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of these three dramatic poets, belong to the Dulorestes of Pacuvius, who was, in truth, the only Ilatin poet that wrote a tragedy with this appellation. What the tenour or subject of the play, however, may have been, he admits, is difficult to determine, as the different passages still extant refer to different periods of the life of Orestes; which is rather adverse, it must be observed, to his idea, that all these fragments were writ: ten by the same person, unless, indeed, Pacuvius had utterly set at defiance the observance of the celebrated unities of the ancient drama. On the whole, however, he agrees with Stanley in his remarks on the Choēphori of Æschylus, that the subject of the Choēphori, which is the vengeance taken by Orestes on the murderers of his father, is also that of the Dulorestes of Pacuvius. (Eberhardt, Zustand der schönen Wissenchaften bei den Römern, p. 35, seqq.)—In the Ilioma, the scene where the shade of Polydorus, who had been assassinated by the King of Thrace, appears to his mother, was long the favourite of a Roman audience, who seemed to have indulged in the same partiality for such spectacles that we still entertain for the goblins in Hamlet and Macbeth-All the plays of Pacuvius were either imitated or translated from the Greek, except Paulus. This was of his own invention, and was the first Latin tragedy formed on a Roman subject. Unfortunately, there are only five lines of it extant, and these do not enable us to ascertain which Roman of the name of Paulus gave his appellation to the tragedy. It was probably either Paulus AEmilius, who fell at Cannae, or his son, whose story was a memorable instance of the instability of human happiness, as he lost both his children by his second marriage, one five days before and the other five days after, his Macedonian triumph.-From no one play of Pacuvius are there more than fifty lines preserved, and these generally very much detached. It does not appear that his tragedies had much success or popularity in his own age. He was obliged to have recourse for his subjects to foreign mythology and unknown history. Iphigenia and Orestes were always more or less strangers to a Roman audience, and the whole drama in which these and similar personages flourished, never attained in Rome to a healthy and perfect existence. (Dunlop's Roman Literature, vol. 1, p. 343, seqq.)—The fragments of Pacuvius are given in the collections of Stephens, Maittaire, &c. Padus, now the Po, the largest river of Italy, anciently called also Eridanus, an appellation which is frequently used by the Roman poets, and almost always by Greek authors. (Vid. Eridanus.) This latter, name, however, belongs properly to the Ostium Spineticum of the Padus. (Plin., 3, 20. — Muller, Etrusker, vol. 1, p. 225.) The name Padus is said to have been derived from a word in the language of the Gauls, which denoted a pine-tree, in consequence of the great number of those trees growing near its source. (Plin., 3, 16.) Whatever be the derivation of the term Padus, the more ancient name of the river, which was Bodincus, is certainly of Celtic origin, and is said to signify “bottomless.” (Compare the German bodenlos.-Dalecamp, ad Plin., 3, 16.) The Po rises in Mons Vesulus, now Monte Viso, near the sources of the Druentia or Durance, runs in an easterly direction for more than 500 miles, and discharges its waters into the Adriatic, about 30 miles south of Portus Venetus or Venice. It is sufficiently deep to bear boats and barges at 30 miles from its source, but the navigation is at all times difficult, and not unfrequently hazardous, on account of the rapidity of the current. Its waters are liable to sudden increase from the melting of the snows and from heavy falls of rain, the rivers that flow into it being almost all mountainstreams; and in the flat country, in the lower part of its course, great dikes are erected on both sides of the river to protect the lands from inundation. During its

long course it receives a great number of tributaries, its channel being the final receptacle of almost every stream which rises on the eastern and southern declivities of the Alps, and the northern declivity of the Apennines. The mouths of the Po were anciently reckoned seven in number, the principal one, which was the southernmost, being called Padusa, and now Po di Primaro. It was this mouth also to which the appellations Eridanus and Spineticum Ostium were applied. It sends off a branch from itself near Trigaboli, the modern Ferrara, which was anciently styled Wolana Ostium, but is now denominated Po di Ferrara. (Polyb., 2, 16.) Pliny mentions the following other branches or mouths of the Po: the Caprasia §.. now Bocca di bel Occhio; Sagis, now Fossage; and Carbonaria, now Po d’ Ariano (3, 16). The Fossa Philistina is the Po grande. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 115.)—The Padus is rendered famous in the legends of mythology by the fate of Phaëthon, who sell into it when struck down from heaven by the thunderbolt of Jove. (Wid. Phaëthon.) Papūsa, the same with the Ostium Spineticum, or southernmost branch of the river Padus. (Wid. Padus.) A canal was cut by Augustus from the Padusa to Ravenna. (Valg., el, ap. Serv. ad Virg., AEm., 11, 456.) Virgil speaks of the swans along its banks (l. c.—Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 114). PAEAN, an appellation given to Apollo, who under this name was either considered as a destroying (traid, “to smite"), or as a protecting and healing deity, who frees the mind from care and sorrow (mato, “to cause to cease”). The tragedians, accordingly, by an analogical appellation of the word, also called Death, to whom both these attributes belonged, by the title of Paean. (Eurip., Hippol., 1373. AEsch., ap. Stob., Serm., p. 121.) And thus this double character of Apollo, by virtue of which he was equally formidable as a foe and welcome as an ally (AEsch., Agam., 518), was authorized by the ambiguity of the name. Homer speaks of Paeon (IIauñov) as a separate individual, and the physician of Olympus; but this division appears to be merely poetical, without any reference to actual worship. Hesiod also made the same distinction. (Schol, ad Hom., Od., 4, 231.) Still, however, Apollo must be regarded as the original deity of the healing art. From very early times, the papan had, in the Pythian temple, been appointed to be sung in honour of Apollo. (Hom., Hymn. ad Apoll. Eurip., Ion, 128, 140. — Pind., Paran, ap. Fragm.) The song, like other hymns, derived its name from that of the god to whom it was sung. The god was first called Paean, then the hymn, and lastly the singers themselves. (Hom., Hymn. ad Apoll., 272, 320.) Now we know that the paean was originally sung at the cessation of a plague and after a victory; and generally, when any evil was averted, it was performed as a purification from the pollution. (Proclus, ap. Phot. Soph., GEd. T., 152. —Schol. ad Soph., CEd. T., 174.—Suid., s. v. intov.) The chant was loud and joyous, as celebrating the victory of the preserving and ealing deity. (Callim., Hymn. ad Apoll., 21.) Besides the paans of victory, however, there were others that were sung at the beginning of a battle (AEsch., Sept. c. Theb., 250); and there was a tradition, that the chorus of Delphian virgins had chanted “Io Paan” at the contest of Apollo with the Python. (Callim. ad Apoll., 113–Apoll. Rh., 2,710.—Compare Athenaus, p. 15, 701, c.) The paran of victory varied acaccording to the different tribes; all Dorians, namely, Spartans, Argives, Corinthians, and Syracusans, had the same one. (Thucyd., 7, 44.—Compare 4, 43.) This use of the paean as a song of rejoicing for victory, sufficiently explains its double meaning; it bore a mournsul sense in reference to the battle, and a joyous one in reference to the victory. (Müller's Dorians, vol. 1, p. 319, seqq., Eng. transl.)

PAEMRNT, a people of Belgic Gaul, supposed by D'Anville and Wersebe to have occupied the present district of Fameme, in Luxemburg. (Caes., B. G., 2, 4.—D'Anville, Notice de la Gaule, p. 188.-Wersebe, itber die Völker, des alten Teutschlands, Hanno., 1826.) Lemaire, however, thinks the analogy between the ancient and modern names, on which this opinion is sounded, too far-fetched. (Ind. Geogr. ad Caes., s. v.) PAEoN (IIauðv), or, according to the earlier and Homeric form of the name, PAEEoN (IIaumov), the physician of the gods. Nothing is said in Homer about his origin. All we are told is, that he cured Mars when wounded by Diomede (Il., 5, 899), and Pluto of the wound in his shoulder given him by Hercules (Il., 5, 401), and also that the Egyptian physicians were of his race. (Od, 4, 232.) e would seem to have been, in the Homeric conception of the legend, distinct from Apollo, though perhaps originally identical with him. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 200. — Consult remarks under the article Paean) PAEóNes (IIaiávec), a numerous and ancient nation, that once occupied the greatest part of Macedonia, and even a considerable portion of what is more properly called Thrace, extending along the coast of the AEgean as far as the Euxine. This we collect from Herodotus's account of the wars of the Pa-ones with the Pe"inthians, a Greek colony settled on the shores of the Propontis, at no great distance from Byzantium. Homer, who was apparently well acquainted with the Paeones, represents them as following their leader Asteropaeus to the siege of Troy in behalf of Priam, and places them in Macedonia, on the banks of the Axius. (Il., 11, 849.) We know also from Livy (40, 3) that Emathia once bore the name of Paeonia, though at what period we cannot well ascertain. From another }. in the same historian, it would seem that the ardani of Illyria had once exercised dominion over the whole of Macedonian Paeonia (45.29). This passage seems to agree with what Herodotus states, that the Pa-ones were a colony of the Teucri, who came from Troy (5, 13–Compare 7, 20), that is, if we sup}. the Dardani to be the same as the Teucri, or at east a branch of them. But these transactions are too remote and obscure for examination. Herodotus, who dwells principally on the history of the Paconians around the Strymon, informs us, that they were early divided into numerous small tribes, most of which were transplanted into Asia by Megabyzus, a Persian general, who had made the conquest of their country, by order of Darius. The circumstances of this event, which are given in detail by Herodotus, will be found in the fourth book, c. 12. It appears, however, from Herodotus, that these Paeonians afterward effected their escape from the Persian dominions, and returned to their own country (5, 98). Those who were found on the line of march pursued by Xerxes were compelled to follow that monarch in his expedition. Herodotus seems to place the main body of the Paeonian nation near the Strymon; but Thucydides (2,99), with Homer, extends their territory to the river Axius. But if we follow Strabo and Livy, we shall be disposed to remove the western limits of the nation as far as the great chain of Mount Scardus and the borders of Illyria. In general terms, then, we may affirm, that the whole of northern Macedonia, from the source of the river Erigonus to the Strymon, was once named Paeonia. This large tract of country was divided into two parts by the Romans, and formed the second and third regions of Macedonia. (Lip., 44, 29.) The Paponians, though constituting but one nation, were divided into several tribes, each probably governed by a separate chief. We hear, however, of a king of Paoonia, named Autoleon, who is said to have received assistance from Cassander against the Antariatae, an Illyrian horde, who had invaded his country. (Diod. Sic., 20, 19.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 266, seqq.)

ProNîA, the country of the Pa-ones. (Vid. Paeones...}

PAEst ANus SINUs, a gulf on the lower coast of Italy, its upper shore belonging to Campania, and its lower to Lucania. According to Strabo (251), it extended from the Siren's Cape to the Promontory of Posidium. The modern name is the Gulf of Salerno. Its ancient appellation was derived from the city of Paestum.

PAEstum, a celebrated city of Lucania, in Lower Italy, below the river Silarus, and not far from the western coast. Its Greek appellation was Posidonia, the place being so called in honour of Neptune (IIoaetdov). The name Paestum is used by the Latin writers more commonly. This latter Mazocchi, on no very good grounds, derives from the Phoenician Posetan or Postan, the alleged root, with some Oriental scholars, for the Greek IIoaetóðv. (Wid., however, remarks under the article Neptunus.) Nothing, however, can be more fallacious than Phoenician etymologies—The origin of this once flourishing city has af. sorded matter of much conjecture and discussion to antiquaries. Mazocchi, who has just been referred to, makes Paestum to have been founded by a colony from Dora, a city of Phoenicia, to which place he also assigns the origin of the Dorian race . This same writer distinguishes between Paestum and Posidonia, the latter place having been founded, according to him, in the immediate vicinity of the former, by a Sybarite colony, who expelled at the same time the primitive inhabitants of Paestum. Eustace (Class. Tour, vol. 3, p. 92), following this authority, has fallen into the same error of making Paestum and Posidonia distinct places.—Those who contend for an earlier origin than that which history assigns to Pastum, adduce in support of their opinion the Oscan or Etruscan coins of this city, with such barbarous legends as PHISTV, PHISTVL, PHISTELIA, PHISTVLIS, and PHIIS. A very eminent numismatic writer, however, attributes them to a different town. But, even supposing that they ought to be referred to Pastum, it must be proved that they are of an earlier date than those with the retrograde Greek inscriptions IIOM, IIOXEI, IIOXEIAAN, IIOXEIAQNEA. Others inscribed IIAEX, IIAIX, IIAIXTANO, are more recent, and belong to Paestum in its character of a Roman colony. (Sestini, Monet. Vet., p. 16 and 14.—Paoli, Rorine della città di Pesto Tap., 49. — Micali, Italia aranti il dominto dei Romani, vol. 1, p. 233–Romanelli, vol. 1, p. 332. —Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 362.)—It seems now generally determined, that whether the OEnotri or Tyrrheni were the original possessors of this coast, they can lay no claim to those majestic piles which, under the name of the ruins of Paestum, form at the present day the admiration and wonder of all who have visited them. The temples of Paestum too closely resemble in their plan and mode of structure the early edifices of Greece and Sicily, to be the work of any of the native tribes of Italy. The Tuscans, to whom alone they could be referred, have left us no example of a similar style in any of their architectural monuments.—Strabo is the only ancient writer who has transmitted to us any positive account of the foundation of Posidonia. He states, that it was built by a colony of Sybarites, close to the shore in the first instance, but that it was afterward removed more into the interior. (Strab., 251.) This account is farther confirmed by Scymnus of Chios, and agrees with what we know of the extent of dominion possessed by Sybaris at an early period on this sea, where she founded also the towns of Laüs and Scidrus. (Herod., 6, 21.) We are left in uncertainty as to the exact date of this establishment of the Sybarites; but we have two fixed points which may assist us in forming a right conclusion on the subject. The first is the foundator of Sybaris itself, which took place about 720 B.C. ' the other is that of Velia, a Phocaean colony, built, so we learn from Herodotus, in the reign of Cyrus, or

nearly 540 B.C. It will be seen by that historian's account of the events which induced the Phocaeans to settle on the shores of Lucania, that they were chiefly led to form this resolution by the advice of a citizen of Posidonia (1, 167). It may thence reasonably be supposed, that the latter city had already existed for twenty or thirty years.-There are but few other particulars on record relative to its history. That it must have attained a considerable degree of prosperity, is evident from the circumstance of its name having been attached to the present Gulf of Salerno (vid. Paestanus Sinus); and we possess yet farther confirmation of the fact in the splendid monuments which age has not yet been able to deface or destroy. It appears from Strabo that the Posidoniatae, jealous of, the aggrandizement of Velia, endeavoured more than once to reduce that town to subjection: these attempts, however, proved fruitless ; and, not long after, they were called upon to defend themselves against the aggressions of the Lucani, the most determined and dangerous of all the enemies with whom the Greeks had to contend. After an unsuccessful resistance, they were at length compelled to acknowledge the superiority of these barbarians, and to submit to their authority. It was probably to rescue Posidonia from their yoke that Alexander of Epirus landed here with a considerable army, and defeated the united forces of the Lucanians and Samnites in the vicinity of that place. (Liv., 8, 17.) The Romans, having subsequently conquered the Lucani, became possessed of Posidonia, whither they sent a colony A.U.C. 480. (Liv, Epit., 14, et 27, 10.-Strab., 251.) The loss of their liberty, even under these more distinguished conquerors, and still more the abolition of their usages and habits as Greeks, seen to have been particularly afflicting to the Posidoniatae. Aristoxenus, a celebrated musician and philosopher at Tarentum, who is quoted by Athenaeus (10, 11), feelingly depicts the distress of this hapless people. “We follow the example,” says this writer, “of the Posidoniatae, who, having been compelled to become Tuscans, or, rather, Romans instead of Greeks, and to adopt the language and institutions of barbarians, still, however, annually commemorate one of the solemn festivals of Greece. On that day it is their custom to assemble together in order to revive the recollection of their ancient rites and language, and to lament and shed tears in common oyer their sad desti. ny : aster which they retire in silence to their homes.” —The unhealthy situation of Paestum, which has been remarked by Strabo, may probably have prevented that colony from attaining to any degree of importance ; and as it was placed on an unfrequented coast (Cic. ad Att., 11, 17), and had no trade of its own, it soon decayed, and we find it only noticed by subsequent writers for the celebrity of its roses, which were said to bloom twice in the year. (Virg., Georg., 4, 1 18.Propert, 4, 5-Opid, Met., 15, 708.-Id, ep. e Ponto, 2, 4.—Auson., Idyll., 14.)—The ruins of Paestum, as has already been remarked, form a great object of attraction to the modern tourist. Eustace has given a very spirited description of the beautiful temples of this ancient city, the most striking edifices, unquestionably, which have survived the dilapidations of time and the barbarians in Italy. (Class. Tour, vol. 3, p. 94, seqq.) “Within these walls,” he remarks in conclusion, “that once encircled a populous and splendid city, now rise one cottage, two farmhouses, a villa, and a church. The remaining space is covered with thick matted grass, overgrown with brambles spreading over the ruins, or buried under yellow undulating corn. A few rosebushes, the remnants of biferi rosaria Pasti, flourish neglected here and there, and still blossom twice a year, in May and in December, as if to support their ancient same, and justify the descriptions of the poets. The roses are remarkable for their fragrance. Amid these objects, and scenes rural

and ordinary, rise the three temples, like the mausoleums of the ruined city, dark, silent, and majestic.Paestum stands in a fertile plain, bounded on the west by the Tyrrhene Sea, and about a mile distant on the south by fine hills: on the north by the Bay of Salerno and its rugged border; while to the east the country swells into two mountains, which still retain their ancient names Callimara and Cantena, and behind them towers Mount Alburnus itself with its pointed summits.” (Class. Tour, vol. 3, p. 99, seqq.—Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 362, seqq.) PAEtus, CAEcina, the husband of Arria. (Wid. Arria.) PAGKs/E, a maritime town of Thessaly, on the Sinus Pagasaeus, and just below the mouth of the river Onchestus. It was the port of Iolcos, and afterward of Pherae, and was remarkable in Grecian story as the harbour whence the ship Argo set sail on her distant voyage. It was, o asserted by some, that it derived its name from the construction of that famous vessel (Thywwut, “to construct”). But Strabo is of opinion that it rather owed its appellation to the numerous springs which were found in its vicinity (tm)”, a spring), and this, indeed, seems the preferable etymology. (Strabo, 436. —Compare Schul, ad Apoll. Rhod., 1, 237.) Apollo was the tutelary deity of the place. (Apoll. Rhod., 1,411.) Hermippus, a comic poet, cited by Athenaeus (1, 49), says of this town,

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Its site is nearly occupied by the present castle of Volo. (Gell's Itinerary of Greece, p. 260. — Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 431.) Pagasa gave its name to the extensive gulf, on the shores of which it was situated; and which we find variously designated, as Pagaseticus Sinus (Scyl., p. 25. Strab., 438), or Pagasites (Demosth., Phil., Epist., 159), Pagasaeus (Mela, 2, 3), and Pagasicus (Plin., 4, 9). In modern geography it is called the Gulf of Volo. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 432.) Pagasaeus SiNus, a gulf of Thessaly, on the coast of Magnesia; now the Gulf of Volo. (Wid. Pagasae.) PALA:Mon, I. a sea-deity, son of Athamas and Ino. His original name was Melicerta, and he assumed that of Palaemon after he had been changed into a sea-deity by Neptune. (Wid. Athamas, and Leucothea.) Both Palaemon and his mother were held powerful to save from shipwreck, and were invoked by mariners. Palaemon was usually represented riding on a dolphin. The Isthmian games were celebrated in his honour, and indeed his name (IIažaluaw, Champion”) appears to refer to them. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 249.)—II. A Roman grammarian (M. or Q. Remmius), the preceptor of Quintilian, and who flourished under Tiberius and Claudius. From the account of Suetonius, he appears to have been a man of very corrupt morals. He was also excessively arrogant, and boasted that true literature was born and would die with him. (Juv., 6, 452—Id., 7, 215.-Suet, de Illustr. gramm, 23.-Dodwell, Ann. Quint., p. 183, seqq.)— III. or Palaemonius, a son of Vulcan, one of the Argonauts. (Apoll. Rhod., 1, 202, scqq.—Krause, ad loc.) Palaepiphos. Wid. Paphos. PALAEphitus, I, a town of Thessaly, in the northwestern section of the country, plundered by Philip, in his retreat through Thessaly, after his defeat on the banks of the Aoûs. (Livy, 32, 13.)—II. An early Athenian epic poet, mentioned by Suidas. The lexicographer states, that, according to some, he lived before the time of Phemonoë, the first priestess of Delphi, while others placed him after her. Suidas cites the following productions of his. 1. A Cosmopolia, in five books—2. The Nativity of Apollo and Diana, in four books.-3. Discourses of Venus and Love (Appodirno Kai ‘Epwrog owyai Kai Żóyot), in five books,—4. The dispute between Minogo Nep9

tune.—5. Latona's tress (Amroic T26kauoc). (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 36.)—III. A native either of Paros or Priene, who lived in the time of Artaxerxes Mnemon, and wrote, according to Suidas, a work in five books, entitled ‘Attara, “Incredible Things.” (Suid, s. v.)—IV. A native of Abydos, and a great friend of Aristotle's. He wrote several historical works. (Suid., s. v.)—V. A grammarian of Alexandrea, according to Suidas, but called by Tzetzes and others a Peripatetic philosopher. The period in which he lived is not stated. (Fabric, Bibl. Gr., lib. 1, c. 21.) Suidas mentions a work by him, entitled “Ex. planations of things related in Mythology.” This seems to be the production which has come down to us, in one book, divided into 50 short chapters, under the game of Palaephatus, and which is commonly entitled “On Incredible things” (IIepi 'Amriorav). The author explains, according to his fashion, the origin of many of the Greek fables, such as those of the Cen. taurs and Lapithae, Pasiphaë, Actaeon, &c. All these legends have, according to him, an historical basis, and more or less truth connected with them, but which has been .*.*. by the ignorance and credulity of men. Palaephatus, therefore, may be assigned, as a mythologist, to what is termed the class of pragmatisers. The work is written in a very good style, and, notwithstanding the forced nature of many of the explanations, may be regarded as, in some respects, an instructive book. Virgil alludes to Palaephatus in his Ciris,

“Docta Palaephatia testatur voce papyrus.”

The term docta would seem to refer to the productions of some Alexandrean writer, and the word papyrus to imply that his work consisted merely of a single book. Simson places Palaephatus in 409 B.C. (Chron. Cathol., col. 779), while Saxius assigns him to 322 B.C. (Onomast., vol. 1, p. 88)—The best edition of the treatise trepi 'Atiarov is that of Fischer, Lips., 1789, 8vo, in the prolegomena to which is contained much information from Fabricius, relative to the various individuals who have borne the name of Palaephatus. There are also two other pieces published with this work under the name of Palaephatus, one on the invention of the purple colour, and the other on the first discovery of iron. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 194.)

PALA:Pölts. Vid. Neapolis.

PALAEste, a little harbour of Epirus, on the Chaonian coast, and south of the Ceraunian promontory. Here Caesar landed his forces from Brundisium, in order to carry on the war against Pompey in Illyria. (Bell. Civ., 3, 6.) It must be observed, however, that in nearly all the MSS. of Caesar, this name is written Pharsalia; but, on the other hand, Lucan certainly seems to have read Palaesta (5,458, seqq.). Some trace of the ancient name is perceptible in that of Paleassa, marked in modern maps as being about twenty-five miles southeast of the Acroceraunian cape. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 95, seqq.)

PalaestiNA, a country of Asia below Syria, though, properly speaking, forming part of that land. In its earliest acceptations, the name was applied to the tract of coast between Egypt and Phoenicia, having Ascalon for its chief city. (Josephus, Bell. Jud, 3. —Id., Amt. Jud., 1, 19.) It was extended at a later period to the territory of the Jewish nation, and the terms Palestine and Holy Land are now regarded as synonymous. The Jews were not acquainted with the name Palaestina; it is thought to be derived from that of the Philistasi or Philistines. A full description of Palestine will be found under the article Judaea.— A. late writer (Russell, Egypt, p. 71) has revived Wilsord's etymology sor the name Palaestina, namely, Pali-stan, “Shepherd-land,” and has adopted the theory relative to the migration of the Pali, or Shep

herd-race, from India towards the West. It is very surprising that such a derivation as this should be so advanced at the present day, when there are ew who do not know how little faith is to be reposed in the researches of Captain Wilsord, and how grossly he was imposed upon by the pundits of India. Palaety Rus, the ancient town of Tyre on the Continent. (Wid. Tyrus.) PALAMEdes, son of Nauplius, king of Euboea, and a pupil of the famous Chiron... He is celebrated in fable as the inventor of weights and measures; of the games of chess and backgainmon; as having regulated the year by the sun, and the twelve months by the moon; and as having introduced the mode of forming troops into battalions. He was said to have been the first also who placed sentinels round a camp, and excited their vigilance and attention by giving them a watchword. (Philostr., Heroic., p. 682, ed. Morell.—Paksan., 10, 31. – Eudocia, p. 321. —Schol. ad Eurip., Orest., 426.) Pliny ascribes to him the addition of the four letters 6, 3, 4, X, to the Greek alphabet (Pliny, 7,57); for which Suidas gives Z, II, 4, X (Suid., s. v. IIužauñónç.—Consult Salmas., ad Inscript. Herod., p. 29, seqq., 221, seqq.—Fischer, Animade. ad Well., Gr. Gr., vol. 1, p. 5.) A fragment of Euripides, preserved by Stobacus, assigns to Palamedes the honour of having invented the Greek vowel-signs. The meaning of this evidently is, that he was the first who conceived the idea of employing the four aspirates of the Phoenician alphabet to express the vowel sounds in Greek. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 87. —Compare Hug, Erfindung der Buchstabenschrift, p. 123, seqq.)—Palamedes was the prince deputed by the Greeks to induce Ulysses to join in the war against Troy; but the stratagem by which he effected the desired object, and exposed the pretended insanity of the chieftain of Ithaca (vid. Ulysses), produced an irreconcilable enmity between these two heroes. His death is attributed to the revenge of Ulysses, for hav. ing, by his intervention, been separated from his wife Penelope, or to his jealousy at having been superseded by Palamedes in an expedition in which he had failed. Ulysses had been despatched to Thrace for the purse of obtaining provisions for the army; but, not Fo succeeded in his mission, Palamedes instituted an accusation against him, and, to justify his charge, undertook to supply what was required. He was more successful than Ulysses, who, to be revenged on his rival, hid a sum of money in his tent; and, to make it appear that the supplies had been furnished by Palamedes for the enemy, counterfeited a letter to him from Priam, expressive of his thanks for the strataem of Palamedes in favour of the Trojans, and inorming him that he had caused the reward to be deposited in his tent. The tent being searched, the money was discovered, and Palamedes was stoned to death by the Greeks for his supposed treachery. (Eudocin, l. c. Philostr., l. c.) Another account states, that, while fishing on the seashore, Ulysses and Diomede drowned him. (Pausanias, 10, 31.) According to Dictys of Crete, the two chieftains just mentioned induced Palamedes to descend into a well in search ot a treasure which they pretended was hidden there, and of which they promised him a share. . After be had been let down by means of a rope, they hurled stones upon and destroyed him. (Dict. Cret., 2, 15.) The death of Palamedes appears to have been related in the Cypria. (Siebelis, ad Pausan., l.c.—Consult Hopfner, ad Eurip, Iph. in Aul., 198.) Virgil inakes Sinon impute the tragical end of Palamedes to his disapproval of the war. He was called Belides from Belus his progenitor, if the reading in Virgil be correct, on which point consult the learned critical note of Heyne (ad Virg., AEn., 2, 82). - PALANtia, a city of the Waccai, in Hispania Tansconensis, now Palencia. (Ukert, Geogr., vol. 3, P.

432.) Strabo (162) assigns it to the Averaci, but other authorities to the Vaccaci. (Plin., 3, 4.—Appian, Bell. Hisp., c. 55, c. 80.—Liv., 48, 25.-Id., 56,8.) Palatinus Mons, one of the seven hills on which Rome was built, and the first of the number that was inhabited. It formed, consequently, the most ancient part of the city. Although of comparatively little extent, it was remarkable as the favourite residence of the Caesars, from the time of Augustus to the decline of the empire. It contained also several spots, venerable from their antiquity, and to which the Romans attached a feeling of superstition, from their being connected with the earliest traditions of the infant city. Among these were the Lupercal, a cave supposed to have been consecrated to Pan by Evander (Dion. Hal., 1, 32.-AEm., 8,342); the Germalus, deriving its name from the Latin word Germani, because the twin-brothers Romulus and Remus were said to have been sound under the “ficus Ruminalis,” which grew in its vicinity (Varro, L. L., 4, 18), while at the foot of the hill was the temple of Jupiter Stator, said to have been founded by Romulus. (Liv., 1, 12. Dion. Hal., 2, 50.) Here also were the cottage of Romulus, near the steps called “Gradus pulchri littoris" (Plut., Vit. Rom.), and the sacristy of the Salii, in which were kept the ancilia, and other sacred relics. (Dion. Hal., 2, 70. —Wal. Max., 1, 8, 11.)—Sixty years before the destruction of Troy (B.C. 1244), Evander, at the head of a colony of Arcadians, is said to have left the city of Pallantium, and to have fixed his settlement on this hill, to which he gave the name of Pallatium, from his native city in Arcadia. Dionysius (2, 2), Livy (1, 5), Solinus (de cons. Urb., lib. 2), Virgil (Æn., 8, 51), and other ancient writers, agree in giving this as a received tradition, of the value of which, however, the investigations of modern philologists have taught us to entertain no very exalted opinion. In one thing, however, all writers, both ancient and modern, agree, namely, that the original site of Rome was on the Palatine, whether we ascribe its foundation to Evander or to Romulus. The steepness of the sides of the hill would be its natural defence, and on one quarter it was still farther strengthened by a swamp, which lay between the hill and the Tiber, and which was afterward drained and called the Velabrum. In the course of time, dwellings sprung up around the foot of the hill, but the Palatine must still have remained the citadel of the growing town, just as at Athens, that which was the tróżag be. came eventually the dikpótožtc. These suburbs were enclosed by a line, probably a rude fortification, which the learning of Tacitus enabled him to trace, and which he calls the pomatrium of Romulus. (Ann., 12, 24.) It ran under three sides of the hill; the fourth was occupied by the swamp before mentioned, where it was neither needsul nor possible to carry a wall. The ancient city was comprised within this outline, or possibly only the citadel on the summit of the hill was called by Roman antiquaries the “Square Rome.” (Roma Quadrata). o Fest., s. v. Quadrata Roma.-Plut., Vit. Rom.)—Varro, in the true spirit of an etymologist, gives us our choice of several derivations for the name of Palatium: “It might be called,” he says, “Palatium, because the companions of Evander were palantes” or “wanderers;” or “because the inhabitants of Palanteum, which is the Reatine territory, who were also the aborigines, settled there; or because Palatia was the name of the wife of Latinus; or, finally, because the bleating sheep (balantes) were accustomed to stray upon it.” (Varro, L. L. 4, p. 161.) It is hardly necessary to state, that no one of these etymologies is of the least value. The name in question is most probably connected with that of the goddess Pales, whose festival, termed Palilia, was regarded as the natal day of Rome. (Wid. Pales.)— The Palatine Mount at the present day is about a mile and a half in circuit, and is nearly square. The ruins

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have raised the soil around its base considerably above the ancient level. About one half of the surface of it is called the Villa Farnese, which is let and cultivated as a kitchen-garden. Adjoining on the south is the Villa Spada.—“With all my respect for this venerable mount,” observes a modern tourist, “I must say, that it is very little of its size. I had previously been disappointed in the lowly height of the Capitol; but I stood yet more amazed at the square, flat-topped, and dwarfish elevation of the Palatine. It must certainly have been materially degraded by the fall of the successive generations of buildings which have stood on it, from the straw-roofed cottages of Romulus and his Roma quadrata to the crumbling erections of popes and cardinals. The ruins of these multifarious edifices, heaped up round its base, have raised the surface at least twenty feet above the ancient level: still, with all the allowances one can make, it must originally have been very little of a hill indecd.” (Rome in the Nineteenth Century, vol. 1, p. 152, Am. ed.—Compare Burgess, Antiquities of Rome, vol. 2, p. 159. — Malden's History of Rome, p. 123.)—On this same hill stood the famous Palatine Library, an account of which will be given under the article Palatium. Palatium, I. an appellation sometimes given to the Palatine Hill. The plural form (Palatia) is more fre quently used, and contains a particular reference to the Caesars.-II. The residence of Augustus, on the Palatine Hill, afterward, when enlarged and beautified, the palace of the Caesars. Augustus appears to have had two houses on the Palatine; the one in which he was born, and which after his decease was held sacred, was situated in the street called Capita Bubula (Suet, Wit. Aug., 5); the other, where he is said to have resided for forty years, formerly belonged to Hortensius. After the battle of Actium, he decreed that this last should be considered as public property. (Suet., Wit. Aug., 72. Serv. ad Virg., AEm., 4, 410.) Tiberius made considerable additions to the house of Augustus, which neither in size nor appearance was worthy of an emperor of Rome, and from that time it exchanged the name of Domus Augusti for Domus Tiberiana. (Tacit., Hist., 1, 77.—Suet., Vit. Witell., 15.) Caligula augmented still farther the imperial abode, and brought it down to the verge of the Forum, connecting it with the temple of Castor and Pollux, which he converted into a vestibule for this now overgrown pile. He also formed and executed the gigantic project of uniting the Palatine and Capitol by a bridge; and concluded by erecting a temple to himself. (Suet, Wit. Calig., 22.) But even his folly was far surpassed by the extravagance of Nero, whose golden house extended from the Palatine to the Coelian Hill, and even reached as far as the Esquiline. (Suet, Wit. Ner., 31. — Tacit., Ann., 15, 42.) It was not, however, destined to be of long duration; that portion of the building which interfered with the projects of Vespasian and Titus, on the Coelian, was soon destroyed, and little remained of this huge and glittering palace, except the part which stood on the Palatine Hill. (Vid. Nero, where an account of the “Golden House” is given.) Domitian again, however, renewed and even enlarged the favourite abode of the Caesars; and such appears to have been the lavish magnificence which he displayed in these works, that Plutarch, quo ting a sentence of Epicharmus, compares him to M'. das, who converted everything into gold. (Wit. Publ.) Stripped by Trajan of its gaudy decorations, which were destined to adorn the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus (Mart., 12, 75), it was afterward destroyed or much injured by fire under Commodus, but was once more restored by that emperor, and further enriched by Heliogabalus, Alexander Severus (Lampridius, Heliogab., 8.-Id, Alex. Sev., 24), and almost every succeeding emperor until the reign of Theodoric.

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