Obrazy na stronie
PDF

father Acrisius. (Pausanias, 2, 18.—Strabo, 377.) The name was supposed by some to be derived from Mycene, daughter of Inachus; but others assigned a different origin to the word, as may be seen from Pausanias (2, 16). Perseus was succeeded by Sthenelus, married to a daughter of Pelops named Astydamia; after whom followed Eurystheus, Atreus, and Agamemnon. Under the last named monarch, the empire of Mycenae reached its highest degree of opulence and power, since his authority was acknowledged by the whole of Greece. (Thucyd., 1, 9–Diod. Sic., 11, 65.)—Mycenae, which had been superior even to Argos in the Trojan war, declined after the return of the Heraclidae; and in the 78th Olympiad, or 468 B.C., the Argives, having attacked and captured the city, levelled it to the ground and enslaved its inhabitants. (Diod. Sic., 11, 65.—Strabo, 372 ) . Pausanias attributes the destruction of Mycenae to the envy which the glory acquired by the troops of that city at Thermopylae and Plataea had excited in the minds of the Argives (2, 16.-Compare Herod., 7, 202). But Diodorus affirms, that the war arose from a dispute relative to the temple of Juno, which was common to the two republics. Strabo states, that so complete was the destruction of this celebrated capital, that not a vestige remained of its existence. This assertion, however, is not correct, since Pausanias informs us that several parts of the walls were yet standing, as also one of the gates, surmounted by lions, when he visited the ruins. Modern travellers have given us a full and interesting account of these vestiges. The most remarkable among the remains of antiquity is what is termed the Treasury of Atreus. It is a hollow cone of 50 feet in diameter, and as many in height. It is composed of enormous masses of a very hard breccia, or sort of pudding-stone.. This extraordinary edifice has obviously been raised by the projection of one stone above another, and they nearly meet at the top. The central stone at the top has been removed, along with two or three others, and yet the building remains as durable as ever, and will probably last to the end of time. Sir W. Gell discovered brass nails placed at regular distances throughout the interior, which he thinks must have served to fasten plates of brass to the wall. (Gell's Argolis, p. 29, seqq.) These nails consist of 88 parts of copper and 12 of tin. Dr. Clarke opposes the opinion of this being the Treasury of Atreus, principally on the ground that it was without the walls of the city, deeming it far more probable, and more in conformity with what we find in ancient writers, that the Treasury was within the walls, in the very citadel. He considers it to be the Heroum of Perseus. (Travels, vol. 6, p. 493, Lond. ed.). Whatever may have been its use, it is worthy of notice, that cells of bronze or brass, i. e., covered within with plates of brass, were very common in ancient Argolis. Such, no doubt, were the brazen place of confinement of Danaë, and the lurking-place of Eurystheus when in fear of Hercules. The remains of the ancient walls are also very curious, being evidently of that style of building called Cyclopean. Among other things, the Gate of the Lions, mentioned by Pausanias, still remains. The modern village of Krabata stands near the ruins of Mycenae.—The name of Mycenae was probably derived from its situation in a recess (uvrò) formed by two mountains, and not, as Pausanias imagines, from a mushroom, or the pommel of a sword.

Myce Rinus, a king of Egypt, son of Cheops according to Herodotus (2, 129), but of Chemmis according to Diodorus (1,64). The last-mentioned writer calls him Mecherinus (Mexepivoc), a name which Zoega, by the aid of the Coptic, makes equivalent to “peaceful,” and which agrees, therefore, very well with the epithet #twoc (“mild” or “gentle”), applied to him by Herodotus (l.c.—Zoega, de Obelisc., p. 415.) Mycerinus was remarkable for the justice and modera

5 R.

tion of his reign. Larcher makes him to have ruled over Egypt for the space of 20 years, he having ascended the throne, according to this critic, in B.C. 1072, and having been succeeded by Asychis B.C. 1052–Mycerinus built one of the pyramids, which travellers usually call the third one. }. smaller in size than the others, but, was equally as expensive as the rest, being cased, according to Diodorus Siculus, half way up with Ethiopian marble. Herodotus informs us (2, 133) that this monarch, after having reigned for no #. length of time, was insormed by the oracle of Latona, at Butos, that he was destined to live only six years longer; and that, on complaining that he, a pious prince, was not allowed a long reign, while his father and grandsather, who had been injurious to mankind and impious to the gods, had enjoyed each a long life, he was told that his short lifo was the direct consequence of his piety, for the fates had decreed that for the space of 150 years Egypt should be oppressed, of which determination the two preceding monarchs had been aware. (Herod., l.c. —Bahr, ad loc.) MycóNos, one of the Cyclades, lying a little to the east of Delos. It is described by Athenaeus (1, 14) as a poor and barren island, the inhabitants of which were consequently rapacious and fond of money. Strabo reports that they lost their hair at an early age, whence, the name of Myconian was proverbially used to desig. nate a bald person. (Strabo, 487. —Compare the words of Donatus, ad Ter., Hec., 3, 4: “Mycon, calca omnis juventus.”) It was also said, that the giants whom Hercules had conquered lay in a heap under the island; a fable which gave rise to anothe. saying (uta Múkovos), applied to those authors whe confusedly mixed together things which ought to have been treated of separately. (Plut., Symp., 1, 2. — Zenob., Cent., 5, 17.—Apollod., 1, 6, 2.) This island is mentioned by Thucydides (3, 29) and Herodotus (6, 118). Pliny assigns to it a mountain named Dimastus (4, 12). Scylax states that it had two towns (p. 22). . The modern name of the island is Myconi. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 409, seqq.) Mygdonia, I. a province of ki.j which a pears to have extended from the river Axius to the lake Bolbe, and at one period even to the Strymon. (Herod., 7, 123–Thucyd., 1, 58.) It originally belonged to the Edones, a people of Thrace: but these were expelled by the Temenidae. (Thucyd., 2, 99.) Under the division of Mygdonia we must include several minor districts, enumerated by different historians and geographers. These are, Amphaxitis and Paraxia, Anthemus and Grestonia or Crestonia. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 233.)—II. A district of Mesopotamia. The later geographical writers affix this name merely to the northeastern section of the land, especially to the country around Nisibis; Strabo, however, expressly includes the western part also. He farther mentions, that the name of the region, as well as that of the inhabitants (Mygdones), were first given by the Macedonians. (Strab., 747.) . In this latter particular he is wrong; for we find that the ten thousand, in their retreat, met with Mygdonians (Xen., Anab., 3, 3), united with the Armenians, who disputed with them the passage of the river Centrices. Under the Macedonian sway, the name of Mygdonia began to be disused, and that of Anthemusia (Avtouovata, “the blooming.”—Procop., Pers., 1, 17) was employed in its stead, more especially with reference to the tract of country enclosed between Mons Masius, the Euphrates, and the Chaboras. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 260, seqq.) Mygdonius, I. a river of Mesopotamia, called also the Saocoras, rising in the district of Mygdonia, and falling into the Chaboras. It is now the Hermas, or, according to others, the Sindschar.—II. The epithet “Mygdonian” is applied by Horace (Od., 2, 12, 22) to

[ocr errors]

Phrygia, either from a branch of the Mygdones having settled there at a very early period, while they were still regarded as a Thracian tribe, or else from one of the ancient monarchs of the land. In favour of the first of these opinions we have the authority of Strabo (575), who speaks of the Mygdones as occupying the northern parts of Phrygia. On the other hand, Pausanias makes the Phrygians to have received the appellation of Mygdonians from Mygdon, one of their early kings (10, 27). With Pausanias coincide Stephanus of Byzantium, and the scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (2,787). In Homer, moreover, the Phrygians are styled Žaoi 'Orps or kai Moydovoc àvrtkowo. The first of these two opinions, however, is evidently the more correct one. It is more consistent with reason that a country should give an appellation to its ruler than receive one from him. MygdøNUs or Mygdon, I. an ancient monarch of the Mygdones. (Pausan, 10, 27.—Wid. Mygdonus II.)—II. A brother of Hecuba, Priam's wife, who reigned in part of Thrace. His son Corebus was called Mygdonides from him. (Virg., AEneid, 2, 341.) My Lisa (orum), a city of Caria, situate to the southwest of Stratonicea, and a short distance to the north of the harbour Physcus. It was of Grecian origin, and was founded at a very early period, but by whom is uncertain. Here, at one time, resided Hecatomnus, the progenitor of Mausolus. (Strabo, 659.) Mylasa, as Strabo reports, was situate in a fertile plain, and at the foot of a mountain containing veins of a beautiful white marble. This was of great advantage to the city for the construction of public and other buildings; and the inhabitants were not slow in availing themselves of it; few cities, as Strabo remarks, being so sumptuously embellished with handsome porticoes and stately temples. (Strabo, 659.) It was particularly famous, however, for a very ancient temple of the Carian Jove, and for another, of nearly equal antiquity, sacred to Jupiter Osogus. In after times a very beautiful temple was erected here, dedicated to Augustus and to Rome. Mylasa suffered severely in the inroad of Labienus, during the contest between Antony and Augustus, but was subsequently restored. (Dio Cass., 48, 26.) Pococke saw the temple to Augustus nearly entire, but it has since been destroyed, and the materials have been used for building a mosque. (Pococke, vol. 2, pt. 2, c. 6.—Compare Chandler, Asia Minor, c. 56.) Mylasa is now Melasso, and is at the present day remarkable for producing the best tobacco in Turkey. Mannert, however, thinks that Mylasa must be sought for in the vicinity of the modern Mulla, while Reichard (Thes. Top. Noremb., 1824) is in fa. vour of Myllesch.-As regards the ancient name of this city, it may be remarked that the older Greek writers, with the exception, perhaps, of Polybius (de Virt., &c., l. 16, ad fin.), give Múžaqqa (Mylassa); while Pliny, Pausanias, Stephanus of Byzantium, Hierocles, and others, have Mylasa (Múžaca), and with this latter form the coins that have been discovered appear to agree. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 281.) Myle or MYLA, now Milazzo, was situate on a tongue of land southwest of Pelorum, on the northern coast of Sicily. Between this place and a station called Naulochus, the fleet of Sextus Pompeius was defeated by that of the triumvir Octavius, under the command of Agrippa. (Thucyd., 3,90.—Plin., 3, 8. —Well. Paterc, 2, 79.) Reichard makes Mylae answer to the modern Melilli. (Thes. ; tab. Sic.) My Litta, a surname of Venus among the Assyriams. (Herod., 1, 131, 199.-Consult the remarks of Rhode, Heilige Sage der alten Baktrer, Meder, und Perser, p. 279, seqq. Dulaure, Hist, des Cultes, vol. 2, p. 190, seqq.) MyNdus, a maritime town of Caria, northwest of Halicarnassus, on the northern shore of the peninsula

below the Sinus Iassius. It was founded by a colony from Troezene (Pausan., 2, 30), and appears to have been at no great distance from Halicarnassus, since Alexander marched over the intervening space in one night with a part of his troops. (Arrian, 1. 24.) The city was a strong one, and Alexander would not stop to besiege it, though he attempted, but without success, to take it by surprise. Hierocles gives it, probably by corruption, the name of Amyndus. Pliny, besides Myndus, speaks of Palaemyndus (5, 29); and perhaps his Neapolis is no other than the new town. (Compare Mela, 1, 16.)—“We can hardly doubt,” remarks Leake, “that Myndus stood in the small sheltered port of Gumishlä, where Captain Beaufort saw the remains of an ancient pier at the entrance of the port, and some ruins at the head of the bay.” (Journal, p. 228.) Palaemyndus may have been situate, as Mannert supposes, near the Cape Astypalaea of Strabo, which derived its name probably from that circumstance, and which Cramer takes to be the peninsula of Pasha Liman; but Myndus itself must be Mentesha. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 176.) Myon N Esus, I. a town of Asia Minor, between Teos and Lebedus, and situated on a high peninsula. (Strab., 643–Lip., 37, 27.) The hill of Myonnesus is now called Hypsili-bounus, and is described by modern travellers as commanding a most extensive view of a picturesque country, of the seacoast and island. (Chandler's Travels, p. 124.)—II. A small island off the coast of Phthiotis, in Thessaly, and between the Artemisian shore of Euboea and the main land. It was near Aphetae.—III. One of the small islands near Ephesus, which Pliny calls the Pisistrati (5, 31). Myos Horwos or “Mouse's Harbour,” a seaport of Egypt, on the coast of the Red Sea. Arrian says that it was one of the most celebrated ports on this sea. It was chosen by Ptolemy Philadelphus for the convenience of commerce, in preference to Arsinoe (or Suez), on account of the difficulty of navigating the western extremity of the gulf. It was called also Aphrodites portus, or the port of Venus. It is full of little isles, and its modern name of Suffange-el-Bahri, or “the sponge of the sea,” has an evident analogy to the etymology of the second of the Greek names given above, from the vulgar error of sponge being the foam of the sea, and Venus (Aphrodite) having been fabled to have sprung from the foam of the ocean. (From suffange our English term is s'funge, sphunge, spunge.) The situation of Myos Hormos is determined by three islands, which Agatharchides mentions, known to modern navigators by the name of the Jaffeteens, and its latitude is fixed, with little fluctuation, in 27° 0' 0", by D'Anville, Bruce, and De la Rochette. (Vincent, Periplus, p. 78.) The entrance is said to be very crooked and winding, on account of the islands lying in front; and hence, perhaps, may have arisen the ancient appellation, the harbour being compared to a mouse's hole. (Bruce, vol. 7, p. 314, 8vo ed.) MYRA (orum or ar), a town of Lycia, near the southern coast, southwest of Limyra and west of the Sacrum Promontorium. It was situate on the brow of a lofty hill, at the distance of twenty stadia from the shore. (Strabo, 664.) According to Artemidorus (ap. Strab., l.c.), it was one of the six most important cities of the country. The Empero: Theodosius II. made it finally the capital of the province of Lycia (Malala, 14.—Hierocles, p. 684), as it was about this period the most distinguished city in the land. (Basil, Selcuc., Wit. S. Theclar, l. 1, p. 272.) Myra, according to Leake, still preserves its ancient name. The distance of the ruins from the sea is said to correspond very accurately with the measurement of Strabo, (Journal, p. 183, 321.)

My RIANDros, a city of Asia Minor, on the Bay of Issus, below Alexandrea (karū ‘lagov), which Xenophon (Anab., 1, 4) places in Syria beyond the Pylae Cilicia: ; but Scylax includes it within the limits of Cilicia (p. 40), as well as Strabo, who says that Seleucia of Pieria, near the mouth of the Orontes, was the first Syrian town beyond the Gulf of Issus. It was a place of considerable trade in the time of the Persian dominion. Xenophon speaks of the number of merchant vessels here. It declined at a later period, in consequence of its vicinity to the more flourishing city of Alexandrea. It appears to have been originally a Phoenician settlement. (Xen., l.c.—Scylaz, l.c.) The modern name is not given by any traveller. MYRINA, I. a city and harbour of Æolis, in Asia Minor, forty stadia to the north of Cyma. (Strabo, 621.) According to Mela (1, 18), it was the oldest of the AEolian cities, and received its name from Myrinus its founder. Pliny (5, 30) states that it afterward assumed the name of Sebastopolis, of which, however, no trace appears on its coins. Philip, king of Macedonia (son of Demetrius), held possession of it for some time, with a view to future operations in Asia Minor; but, being vanquished by the Romans, he was compelled by that people to evacuate the place. (Polyb., 18, 27. Liv., 33, 30.) Hierocles makes mention of this city at a later period (p. 661), after which we lose sight of it. It was the native place of Agathias. Choiseul Gouffier gives the modern name as Sandarlik.-II. A city on the northwestern coast of Lemnos, and one of the principal places in the island. It was situate on the side looking towards Mount Athos, since Pliny reports (4, 12) that the shadow of the mountains was visible in the forum of this city at the time of the summer solstice. —Myrina alone offered resistance to Miltiades when that general went against Lemnos. It was taken, however, by his forces. (Herod., 6, 140. — Steph. Byz., s. v. Moptva.) The ruins of this town are still to be seen. On its site stands the nodern Castro. (Walpole's Collection, vol. 1, p. 54.)—III. A town of Crete, north of Lyctus. (Pliny, 4, 12.) It still retains its ancient name. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 393.) MYRINUs, a surname of Apollo, from Myrina in AEolia, where he was worshipped. MYRMecides, an artist of Miletus, mentioned as making chariots so small that they were covered by the wing of a fly. He also inscribed an elegiac distich on a grain of sesamum. (Cic., Acad., 4.—AElian, W. H., 1, 17. Perizon, ad loc. Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) My RMidóNes, a people on the southern borders of Thessaly, who accompanied Achilles to the Trojan war. They received their name, according to one account, from Myrmidon, a son of Jupiter and Eurymedusa, who married one of the daughters of AEolus, and, whose son Actor married Ægina, the daughter of the Asopus. According to some, the Myrmidons were so called from their having been originally ants, put pumkes. (Vid. ACacus.) This change from ants to men is founded merely upon the equivocation of their name, which resembles that of the ant (uipum;). (Ovid, Met, 7,654.—Strab–Hygin., fab., 52.) My RoN, a celebrated statuary and engraver on silver, who lived in Olymp. 87. Pausanias styles him an Athenian (6, 2, 1). The reason of this is satisfactorily explained by Thiersch. (Epoch. Art. Gr., 2, Adnot., 64.) Myron rendered himself particularly famous by his statue of a cow, so true to nature that bulls approached her as if she were alive. This is frequently alluded to among the epigrams in the Anthology. (Sonntag, Unterhalt., vol. 1, p. 100-Böttiger, Andeutung., p. 144.—Goethe, ueber Kunst und Alterthum., 2, p. 1.-Vid. Lemnos and Athos.)—A

list of Myron's productions may be seen in Sullig (Dict. Art., s. v.). Myrrha, a daughter of Cinyras, king of Cyprus. She had a son by her own father, called Adonis. When Cinyras was apprized of the crime he had unknowingly committed, he attempted to stab his daughter, but Myrrha fled into Arabia, where she was changed into a tree called myrrh. (Hygin., fab., 58,275. —Ovid, Met., 10, 298.) Myrtilus, a son of Mercury and Phaëthusa, charioteer to OEnomaus. (Wid. Hippodamia, CEnomaus, and Pelops.) My Rtis, a Grecian female of distinguished poetical abilities, who flourished about 500 B.C. She was born at Anthedon, in Boeotia. Pindar is said to have received his first instructions in the poetic art from her, and it was during the period of his attendance upon her that he became acquainted with Corinna, who was also a pupil of Myrtis. Several of her productions were still remaining in the age of Plutarch, though none exist now. The story of her having given instruction in the poetic art to Corinna and Pindar does not seem consistent with the reproach which the former addresses to her for having ventured to contend with the latter. (Voss, Ercerpt. ex: Apoll. Dyscol.—Maittaire, Dial., ed. Sturz., p. 546.) A statue of bronze was raised in honour of her. MyrtóUM MARE, that part of the AEgean which lay between the coast of Argolis and Attica. (Strabo, 233. – Id., 375.) Pausanias states that it was so called from a woman named Myrto (8, 14.— Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 7). My Rotu NtiuM, I. an inland lake of Acarnania, below Anactorium ; the water of which, however, is salt, as it communicates with the sea. It is now called Murtari. (Strabo, 459.)—II. A town of Elis, originally named Myrsinus, and classed by Homer, under this latter appellation, among the Epean towns. It was about seventy stadia from the city of Elis, on the road from thence to Dyme, and near the sea. (Strabo, 341.) The ruins of this ancient place probably correspond with the vestiges of high antiquity observed by Sir W. Gell near the village of Kaloteichos, on the road from Kapeletti to Palaiopolis. (Itin. of the Morea, p. 31.— Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 82, seqq.) Mys, I. a celebrated engraver on silver, whose country is uncertain. According to the statement of Pausanias (1, 28, 2), he must have been contemporary with Phidias. Mys carved the battle between the Centaurs and Lapithae on the shield held by the Minerva of Phidias. (Pausan., l.c.) As regards the anachronism committed by Pausanias in the passage just referred to, and which makes Parrhasius to have assisted Phidias about Olymp. 84, consult the remarks of Sillig (Dict. Art., s. v.)—II. A slave and follower of Epicurus. The philosopher manumitted him by his will. (Diog. Laert., 10, 3–Menag., ad loc.) Mysia, a country of Asia Minor, lying to the north of Lydia and west of Bithynia. It is extremely difficult, as Strabo had already observed, to assign to the Mysians their precise limits, since these appear to have varied continually from the time of Homer, and are very loosely marked by all the ancient geographers from Scylax to Ptolemy. Strabo conceives, that the Homeric boundaries of the lesser Mysia were the AEsepus to the west and Bithynia to the east (Strab., 564); but Scylax removes them considerably to the east of this position by placing the Mysians on the Gulf of Cius. (Peripl., p. 35.) Ptolemy, on the other hand, has extended the Mysian territory to the west as far as Lampsacus, while to the east he separates it from Bithynia by the river Rhyndacus. It was the prevailing opinion, of antiquity, that the Mysians were not an indigenous people of Asia, but that they had been transplanted to its shores from the *:# the Dan

ube, where the original race maintained itself under the name of Moesi, by which they were known to the Romans for several centuries after the Christian era. (Strab., 303. —Artem., ap. eund, 571.) Nor is that opinion at variance with the tradition which looked upon this people as of a kindred race with the Carians and Lydians, since these two nations were likewise supposed to have come from Thrace (Herod., 1, 172– Strab., 659); nor with another, which regarded them in particular as descended from the Lydians, in whose language the word mysos signified “a beech,” which tree, it was farther observed, abounded in the woods of the Mysian Olympus. Strabo, who has copied these particulars from Xanthus the Lydian, and Menecrates of Elaea, states also, on their authority, that the Mysian dialect was a mixture of those of Phrygia and sydia. (Strab., 572.)—We may collect from Herodotus that the Mysians were already a numerous and powerful people before the Trojan war, since he speaks of a vast expedition having been undertaken by them, in conjunction with the Teucri, into Europe, in the course of which they subjugated the whole of Thrace and Macedonia, as far as the Peneus and the Ionian Sea. (Herod., 7, 20, 75.) Subsequently, however, to this period, the date of which is very remote and uncertain, it appears that the Mysi were confined in Asia Minor within limits which correspond but little with such extensive conquests. Strabo is inclined to suppose that their primary seat in that country was the district which surrounds Mount Olympus, whence he thinks they were afterward driven by the Phrygians, and forced to retire to the banks of the Caicus, where the Arcadian Telephus became their king. (Eurip., ap. Aristot., Rhet., 3, 2.—Strab., 572–Hygin., fab., 101.) But it appears from Herodotus that they still occupied the Olympian district in the time of Croesus, whose subjects they had become, and whose aid they requested to destroy the wild boar which ravaged their country (1,36). Strabo himself also recognises the division of this people into the Mysians of Mount Olympus and those of the Caicus (571). These two districts answer respectively to the Mysia Minor and Major of Ptolemy. Homer enumerates the Mysi among the allies of Priam in several passages, but he nowhere defines their territory, or even names their towns; in one place, indeed, he evidently assigns to them a situation among the Thracians of Europe. (Il., 13, 5.) —The Mysians of Asia had become subject to the Lydian monarchs in the reign of Alyattes, father to Croesus, and perhaps earlier, as appears from a passage of Nicolaus Damascenus, who reports that Croesus had been appointed to the government of the territory of Adramyttium and the Theban plain during the reign of his father. (Creuzer, Hist. Frag., p. 203.) Strabo even affirms that Troas was already subjected in the reign of Gyges. (Strab., 590.) On the dissolution of the Lydian empire, they passed, together with the other nations of Asia, under the Persian dominion, and formed part of the third satrapy in the division made by Darius. (Herod., 3,90. —Id., 7, 74.) After the death of Alexander they were annexed to the Syrian empire; but, on the defeat of Antiochus, the Romans rewarded the services of Eumenes, king of Pergamus, with the grant of a district so conveniently situated with regard to his own dominions, and which he had already occupied with his forces. (Polyb., 22, 27. — Liv., 38, 39.) At a later period, Mysia was annexed to the Roman proconsular province (Cic., Ep. al Quint. Fr., 1, 8); but under the emperors it formed a separate district, and was governed by a procurator. (Athenaeus, 9, p. 398, e.) It is to be observed, also, that St. Luke, in the Acts, distinguishes Mysia from the neighbouring provinces of Bithynia and Troas (16, 7, seq.).-The Greeks have stigmatized the Mysians as a cowardly and imbecile race, who would suffer themselves to be injured and

plundered by their neighbours in the most passive manner. Hence the proverbial expression Mvačv Asia, used by Demosthenes (De Cor., p. 248, 23) and Aristotle (Rhet, 1, 12, 20), to which Cicero also alludes when he says, “Quid porro in Graeco sermone tam tritum atque celebratum est, quam, si quis despucatui ducatur, ut Mysorum ultimus esse dicatur !” (Pro Flacc., c. 27.) Elsewhere the same writer describes them as a tribe of barbarians, without taste for literature and the arts of civilized life. (Orat., c. 8.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 30, seqq.) Mysius, a river of Mysia, which falls into the Cai cus near the source of the latter river. Mannert takes it for the true Caicus in the early part of its course. (Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 397.) Mystes, a son of the poet Valgius, whose early death was so deeply lamented by the father that Horace wrote an ode to allay the grief of his friend. (Horat., Od., 2, 9.) MytileNE. Vid. Mitylene. Myus (gen. Myuntis), the smallest of all the Ionian cities, as appears from its only contributing three vessels to the united fleet of 350 sail. (Herod., 6, 8.) It was situate, according to Strabo, on the southern bank of the Maeander, thirty stadia from its mouth. (Strab, 636.) The Maeander was not navigable for large vessels, and to this circumstance may principally be ascribed the inserior rank of Myus among her Ionian sisters in point of opulence and power. The inundations of the river, too, must have been very injurious. Myus was founded by the Ionians about the same time with Priene (Pausan., 7, 2), and was subsequently under the immediate sway of the Persians, since it was one of the cities given by Artaxerxes to Themistocles. (Diod. Sic., 11, 57.) The city afterward sank greatly in importance. It became subjected also to a very annoying kind of visitation. The sea would seem to have formed originally a small bay as far as Myus. This bay, in process of time, became converted by the depositions of the Maeander into a fresh-water lake, and so great a number of gnats was in consequence produced, that the inhabitants of the city determined to migrate. The Ionian confederacy, upon this, transferred the vote and the population of Myus to the city of Miletus. (Pausan., 7, 2.)—The ruins of Myus are called at the present day Palatsha (the Palace), from the remains of an ancient theatre, mistaken by the present inhabitants around for the ruins of a palace. (Man. nert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 262, seqq.)

[ocr errors]

NAB AthA; A, a country of Arabia Petraea. It extended from the Euphrates to the Sinus Arabicus. The Nabathæans are scarcely known in Scripture until the time of the Maccabees. Their name is supposed to be derived from that of Nebaioth, son of Ishmael. (Genesis, 25, 13.-Ibid., 28, 9.-Isaiah,70, 7.) —In the time of Augustus they were a powerful people; but their kingdom, of which Petra was the capital, ended about the reign of Trajan. At a still later K. their territory belonged to Palaestina Tertia.

abatha’a appears to correspond to the modern Hed. schas. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 165, scqq.)

NAbis, a tyrant of Lacedæmon, who usurped the supreme power aster the death of Machanidas, B.C. 205. He appears to have been a man surpassing all former tyrants in the monstrous and unheard-of wickedness that characterized his rule. From the very first he deliberately grounded his power on a regular system of rapine and bloodshed; he slew or banished all in Sparta who were distinguished either for birth or fortune, and distributed their wives and their estates among his own mercenaries, to whom he entirely trusted for support. His extortions were boundless, and death with torture was the penalty of refusal. No source of gain was too mean for him or too iniquitous. He partook in the piracies of the Cretans, who were infamous for that practice; and he maintained a sort of alliance with the most noted thieves and assassins in the Peloponnesus, on the condition that they should admit him to a share in their gains, while he should give them refuge and protection in Sparta whenever they needed it. It is said that he invented a species of automaton, made to resemble his wife, and that he availed himself of this as an instrument of torture to wrest their wealth from his victims. Whenever he had summoned any opulent citizen to his palace, in order to procure from him a sum of money for the pretended exigences of the state, if the latter was unwilling to loan, “Perhaps,” Nabis would say, “I do not myself possess the talent requisite for persuading you, but I hope that Apega (this was the name of his wife) will prove more successful.” He then caused the horrid machine to be brought in, which, catching the unfortunate victim in its embrace, pierced him with sharp iron points concealed beneath its splendid vestments, and tortured him into compliance by the most excruciating sufferings.-Philip, king of Macedon, being at war with the Romans, made an alliance with Nabis, and resigned into his hands the city of Argos as a species of deposite. Introduced into this place during the night, the tyrant plundered the wealthy citizens, and sought to seduce the lower orders by proposing a general abolition of debts and a distribution of lands. Foreseeing, however, not long after this, that the issue of the war would prove unfavourable for Philip, he entered into secret negotiations with the Romans in order to assure himself of the possession of Argos. This perfidy, however, was unsuccessful; and Flamininus the Roman commander, after having concluded a peace with the King of Macedon, advanced to lay siege to Sparta. The army which Nabis sent against him having been defeated, and the Romans and their allies having entered Laconia and made themselves masters of Gythium, Nabis was forced to submit, and, besides surrendering Argos, had to accept such terms as the Roman commander was pleased to impose. Humiliated by these reverses, he thought of nothing but regaining his former power, and the Roman army had hardly retired from Laconia before his emissaries were actively employed in inducing the maritime cities to revolt. At last he took up arms and laid siege to Gythium. The Achaeans sent a fleet to the succour of the place, under the command of Philopoemen; but the latter was defeated by Nabis in a naval engagement, who thereupon pressed the siege of Gythium with redoubled vigour, and finally made himself master of the place. The tyrant, however, not long after this, experienced a total defeat near Sparta from the land forces of Philopoemen, and was compelled to shut himself up in his capital, while the Achaean commander ravaged Laconia for thirty days, and then led home his army. Meanwhile Nabis was continually urging the AEtolians, whom he regarded as his allies, to come to his aid, and this latter people finally sent a body of troops, under the command of Alexamenus ; but they sent also secret orders along with this leader to despatch Nabis himself on the first opportunity. Taking advantage of a review-day, on which occasions Nabis was wont to ride about the field attended by only a few followers, Alexamenus executed his instructions, and slew Nabis, with the aid of some chosen Ætolian horsemen, who had been directed by the council at home to obey any orders which Alexamenus might give them. The AEtolian commander, however, did not reap the advantage which he expected from this treachery; for, while he himself was searching the treasury of the tyrant, and his followers were pillaging the city, the inhabitants sell upon them and cut them to pieces. Sparta thereupon joined the Achaean league. (Plut., Wit. Philop.–Pausan., 7, 8.-Biogr. Univ., v. 30, p. 517.)

NAbon Assar, a king of Babylon, who lived about the middle of the 8th century before the Christian era, and who gave name to what is called the Nabonassaruan era. The origin of this era is thus represented by Syncellus from the accounts of Polyhistor and Berosus, the earliest writers extant in Chaldaan history and antiquities. “Nabonassar, having collected the acts of his predecessors, destroyed them, in order that the computation of the reigns of the Chaldaean kings might be made from himself.” (Syncell., Chronograph., p. 207.) It began, therefore, with the reign of Nabonassar (Febr. 26, B.C. 747). The form of year employed in it is the moveable year of 365 days, consisting of 12 equal months of 30 days, and five supernumerary days ; which was the year in common use among the Chaldaeans, Egyptians, Armenians, Persians, and the principal Oriental nations from the earliest times. This year ran through all the seasons in the course of 1461 years. The freedom of the Nabonassarean year from intercalation rendered it peculiarly convenient for astronomical calculation. Hence it was adopted by the early Greek astronomers Timochares and Hipparchus; and by those of the Alexandrean school, Ptolemy, &c. In consequence of this, the whole historical catalogue of reigns has been commonly, though improperly, called Ptolemy's canon; because he probably continued the original table of Chaldaean and Persian kings, and added thereto the Egyptian and Roman down to his own time. (Hale's Analysis of Chronology, vol. 1, p. 155, seqq., 8vo ed.) —Foster, in his epistle concerning the Chaldaeans, as given by Michaelis (Spicilegium Geographia Hebraorum, vol. 2, p. 102), seeks to explain the name Nabonassar on the supposition of an affinity between the ancient Chaldee language and the Sclavonic tongue. According to him, it is equivalent to Nebu-nash-tzar, which means, Our Lord in Heaven. This etymology has been impugned by some, on the ground that the Russian term for emperor or king is written Czar, and is nothing more than a corruption for Casar. Unfortunately, however for this very plausible objection, the Russian term in question is written with an initial Tsui or T's (Tsar), and cannot, therefore, by any ...'. come from Caesar. (Consult Schmidt's ussian and German Dict., s. v.) NAbopolass AR, a king of Babylon, who united with Astyages against Assyria, which country they conquered, and, having divided it between them, founded two kingdoms, that of the Medes under Astyages, and that of the Chaldaans under Nabopolassar, B.C. 626. Necho, king of Egypt, jealous of the power of the latter, declared war against and defeated him. Nabopolassar died after a reign of 21 years. The name, according to Foster, is equivalent to Nebu-polezi-tzar, which means, Our Lord dwells in Heaven. (Consult remarks near the close of the article Nabonassar.) NAEN1A or NENIA, a goddess among the Romans who presided over funerals. She had a chapel without the Porta Wiminalis. (Festus, s. v.–Compare Arnob., 4, p. 131.—Augustin., de Civ. Dei, 6, 9.)— The term is more commonly employed to denote a funeral-dirge. (Festus, s. v.) NAEvius, I. Cnaeus, a native of Campania, was the first imitator of the regular dramatic works which had been produced by Livius Andronicus. He served in the first Punic war, and his earliest plays were represented at Rome in A.U.C. 519, B.C. 235. (Aul. Gell., 17, 21.) The names of his tragedies (of which as few fragments remain as of those of Livius) are still preserved : Alcestis, from which there is yet extant a description of old age in rugged and barbarous verse, Danie, Dulorestes, Hesiona, Hector, Iphigenia, Lycurgus, Phanissa, Protesilaus, and Telephus. All these were translated or closely imitated from the works of Euripides, Anaxandrides, and other Greek dramatists. Naevius, however, was “o a bet86

« PoprzedniaDalej »