2, 31. – Compare Schol. ad Theocr., 1, 3. – Eudocia, 323.)—In Arcadia, his native country, Pan appears never to have attained to such distinction; on the contrary, we find in Theocritus (7, 106) a ludicrous

account of the treatment which this deity received from the Arcadians when they were unsuccessful in hunting. (Schol. ad Theocr., l.c.)—The Homerid already quoted, who is older than Pindar, describes in a very pleasing mammer the occupations of Pan. He is lord of all the hills and dales: sometimes he ranges along the tops of the mountains, sometimes pursues the game in the valleys, roams through the woods, floats along the streams, or drives his sheep into a cave, and there plays on his reeds, producing music not to be excelled by that of the bird “which, among the leaves of the flowery spring, laments, pouring forth her moan, a sweet-sounding lay.” In after times, as we have already remarked, the care of Pan was held to extend beyond the herds. We find him regarded as the guardian of the bees (Anthol, 9, 226), and as the giver of success in fishing and fowling. (Anthol., 7, 11, seqq.; 179, seqq.)—The origin of the syrinx or pipe of Pan is given as follows: Syrinx was a Naiad, of Nonacris in Arcadia, and devoted to the service of Diana. As she was returning one day from the chase, and was passing by Mount Lycaeus, Pan beheld her: but when he would address her, she fled. The god pursued : she reached the river Ladon, and, unable to cross it, implored the aid of her sister-nymphs; and when Pan thought to grasp the object of his pursuit, he found his arms filled with reeds. While he stood sighing at his disappointment, the wind began to agitate the reeds, and produced a low musical sound. The god took the hint, cut seven of the reeds, and formed from them his syrinx (atopty;) or pastoral pipe. (Ovid, Met., 1,690, seqq.) Another of his loves was the nymph Pitys, who was also beloved by Boreas. The nymph favoured more the god of Arcadia, and the wind-god, in a fit of jealousy, blew her down from the summit of a lofty rock. A tree of her own name (trirvc, pine) sprang up where she died, and it became the favourite plant of Pan. (Nonnus, 43, 259, seqq. Geopon., 11, 4.)—What are called Panic terrors were ascribed to Pan; for loud noises, whose cause could not easily be traced, were not unfrequently heard in mountainous regions; and the gloom and loneliness of forests and mountains fill the mind with a secret horror, and dispose it to superstitious apprehensions — The ancients had two modes of representing Pan: the first, according to the description already given, as horned and goat-footed, with a wrinkled face and a flat nose. The artists, however, sought to soften the idea of the god of shepherds, and they portrayed him as a young man hardened by the toils of a country life. Short horns sprout on his forehead to characterize him; he bears his crook and his syrinx, and he is either naked, or clad in the light cloak denominated chlamys. (Sil. Ital, 13,326, seqq.) Like many other gods who were originally single, Pan was multiplied in course of time, and we meet with Pans in the plural. (Plat., Leg., 7, 815. — Aristoph., Eccles., 1089. Moschus, 3, 22.)—The name Pan (Isav) is probably nothing more than tràov, “feeder” or “owner.”. Buttmann connects Pan with Apollo Nomius, regarding his name as the contraction of Paean (IIaláv), and he refers, in support of his opinion, to the forms Alcman from Alcmaon, Amythan from Amythaon, &c., (Mythologus, vol. 1, p. i89.) This, however, would rather favour the derivation of Pan from Paon, as first given. Welcker says that Pan was the Arcadian form of ©dan, pav (Phaon, Phan), apparently regarding him as the sun. (Welcker, Kret. Kol., p. 45–Schwenck, Andeut., p. 213.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 229, seqq.) PANAcEA (All-Heal), a daughter of AEsculapius. (Vid. AEsculapius.) PANA'tius, a Greek philosopher, a native of Rhodes. He studied at Athens under Diogenes the Stoic, and afterward came to Rome, about 140 B.C., where he gave lessons in philosophy, and was intimate with Scipio AEmilianus, the younger Laelius, ; Polybius. After a time Panatius returned to Athens, where he became the leader of the Stoic school, and where he died at a very advanced age. Posidonius, Scylax of Halicarnassus, Hecaton, and Mnesarchus are mentioned among his disciples. Panatius was not apparently a strict Stoic, but rather an Eclectic philosopher, who tempered the austerity of his sect by adopting something of the more refined style and milder principles of Plato and the other earlier Academicians. (Cic., de Fin, 4, 28.) Cicero, who speaks repeatedly of the works of Panaetius in terms of the highest veneration, and acknowledges that he borrowed much from them, says that Panatius styled Plato “the divine,” and “the Homer of Philosophy,” and only dissented from him on the subject of the immortality of the soul, which he seems not to have admitted. (Tusc. Quaest., 1, 32.) Aulus Gellius says (12, 5) that Panatius rejected the principle of apathy adopted by the later Stoics, and returned to Zeno's original meaning, namely, that the wise man ought to know how to master the impressions which he receives through the senses. In a letter of consolation which Panaelius wrote to Q. Tubero, mentioned by Cicero (De Fin., 4, 9), he instructed him how to endure pain, but he never laid it down as a principle that pain was not an evil. He was very temperate in his opinions, and he often replied to difficult questions with modest hesitation, saying, itéxo, “I will consider.”—None of the works of Panatius have come down to us; but their titles, and a few sentences from them, are quoted by Cicero, Diogenes Laertius, and others. He wrote a treatise “On Duties,” the substance of which Cicero merged in his own work “De Officiis.”. Panatius wrote also a treatise “On Divination,” of which Cicero probably made use in his own work on the same subject. He wrote likewise a work “On Tranquillity of Mind,” which some suppose may have been made use of by Plutarch in his work bearing the same title, Cicero mentions also a treatise “On Providence,” another “On Magistrates,” and one “On Heresies,” or sects of philosophers. His book “On Socrates,” quoted by Diogenes Laertius, and by Plutarch in his “Life of Aristides,” made probably a part of the lastmentioned work. Laertius and Seneca quote several opinions of Panatius concerning ethics and metaphysics, and also physics. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 17, p. 178.-Wan Lynden, Disp. Historico-Crit. de Panatio Rhodio, É. Bat., 1802. — Chardon de la Rochette, Melanges, &c., vol. 1, Paris, 1812.) PANATHENAEA (IIavatovata), the greatest of the Athenian festivals, was celebrated in honour of Minerva (Athena) as the guardian deity of the city. It is said to have been instituted by Frichthonius, and to have been called originally Athenaea (Athvata), but it obtained the name of Panathenaea in the time of Theseus, in consequence of his uniting into one state the different independent communities into which Attica had been previously divided. (Pausan., 8, 2, 1.Plut., Wit. Thes., c. 20. Thucyd., 2, 15.) There were two Athenian festivals which had the name of Panathenaea; one of which was called the Great Panathenaea (Meyāāa IIavathivata), and the other the Less (Mukpá). The Great Panathenaea was celebrated once every five years, with very great magnificence, and attracted spectators from all parts of Greece. The Less Panathenaea was celebrated every year in the Piraeus. (Harpocrat., s. v. IIavat.— Plat., Rep., 1, 1.) When the Greek writers speak simply of the festival of the Panathenaea, it is sometimes difficult to determine which of the two is alluded to ; but when the Panathenaea is mentioned by itself, and there is nothing in the context to mark the contrary, the presumption is that the Great Panathenaea is meant; and it is thus spoken of by Herodotus (5, 56) and Demosthenes (De Fals. Leg., p. 394).—The Great Panathe

(Clinton, Fast. Hell., vol. 1, p. 325), the first of the Athenian months; which agrees with the account of Demosthenes (contra Timocr., p. 708, seq.), who places it after the twelfth day of the month. There is considerable dispute as to the time when the Less Pan athenaea was celebrated. Meursius places the celebration in Thargelion, the eleventh of the Athenian months; but Petitus and Corsini in Hecatombaeon. Mr. Clinton, who has examined the subject at cousiderable length (Fast. Hell., vol. 1, p. 332, seqq.), supports the opinion of Meursius; and it does not appear improbable that the Less Panathenaea was celebrated in the same month as the Great, and was perhaps omitted in the year in which the great festival occurred. The celebration of the Great Panathenaea only lasted one day in the time of Hipparchus (Thucyd, 6, 56), but it was continued in later times for several days.At both of the Panathenaea there were gymnastic contests (Pind, Isthm., 4, 42–Polluz, 8, 93), among which the torch-race seems to have been very popular. In the time of Socrates there was introduced at the Less Panathenaea a torch-race on horseback. (Plat., Rep., 1, 1.) At the Great Panathenaea there was also a musical contest, and a recitation of the Homeric poems by rhapsodists. (Lycurg., contra Leocr.yp. 209.) The victors in these contests were o with vessels of sacred oil. (Pind., Nem., 10.

Schol., ad loc.—Schol. ad Soph., CEd. Col. 698.3— The most celebrated part, however, of the grand Panathenaic festival was the solemn procession (Touri), in which the Peplus (IIerżoc), or sacred robe of Athena, was carried through the Ceramicus, and the other principal parts of the city, to the Parthenom and suspended before the statue of the goddess within. This Peplus was covered with embroidery (trouxiæudta.—Plat., Euthyph., c. 6), on which was represeñted the battle of the Gods and the Giants, especially the exploits of Jupiter and Minerva (Plat., l. c.—Burip., Hec., 468), and also the achievements of the heroes in the Attic mythology, whence Aristophanes speaks of “men worthy of this land and of the Peplus.” (Equit., 564.) The embroidery was worked by young maidens of the noblest families in Athens (called opyaarivat), of whom two were superintendents, with the name of Arrephorae. When the festival was celebrated, the Peplus was brought down from the Acropolis, where it had been worked, and was suspended like a sail upon a ship (Pausan, 29, 1), which was then drawn through the principal parts of the city. The old men carried olive-branches in their hands, whence they were called Thallophori (0a22.0%pot); and the young men appeared with arms in their hands, at least in the time of Hipparchus (Thucyd., 6, 65). The young women carried baskets on their heads, whence they were called Canephori (Kalinopol). The sacrifices were very numerous on this occasion. During the supremacy of Athens, every subject state had to ii. an ox for the festival. (Schol. ad Aristoph., Nub., 385.) It was a season of general joy; even prisoners were accustomed to be liberated, that they might take part in the general rejoicing, (Schol. ad Demosth., Timocr., p. 184.) After the battle of Marathon, it was usual for the herald at the Great Panathenaea to pray for the good of the Plateans as well as the Athenians, in consequence of the aid which the former had afforded to the latter in that memorable fight. The procession which has just been described formed the subject of the bas-reliefs which embellished the exterior of the Parthenon, and which are generally known by the name of the Panathenaic frieze. A considerable portion of this frieze, which is one of the most splendid of the ancient works of art, is now in the British Museum, and belongs to the collection called the “Elgin Marbles.”—A full and detailed account of the Panathenaic festivals is given by Meur

na'a was celebrated on the 28th day of Hecatombaton

sius in a treatise on the subject, which is printed in

..he seventh volume of the “Thesaurus” of Gronovius. Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 17, p. 182.) PANchala, a fabled island in the Eastern or Indian Ocean, which Euhemerus pretended to have discovered, and to have found in its capital, Panara, a temple of the Triphylian Jupiter, containing a column inscribed with the date of the births and deaths of many of the gods. (Wid. Euhemerus.)—Virgil makes mention of Panchaia and its “turiferae arena.” (Georg., 2, 139.) The poet borrows the name from Euhemerus, but evidently resers to Arabia Felix. (Compare Heyne and Voss, ad loc.) PANdARus, son of Lycaon, and one of the chieftains *Sat fought on the side of the Trojans in the war with the Greeks. He led the allies of Zelea from the banks of the AEsepus in Mysia, and was famed for his skill with the bow. (Il , 2, 824, seqq.) It was Pandarus that broke the truce between the Greeks and Trojans by wounding Menelaus. (Il., 4, 93, seqq.) He was afterward slain by Diomede. (Il., 5,290.) In one part of the Iliad (5, 105) he is spoken of as coming from Lycia, but the Lycia there meant is only a part of Troas, forming the territory around Zelea, and inhabited by Lycian colonists. (Consult Eustath. ad Il., 2, 824.—Heyne, ad loc.) PANdAt ARIA, an island in the Mare Tyrrhenum, in the Sinus Puteolanus, on the coast of Italy. It was the place of banishment for Julia, the daughter of Augustus, and many others. It is now Isola Vandotina. (Liry, 53, 14. — Mela, 2, 7.-Pliny, 3, 6.-Itin. Marit., 515.) PANdion, I. an early king of Athens, belonging to mythology rather than to history. He was the son of Erichthonius, and succeeded his father in the kingdom. In his reign Ceres and Bacchus are said to have come to Attica. The former was entertained by Celeus, the latter by Icarius. Pandion married Xeuxippe, the sister of his mother, by whom he had two sons, Erechtheus and Butes, and two daughters, Procne and Philomela. Being at war with Labdacus, king of Thebes, about boundaries, he called to his aid Tereus, the son of Mars, out of Thrace ; and having, with his assistance, come off victorious in the contest, he gave him his daughter Procne in marriage, by whom Tereus had a son named Itys. The tragic tale of Procne and Philomela is related elsewhere. (Vid. Philomela.) Pandion is said to have died of grief at the misfortunes of his family, after a reign of 40 years. He was succeeded by Erechtheus. (Apollod., 3, 14, 5, seqq ) The visit paid by Ceres and Bacchus to Attica, during the reign of Pandion, refers merely to improvenents in agriculture which were then introduced. (Wordsworth's Greece, p. 96)—II. The second of the name, was also king of Attica, and succeeded Cecrops II., the son of Erechtheus. He was expelled by the Metionidae, and retired to Megara, where he married Pylia, the daughter of King Pylos. This last-mentioned monarch being obliged to fly for the murder of his brother Bias, resigned Megara to his son-in-law, and, retiring to the Peloponnesus, built Pylos. Pandion had four sons, AEgeus, Pallas, Nisus, and Lycus, who conquered and divided among them the Attic territory, AEgeus, as the eldest, having the supremacy. (Apollod., 3, 15, 4.—Consult Heyne, ad loc.) PANDóra, the first created female, and celebrated in one of the early legends of the Greeks as having been the cause of the introduction of evil into the world. Jupiter, it seems, incensed at Prometheus for having stolen the fire from the skies, resolved to punish men for this daring deed. He therefore directed Vulcan to knead earth and water, to give it human voice and strength, and to make it assume the fair form of a virgin like the immortal goddesses. He desired Minerva to endow her with artist-knowledge, Venus to give her beauty, and Mercury to inspire her with an * and artful disposition. When form6

ed, she was attired by the Seasons and Graces, an 1 each of the deities having bestowed upon her the commanded gifts, she was named Pandora (All-gifted— trav, all, and Óðpov, a gift). Thus surnished, she was brought by Mercury to the dwelling of Epimetheus; who, though his brother Prometheus had warned him to be on his guard, and to receive no gifts from Jupiter, dazzled with her charms, took her into his house and made her his wife. The evil effects of this im

rudent step were speedily felt. In the dwelling of o stood a closed jar, which he had been forbidden to open. Pandora, under the influence of female curiosity, disregarding the injunction, raised the lid, and all the evils hitherto unknown to man poured out, and spread themselves over the earth. In terror at the sight of these monsters, she shut down the lid just in time to prevent the escape of Hope, which thus remained to man, his chief support and comfort. (Hesiod, Op. et D., 47, seqq.—ld., Theog., 570, seqq.)— An attempt has frequently been made to trace an analogy between this more ancient tradition and the account of the fall of our first parents, as detailed by the inspired penman. Prometheus, or forethought, is supposed to denote the purity and wisdom of our early progenitor before he yielded to temptation ; Epimetheus, or after-thought, to be indicative of his change of resolution, and his yielding to the arguments of Eve; which the poet expresses by saying that Epimetheus received Pandora after he had been cautioned by Promethus not to do so. The curiosity of Pandora violated, it is said, the positive injunction about not opening the jar, just as our first parent Eve disregarded the commands of her Maker respecting the tree of knowledge. Pandora, moreover, the author of all human woes, is, as the advocates for this analogy assert, the author likewise of their chief, and, in fact, only solace ; for she closed the lid of the fatal jar before Hope could escape; and this she did, according to Hesiod, in compliance with the will of Jove. $1. not Hope, they ask, thus secured, be that hope and expectation of a Redeemer which has been traditional from the earliest ages of the world ! Even so our first parents commit the fatal sin of disobedience, but from the seed of the woman, who was the first to of. fend, was to spring one who should be the hope and the only solace of our race.—All this is extremely ingenious, but, unfortunately, not at all borne out by the words of the poet from whom the legend is obtained. The jar contains various evils, and, as long as it remains closed, man is free from their influence, for they are confined closely within their prison-house. When the lid or top is raised, these evils fly forth among men, and Hope alone remains behind, the lid being shut down before she could escape. Here, then, we have man exposed to suffering and calarnity, and no hope afforded him of a better lot, for Hope is imprisoned in the jar (ěv affolk rouot dòuotal . . . . . tribov tró xetAeouv), and has not been allowed to come forth and exercise her influence through the world. Again, how did Hope ever find admission into the jar ! Was it placed there as a kindred evil? It surely, then, could have nothing to do with the promise of a Redeemer. Or, was it placed in the jar to lure man to the commission of evil, by constantly exciting dissatisfaction at the present, and a hope of something better in the future? This, however, is not hope, but discontent. Yet the poet would actually seem to have regarded hope as no better than an evil, since, after stating that the exit of Hope from the jar was arrested by the closing of the lid, he adds, “but countless other woes wander among men” (à2%a óē uvpia Åvypä kar' div6pórovo d'Adžmrat, v. 100). It is much more rational, then, to regard the whole legend as an ebullition of that spleen against the female sex occasionally exhibited by the old Grecian bards. The resemblance it bears to the Scripture account is very unsatisfactory :


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