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Hudson, in his edition of the minor Greek geographers. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 391.)—II. A native of Samos, whose IIepauká is cited by Plutarch in his Parallels. He is otherwise entirely unknown, and hence some have supposed him to be identical with Agatharchides of Cnidus, and the IIepauxá to be merely a section of the work on Asia by this writer. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., l.c.) Agatharchus, I. an Athenian artist, mentioned by Vitruvius (lib. 7, praf), and said by him to have invented scene-painting. He was contemporary with AEschylus, and prepared the scenery and decorations for his theatre. Sillig (Dict. Art, s. v.) maintains, that the words of Vitruvius, in the passage just referred to, namely, “scenam fecit,” merely mean, that Agatharchus constructed a stage for Æschylus, since, according to Aristotle (Poèt., 4), Sophocles first brought in the decorations of scenery (a.kmoypadia). But the language of Vitruvius, taken in connexion with what follows, evidently refers to perspective and scenepainting, and Bentley also understands them in this sense. (Diss. Phal., p. 286.) Nor do the words of Aristotle present any serious obstacle to this opinion, since Sophocles may have completed what Agatharchus began.—II. A painter, a native of Samos, and contemporary with Zeuxis. We have no certain statement respecting the degree of talent which he possessed. Sillig (Dict. Art., s. v.) thinks it was small, and cites in support of his opinion the language of Andocides (Orat., c. Alcib., § 17). Plutarch, however, informs us, that Alcibiades confined Agatharchus in his mansion until he had decorated it with paintings, and then sent him home with a handsome present. (Wit. Alcib., 16.) Andocides charges Alcibiades with detaining Agatharchus three whole months, and compelling him during that period to adorn his mansion with the pencil. And he states that the painter escaped to his house only in the fourth month of his duress. Sillig thinks that this was done in order to cast ridicule upon the artist, an inference far from probable, though it would seem to derive some support from the remark of the scholiast on Demosthenes (c. Mid., p. 360), as to the nature of the provocation which Agathatchus had given to Alcibiades. Bentley makes only one artist of the name of Agatharchus, but is silent as to the difficulty which would then arise in relation to this artist's being contemporaneous with both AEschylus and Zeuxis. Agatharchus prided himself upon his rapidity of execution, and received the famous retort from Zeuxis, that if the former executed his works in a short time, he, Zeuxis, painted “for a long time,” i.e., for posterity. Agathew Erus, a Greek geographer. The period when he flourished is not known; it is certain, however, that he came after Ptolemy; and very probably he lived during the third century of our era. The only work by which he is known is an abridgment of geography, entitled "Yrrorismoot; ric yeaypaspiac, čv Štrutouj, in two books. This little production appears to have reached us in a very imperfect state. It is a series of lessons dictated to a disciple named Philo, to serve him as an outline for a course of mathematical and physical geography. In the first chapter he gives a sketch of history and geography, and names the most useful writers in these departments. He gives us here some particulars worthy of notice that we might search in vain for in Strabo. In the chapters that follow, Agathemerus treats of the divisions of the earth, of wins, seas, islands, &c. After the sixteenth chapter comes an extract from Ptolemy. The second book is only a confused repetition of the first, and is the work, probably, of some ignorant disciple. The first edition of Agathemerus is that of Tennulius, in Greek and Latin, Amst., 1671, 8vo. It is to be found also in the collection of ancient geographical writers, by Gronovius, Lugd. Bat., 1679 and 1700, 4to, and in Hud

son's collection. (Schäll. Hist. Litt. Gr, vol. 5, p. 324.—Malte-Brun, Bibl., Univ., vol. 1, p. 279.) Agathias, a poet and historian, born at Myrina, in Æolis, on the coast of Asia Minor, probably about 536 A.D. He studied at Alexandrea, and went in the year 554 to Constantinople. He possessed some talent for poetry, and wrote a variety of amorous effusions, which he collected in nine books, under the title of “Daphniaca.” A collection of epigrams, in seven books, was also made by him, of which a great number are still extant, and to be found in the Anthology. His principal production, however, is an historical work, which he probably wrote after the death of the Emperor Justinian. It contains, in five books, an account of his own times, from the wars of Narses to the death of Chosroes, king of Persia. His work is of great importance for the history of Persia. According to his own account, he would appear to have been conversant with the Persian language, since he states that he compiled his narrative from Persian authorities (ix toy rapá a pigtv £yyeypaupévov, p. 125). He writes, perhaps, with more regard for the truth than poets are wont to do; but his style is pompous and full of affectation, and his narrative continually interspersed with commonplace reflections. The mediocrity of a bastard time is clinging fast to him, and the highest stretch of his ambition seems to have been to imitate the ancient writers. By faith he was undoubtedly a Christian, and probably prided himself upon his orthodoxy; for when he mentions that the Franks were Christians, he adds, kai èpborátu Apóuevo 66&n. His reminiscences of the Homeric poems supplied him with a large stock of epic words, which swim on the smooth surface of his narrative like heavy logs upon stagnant water. The work of Agathias may be regarded, in point of learning and diction, as a fair specimen of the age in which he lived; few men at Alexandrea or Constantinople may have surpassed him as a writer. (Foreign Review, No. 2, p. 575.) The best edition is that published in 1828, as Part III, in the collection of Byzantine historians, at present in a course of appearance from the press in Germany. AGATHo, an Athenian tragic writer, the contemporary and friend of Euripides. At his house Plato lays the scene of his Symposium, given in honour of a tragic victory won by the poet. Agatho was no mean dramatist. He is called 'Ayūffov 6 kWetvös by Aristophanes. (Thesmoph., 29.) The same writer pays a handsome tribute to his memory as a poet and a man, in the Rama (v. 84), where Bacchus calls him dyabóc troumri), Kai trofleuvoo roi; otWots. In the Thesmophoriazusa, however, which was exhibited six years before the Rana, Agatho, then alive, is introduced as the friend of Euripides, and ridiculed for his effeminacy. His poetry seems to have corresponded with his personal appearance; profuse in trope, inflexion, and metaphor; glittering with sparkling ideas, and flowing softly on with harmonious words and nice construction, but deficient in manly thought and vigour. Agatho may, in some degree, be charged with having begun the decline of true tragedy. It was he who first commenced the practice of inserting choruses between the acts of the drama, which had no reference whatever to the circumstances of the piece; thus infringing the law by which the chorus was made one of the actors. (Aristot., Poét., 18, 22.) He is blamed also by Aristotle (Poét., 18, 17) for want of judgment, in selecting too extensive subjects. He occasionally wrote pieces with fictitious names (a transition towards the new comedy), one of which was called the Flower, and was probably, therefore, neither seriously affecting nor terrible, but in the style of the Idyl. (Schlegel, Dram. Litt., vol. 1, p. 189.) One of Agatho's tragic victories is recorded, Ol. 91, 2, B.C. 416. He too, like Euripides, left Athens for the court of Archelaus.

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Agathècles, I. one of the boldest adventurers of antiquity. His history is principally drawn from Diodorus Siculus (books nineteen and twenty, and fragments of book twenty-one), and from Justin (books twenty-two and twenty-three). They derived their accounts from different sources, and differ, therefore, especially in the history of his youth. Agathocles was the son of Carcinus, who, having been expelled from Rhegium, resided at Thermae in Sicily. On account of a mysterious oracle, he was exposed in his infancy, but was secretly brought up by his mother. At the age of seven years the boy was again received by his repentant father, and sent to Syracuse to learn the trade of a potter, where he continued to reside, being admitted by Timoleon into the number of the citizens. He was drawn from obscurity by Damas, a noble Syracusan, to whom his beauty recommended him, and was soon placed at the head of an army sent against Agrigentum. By a marriage with the widow ; Damas he became one of the most wealthy men of Syracuse. Under the dominion of Sosistratus, he was obliged to fly to Tarentum, but returned after the death of the latter, usurped the sovereignty, in which he established himself by the murder of several thousand of the principal inhabitants, and conquered the greater part of Sicily (317 B.C.). He maintained his power twenty-eight years, till 289 B.C. To strengthen his authority in his native country, and to give employment to the people, he endeavoured, like Dionysius, to drive the Carthaginians from Sicily. Having been defeated by them, and besieged in Syracuse, he boldly resolved to pass over into Africa with a portion of his army. Here he fought for four years, till 307, generally with success. Disturbances in Sicily compelled him to leave his army twice, and at his second return into Africa he found it in rebellion against his son Archagathus. He appeased the commotion by promising the troops the booty they should win; but, being defeated, he did not hesitate to give up his own sons to the vengeance of his exasperated soldiery, and expose these latter, without a leader, to the enemy. His sons were murdered; the army surrendered to the Carthaginians. He himself restored quiet to Sicily, and concluded a peace 306 B.C., which secured to both parties their former possessions. He then engaged in several hostile expeditions to Italy, where he vanquished the Bruttii and sacked Crotona. His latter days were saddened by domestic strife. His intention was, that his youngest son, Agathocles, should inherit the throne. This stimulated his grandson Archagathus to rebellion. He murdered the intended heir, and persuaded Maenon, a favourite of the king's, to poison him. This was done by means of a feather, with which the king cleaned his teeth after a meal. His mouth, and soon his whole body, became a mass of corruption. Before he was entirely dead he was thrown upon a funeral pile. According to some authors, he died at the age of seventytwo years; according to others, at that of ninety-five. Before his death, his wife Texena and two sons were sent to Egypt. His son-in-law, Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, inherited his influence in Sicily and Southern Italy. Agathocles possessed the talents of a general and a sovereign. He was proud of his ignoble descent. His cruelty, luxury, and insatiable ambition, however, accelerated his ruin. (Justin, 22, 1, seqq.—Id., 23, 1, seqq.—Polyb., 12, 15–Id., 15, 35.-Id., 9, 23, &c.)—II. A son of Lysimachus, taken prisoner by the Getae. He was ransomed, and married Lysandra, daughter of Ptolemy Lagus. His father, in his old age, married Arsinoë, the eldest sister of Lysandra, who, fearful lest her offspring by Lysimachus might, on the death of the latter, come under the power of Agathocles and be destroyed, planned, and succeeded in bringing about, the death of this prince. After the destruction of Agathocles she fled to Seleucus. Another account makes Agathocles to have lost his life

through the resentment of Arsinoë, in consequence of his refusing to listen to certain dishonourable prosals made by her. (Pausan., 1, 9.-Id., 1, 10.)— II. A Greek historian, a native of Babylon, who wrote an account of Cyzicus. (Cic., de Div., 1, 24.)—IV. A Greek historian, a native of Samos, who wrote a work on the government of Pessinus. (Vossius, de Hist. Graec., 3, p. 158.—Ernesti, Clav. Cic. Ind. Hist., s. v.)—W. An archon at Athens, Ol. 105, at the period when the Phocians undertook to plunder Delphi. (Pausan., 10, 2.) Agathod Aemon, or the Good-Genius, I. a name applied by the Greeks to the Egyptian Cneph, as indicative of the qualities and attributes assigned to him in the mythology of that nation. (Compare Eusebius, Prap. Ev., 1, 10, p. 41.-Jablonski, Panth. Ægypt., 1, p. 86.) It is the same with the Noüç, and Poemander, of the Alexandrean school; and the hieroglyphic which represents this deity is the circle, or disk, having in the centre a serpent with a hawk's head, or else a globe encircled by a serpent, the symbol of the spirit, or eternal principle, male and female, that animates and controls the world, as well as of the light, which illumines all things. (Creuzer's Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 1, p. 824.)—II. A name applied by the Greeks to the serpent, as an image of Cneph, the good genius. (Plut., de Is... et Os., p. 418.) The serpent here meant is of a harmless kind, and was also called Urarus (Oüpaloo), or the royal serpent (Zoega, Num. Ægypt., p. 400.-Id., de Obelisc., p. 431, n. 41), and hence it is also the symbol of royalty, and appears on the heads of kings as well as of gods. (Compare remarks under the article Cleopatra.) The term Agathodaemon is said to be nothing more than a translation of the Egyptian term Cneph. (Jablonski, Vocc., p. 112. —Ouvaroff, Essai sur les Myst. d'Eleusis, p. 106, seqq.—Creuzer's Symbolik, vol. 1, p. 505, of the German work.-Champollion, Precis, &c., p. 91.)—IIs. A name given by the Greek residents in Egypt to the Canopic arm of the Nile. (Ptol., 4, 5.) he native appellation was Schetnouphi, i.e., “the good arm of the river;” from Schet, “the arm of a river,” and nouphi, “good,” and was used in opposition to the Phatnetic, or evil arm of the Nile. (Champollion, l'Egypte sous les Pharaons, vol. 2, p. 23.) The words Cneph (Cnuphi) and Canobus (Canopus) were, in fact, the same ; and we have in the following, also, merely different forms of the same appellation; Chnophi, Chnubis, Chnumis, Chonuphis, Onuphis, Anubis, Anabis, Mnevis, &c. (Creuzer's Symbolik, vol. 1, p. 523.) AGAthon. Wid. Agatho. Agathy RNA, or Agathyrnum, a city of Sicily, on the northern coast, between Tyndaris and Calacta. It appears to have been originally a settlement of the Siculi, and, owing to this circumstance probably, as well as to its remote position, would seem to have escaped the notice of i. Greek geographers. Its name ap}. for the first time, in the history of the second unic war, where Livy (26, 40) states, that the Roman consul Laevinus carried away from the place a motley rabble, four thousand in number, consisting of abandoned characters, and brought them to the coast of Italy near Rhegium, the people of which place wanted a band trained to robberies, for the purpose of rawaging Bruttium. Livy writes the name Agathyrna, of the first declension: the more common form is Agathyrnum ('Ayātupyov). The modern St. Agatha stands near the site of the ancient city. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 411.) Agathyrsi, a nation respecting whom the accounts of ancient writers are greatly at variance. (Compare Vossius, Annot. in Hudson, Geog. Min., vol. i., p. 79.) Herodotus (4,49) places them in the vicinity of the Maris, the modern Marosch, in what is now Transylvania, and most writers agree in placing them

*

in this country and in upper Hungary. (Compare Rennell, Geogr. of Herod., p. 83, seqq.—Mannert, 4, p. 102.—Niebuhr, Verm. Schrift., 1, p. 377, &c.) Scymnus of Chios, however, makes them to have dwelt on the Palus Maeotis. The name perhaps, after all, is a mere appellative, and may have been applied by different authors to different tribes. What serves to strengthen this opinion is the fact, that the latter half of the term Agathyrsi frequently occurs in other national designations, such as Idanthyrsi, Thyrsageta, Thyssagett, Thyrsi, &c. The reference probably is to the god Tyr, another name for the sun. What Herodotus (4,104) states respecting this race, that they were accustomed to array themselves in very handsome attire, to wear a great number of golden ornaments, to have their women in common, and to live, in consequence of this last-mentioned arrangement, like brethren and members of one family, is received with great incredulity by many. (Compare Valckenaer, Herod., ed. Wessel., p. 328, n. 31.) All this, however, clearly shows their Asiatic origin, and connects them with the nations in the interior of the eastern continent. The community of wives seems to have been a remnant, in some degree, of an early Buddhistic system. The civilized habits of the Agathyrsi are, at all events, worthy of notice, and favour the theory of those who see in them a fragment of early civilization, emanating from some highly cultivated race, and subsequently i. by the inroads of the Scythians and other barbarous tribes. (Ritter, Vorhal., 286, seqq.) Agaue (Ayavis), or, with the Reuchlinian pronunciation, Agive, I. daughter of Cadmus, and wife of Echion, by whom she had Pentheus. Her son succeeded his grandfather in the government of Thebes. While he was reigning, Bacchus came from the east, and sought to introduce his orgies into his native city. The women all gave enthusiastically into the new religion, and Mount Cithaeron rang to the frantic yells of the Bacchantes. Pentheus sought to check their fury; but, deceived by the god, he went secretly and ascended a tree on Cithaeron, to be an ocular witness of their revels. While here, he was descried by his mother and aunts, to whom Bacchus made him appear to be a wild beast, and he was torn to pieces by them. This adventure of Pentheus has furnished the groundwork of one of the finest dramas of Euripides, his Bacchae. (Apollod, 3, 4, 4.—Id., 3, 5, 1–0 vid, Met., 3, 514, sequ-Hygin., f, 184—Keightley's Mythology, p. jo" A tragedy of Statius, now lost. (Jun., 7, 87.)—III. A daughter of Danaus. She slew her husband Lycus, in obedience to her father's orders. (Apol

lod, 2, 1, 5.)—IV. A Nereid. (Apollod., 1, 2, 7.) Agnestis, I. a genius or deity mentioned in the legends of Phrygia, and connected with the mythus of Cybele and Atys. An account of his origin, as well as other particulars respecting him, may be obtained from Pausanias (7, 17). He was an androgynous deity, and appears to be the same with the Adagoús of the ancient writers. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 48–Compare the note of Guignaut.)—II. One of the summits of Mount Dindymus in Phrygia, on which Atys was said to have been buried. (Pausan., 1, 4.) Agklipas, I. an excellent statuary, and illustrious also as having been the instructer of Phidias, Polycletus, and Myron. His parents were inhabitants of Argos, according to Pausanias (34, 8), and he himself was born there, probably about B.C. 540. The particular time, however, when he lived, has given rise to much discussion. Sillig, after a long and able argument, comes to the conclusion that Ageladas, the instructer of Phidias, attained the height of his renown about Olymp. 70, or 500 B.C. (Dict. Art., s.r.)—II. Another artist, probably a nephew of the former, assigned by Pliny to Olymp. 87, or 432 B.C., which can be correct. He was thinking, perhaps, of the

elder Ageladas. (Sillig, Dict. Art, s. v.)

Agel. Astus ("Ayāzaaroc), an appellation given to M. Crassus, father of the celebrated orator, and grandfather of Crassus the rich, from his extraordinary gravity. Lucilius said of him, that he laughed only once in the course of his life, while Pliny informs us that he was reported never to have laughed at all. Hence the name 'AyşZaaroc, “one that does not laugh,” or “that never laughs.” (Cic., de Fun., 5, 30.—Douza, ad Lucil., fragm., p. 20.—Plin., 7, 18.) Agel Mus, I. a king of Corinth, son of Ixion.—II. A son of Hercules and Omphale, from whom Croesus was descended. (Apollod, 2, 7, 8.) Diodorus Siculus (4, 31) gives the name of this son as Lamus. Herodotus, on the other hand, deduces the royal line of Lydia from a son of Hercules and a female slave belonging to Jardanus, the father of Omphale. (Herod., 1, 7.) This last is generally considered to be the more correct opinion. (Consult Bahr, ad Herod., l.c. —Creuzer, Hist. Graec. antiquiss., &c., p. 186.)—III. A servant of Priam, who preserved Paris when exposed on Mount Ida. (Vid. Paris.-Apollod., 3, 12, 5, and Heyne, ad loc., not, cr.) Agrindicum, Agedincum, or Agedicum (’Ayńöukov, Ptol.), a city of Gaul, the metropolis of Senonia, or Lugdunensis Quarta. Its later name was Senones, now Sens. (Caes., B. G., 6, extr.—Eutrop., 10, 7.Amm. Marcell., 15, 27.) AGENor, I. king of Phoenicia, son of Neptune and Libya, and brother to Belus. He married Telephassa, by whom he had Cadmus, Phoenix, Cilix, and Europa. (Apollod., 3, 1, 1.) Others make him to have wedded Argiope, daughter of Nilus. (Hygin., fab., 6.)—II. A son of Iasus, and father of Argus. (Apollod., 2, 1, 2.)—III. A son of Pleuron, and father to Phineus. (Id., 1, 9, 20.)—IV. A king of Ao. father of Crotopus, and the eighth of his line.—W. A son of Antenor, slain before Troy. (Il., 21,579.)—WI. Father of Python, one of the generals of Philip and Alexander. (Justin., 13, 4.)—WII. A native of Mytilene, who wrote a treatise on music, according to Aristoxenus (de Mus., lib. 2.-Consult Vossius, de Mathem., 59, 19). AGENorides, a patronymic applied to Cadmus, and the other descendants of Agenor. (Ovid, Met., 3, v. 8.) Ages.ANDER, a sculptor of Rhodes, celebrated for the Laocoon group, which he executed in connexion with Athenodorus his son, and Polydorus. As Pliny has not distinctly stated the era of these three artists, his silence has opened the way to a great difference of opinion on this point among the learned. Winckelmann (Op., P. 7, p. 189) assigns the production in question to the age of Lysippus. Meyer, on the other hand, conjectures that the three artists adverted to flourished soon after the death of Alexander the Great. (ad Winck., Op., vol. 6, P. 2, p. 204.—Hist. Art., vol. 1, p. 208.) But Lessing, who is followed by Thiersch (Epoch. 3, Adnot., p. 110), has discovered, with great acuteness, from a passage in Pliny (36, 5, 4), that they lived during the reign of the Emperor Titus. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) The name of Agesander stands first on the plinth of the group. Agesilius, I. king of Sparta, of the family of the Agidae, was son of Doryssus, and father of Archelaus. During his reign, Lycurgus instituted his famous laws. (Herodot., 7, 204.—Paus., 3, 2.)—II. A son of Archidamus, of the family of the Proclidae, made king in preference to his nephew Leotychides, whom he succeeded, by the aid of Lysander, in getting declared illegitimate. (Vid. Leotychides, II.) Called by the Ionians to their assistance against Artaxerxes, he commenced his glorious career; defeated the Persians, and would, in all probability, have completely humbled, if not subverted, their power; when the gold of Persia occasioned a diversion, and he was recalled home for the purpose of opposing the Thebans, Corinthians, &c., who had united against Sparta. On his return he passed, in thirty days, over that tract of country which had taken up a whole year of Xerxes' expedition. He defeated his enemies at Coronea ; but, after various campaigns, having returned to Sparta in order to be cured of wounds he had received, Cleombrotus was left in command of the Lacedæmonian forces, and the fatal battle of Leuctra was the result. Having once more taken the field, Agesilaus was beginning to rei. his country's losses, when the battle of Mantinea umbled for ever the pride of the Spartans. In his 80th year he went to assist Tachos, king of Egypt, who was at war with Artaxerxes, and the courtiers of that monarch could hardly be persuaded that it was the famous Lacedæmonian general, whom they saw eating with his soldiers on the ground, bareheaded, and without any covering to recline upon. Being overtaken by a storm on his return from Egypt, he was compelled to put into a small harbour on the coast of Africa, in Marmarica, called the port of Menelaus, and there ended his days, after a reign of 44 years, and in the 84th year of his age. Agesilaus was, next to Epaminondas, the most eminent commander of his time. He was deformed of person, small of stature, and lame, but great military talent, cool judgment, genuine bravery, and true greatness of soul, made ample amends for all the imperfections of nature. He was fortunate also in having for a biographer his friend Xenophon, although it must be confessed that the claims of friendship have occasionally led the latter to disguise in some degree the truth, and to withhold praises, that were justly his due, from Epaminondas, the great antagonist and rival in fame of the Spartan king. (Plut. et C. Nep. in Vit—Xen. Ages.)—III. A brother of Themistocles, who went into the Persian camp, and stabbed one of the body-guards instead of Xerxes, whom he intended to assassinate but knew not. Upon being arraigned before Xerxes, he thrust his hand into the fire, and informed the monarch that all his countrymen were prepared to do the same. Plutarch cites this incident on the authority of Agatharchides, in his Parallels. (Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p. 217.) If the story be true, it shows the source whence the Roman fable of Mucius Scaevola was borrowed. (Wid. Agatharchides, II.) Agesipólis, I. king of Lacedæmon, son of Pausanias, B.C. 394. He signalized himself by ravaging the territory of the Argives, by a great victory over the Mantineans, and the destruction of their city, &c. He died B.C. 380, after a reign of 14 years. (Pausan., 3, 5–Id., 8, 8.)—II. Son of Cleombrotus, king of Sparta, performed nothing worthy of mention. Was succeeded by Cleomenes II. B.C. 370. (Pausan., 3, 6.)—III. One of the royal line of the Agidae, was

raised to the throne of Lacedæmon while still young.

(B.C. 219), and was placed under the guardianship of Cleomenes and Lycurgus. This latter dispossessed him of the kingdom, and forced him to seek an asylum in the camp of the Romans (B.C. 195). Agid E, or Eurysthenidae, descendants of Agis, king of Sparta and son of Eurysthenes. This family shared the throne of Lacedæmon along with the Proclidae, or, as they were more commonly called, the Eurypontidae. According to Pausanias, the line of the Agidae became extinct in the person of Leonidas, son of Cleomenes. (Pausan., 3, 2–1d., 3, 6–Id., 3, 7.) Agis, I. a name common to several Spartan kings, and other individuals more or less distinguished. The Spartan monarchs of this name were the following: Agis I. succeeded his father Eurysthenes, A.M. 3004, B.C. 1000. According to Pausanias (3, 2), he was the founder of the family of the Agidae. (Pausan., 3, 2.) —II. succeeded his father Archidamus, and did much mischief to the Athenians in the Peloponnesian war. He died B.C. 397, and was succeeded by Agesilaus the Great. (Thucyd., 3, 89–Justin, 5, 2.)—III. son of Archidamus, who was killed in Italy, succeeded his father, and, after a reign of nine years, was killed

in battle by Antipater, one of Alexander's generals, B.C. 329. In this battle there fell of the Lacedaemonians and their allies not less than 5300 men. (Diod. Sic, 17, 63.-Quint. Curt., 6, 1.—Justin, 12, 1.)— IV. of the family of the Eurypontidae, succeeded his father Eudamidas. He was a lineal descendant of Agesilaus. Historians affirm, that he was, in youth, of singular promise, and that, in maturer age, he prepared, by the introduction of new laws, to correct the abuses which had crept into the Spartan government. This he found a measure of peculiar difficulty; but he was supported by his maternal uncle Agesilaus, though with a selfish design, and likewise by many of the citizens. They obtained a law for the equalization of ... and Agis himself shared a valuable estate with the community. In consequence of his exertions, Leonidas, his colleague on the throne, was deposed and banished. The people, however, soon became dissatisfied with the projected reform, and while Agis was leading an army to aid the Achaeans, the indiscretion of his uncle Agesilaus, during his absence, occasioned a conspiracy for the restoration of Leonidas. The conspirators, having succeeded, forced Agis to take refuge in a temple, which he never left but for the purpose of bathing. On one of these occasions, he was surprised and dragged to prison. The ephori having there questioned him respecting his views in altering the laws, he answered that it was for the purpose of restoring those of Lycurgus. Sentence of death was passed upon him; but the ministers of the law, until forced by Demochares, refused to conduct him to a chamber reserved for the execution of criminals. He was there strangled, and submitted to his sentence with heroic firmness. The grandmother and mother of Agis shared the same fate. (Plut., Wit. Agid.)—II. The other individuals of this name deserving of mention are, 1. A king of the Paeonians, who died B.C. 359-2. A general of Ptolemy I., who defeated the revolted Cyreneans.—3. A poet of Argos, who attended Alexander in his Asiatic expedition, and loaded him with fulsome flattery. (Quint. Curt., 8, 5.) Agisimba, a district of AEthiopia, the most southern with which the ancients were acquainted. It is supposed to correspond to Asben in Nigritia. (Bischoff und Möller, Wörterb, der Geogr., s. v.) AGLA1A, one of the Graces, called sometimes Pasiphaë. (Pausan., 9, 35. -- Wid. Charites.) Aglao Nice, a Thessalian female, who prided herself on her skill in predicting eclipses, &c. She boasted even of her power to draw down the moon to earth. Hence the Greek adage, rov aežávnv karaarā, “She draws down the moon,” applied to a boastful person. (Erasm. Chil., col., 853.) Aglaéphon, I. a painter of the isle of Thasos, who flourished in the 70th Olympiad, 500 B.C. He was the father and master of Polygnotus and Aristophon. Quintilian (12, 10) speaks of his style in common with that of Polygnotus, as indicating, by its simplicity of colouring, the early stages of the art, and yet being preferable, by its air of nature and truth, to the efforts of the great masters that succeeded.—II. A son of Aristophon, and grandson of the preceding, also distinguished as a painter. He celebrated, by his productions, the . victories of Alcibiades. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) Aglauros. Wid. Agraulos. Aglkus, a native of Psophis, and the poorest man in all Arcadia, but still pronounced, by the Delphic oracle, a happier man than Gyges, monarch of Lydia. (Val. Mar., 7, 1.) AgNA, or Hagna, a female in the time of Horace, who, though troubled with a polypus in the nose, and having her visage, in consequence, greatly deformed, yet found, on this very account, an admirer in one Balbinus. The commentators make her to have been a freed-woman and a native of Greece. (Horat., Serm, 1, 3, 40.)

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Agnonice, an Athenian virgin, who disguised her sex to learn medicine, it being ordained by the Athenian laws, that no slave or female should learn the healing art. She was taught by Hierophilus the art of midwifery, and when employed, always discovered her sex to her patients. This brought her into so much practice, that the males of her profession, who were now out of employment, accused her before the Areopagus of corrupt conduct, “quod dicerent eum glabrum esse, et corruptorem carum, et ulas simulare imbecillitatem.” Agmodice was about to be condemned, when she discovered her sex to the judges. A law was immediately passed authorizing all freeborn women to learn the healing art. (Hygin., fab.,274.) AgNoN, son of Nicias, was present at the taking of Samosby Pericles, havingbrought re-enforcements from Athens. After the Peloponnesian war had broken out, he and Cleopompus, both colleagues of Pericles, were despatched with the forces which the last-mentioned commander had previously led, to aid in the reduction of Potidaea. The expedition was frustrated, however, by sickness among the troops. Agnon was also the sounder of Amphipolis; but the citizens of that place, forgetful of past services, opened their gates to Brasidas, the Spartan general, and when the body of this commander was subsequently interred within Amphipolis, they threw down every memorial of Agnon. (Thucyd., l, 117-Id., 2, 58.-Id., 5, 11, &c.) AgNoNides, an orator, and popular leader at Athens, who accused Phocion of treason for not having opposed with more activity the movements of Nicanor. After the death of Phocion, and when the people, repenting of their conduct towards him, were doing everything to honour his memory, Agnonides suffered capital punishment, by a decree passed for that special purpose. (Plut., Wu. Phoc., c. 33, 38.) Agóxilia and AgoNía, a festival at Rome in honour of Janus, celebrated on the ninth of January. According, however, to an ancient calendar, the Agonalia sell on the fifth of the month, and according to others, on the day previous. (Compare the remarks of the commentators, ad Ovid, Fast., 1,317). Antias, an old writer cited by Macrobius (Sat., 1,4), ascribed the establishment of this festival to Numa. Ovid assigns various etymologies for the name, not worth mentioning. Agónes Capitolini, contests instituted by Domitian in honour of Jupiter Capitolinus, and celebrated every fifth year on the Capitoline Hill. According to Suetonius (Domit., 4), they were of a threefold character: musical, which included poetic contests, equestrian, and gymnastic. Prizes were awarded also for the best specimens of Greek and Latin prose composition. Censori. nus informs us, that they were instituted in the twelfth consulship of Domitian and Dolabella (A.U.C. 839). ! was at these contests that the poet Statius was dé. feated. (Cens, c. 18.—Crusius, ad Suet., l. c.) Games similar to these had been previously instituted by Nero. (Suet, Ner, 12.) Agosacritus, a statuary of Paros, and the favourite Pupil of Phidias, who, according to Pliny (26, 5), carned his attachment so far as even to have inscribed on one of his own works the name of his young disciple. The same writer informs us, that Agoracritus contend* with Alcamenes, another pupil of Phidias, and a *of Athens, in making a statue of Venus, and had * mortification to see his rival crowned as victorious, **onsequence of the prejudice of the Athenians in fa. * of their countryman. Full of resentment, he sold his statue to the inhabitants of Rhamnus, a borough * Attica, on condition that it should never re-enter *hin the walls of Athens. Pliny adds, that Agoracri**ned this statue Nemesis, and that Varroregarded it as the finest specimen of sculpture that he had ever o .. (1,33) gives an entirely different unt; :* withoutmentioning the name of Agorac.

ritus, he says that the statue of the Rhamnusian Nem. esis was the work of Phidias. Strabo, again, differs from both Pliny and Pausanias, for he asserts that the celebrated statue in question was ascribed to both Agoracritus and Diodotus (the latter of whom is not mentioned in any other passage), and that it was not at all inferior to the works of Phidias. (Strab., 396.) It is difficult to reconcile these conflicting statements. Perhaps the statue was by Phidias, and the name of his favourite pupil was inscribed upon it by the artist. Equally difficult is it to conceive how a statue of Wenus could be so modified as to be transformed into one of the goddess of Wengeance, for such was Nemesis. Sillig endeavours to explain this, but with little success. (Dict. Art, s. v.) Agora NöM1,’Ayopavöuot, sometimes called Aoytoraí, ten Athenian magistrates, five of whom officiated in the city, and five in the Piraeus. To them a certain toll or tribute was paid by those who brought anything into the market to sell. They had the care of all saleable commodities in the market except corn, and they were employed in maintaining order, and in seeing that no one defrauded another, or took any unreasonable advantage in buying and selling. (Wachsmuth, Alterthums., vol. 2, p. 65.) AGRAGAs, or Acragas, I. a small river of Sicily, running near Agrigentum. It is now the San Blasio. (Mannert, 9, pt. 2, p. 354)—II. The Greek name of Agrigentum. (Wid. Agrigentum.) AGRAgiñNAE, or AckaginA, Portz, gates of Syracuse. There were in this quarter a great number of sepulchres, and here Cicero discovered the tomb of Archimedes. (Tusc. Quast., 5, 23.) The name of these gates has given great trouble to the commentators. Dorville (ad Charit., p. 193) reads Agragantimas in the passage of Cicero just referred to, because the gates in question looked towards Agrigentum and the south, according to the Antonin. Ilin., p. 95. Schütz gives Achradinas in his edition of Cicero, which is superior to Acradinas, the reading of H. Stephens and Davis, though the last is adopted by Göller. (Syracus., p. 64.) The argument in its favour turns upon the circumstance of a porta Achradina being mentioned among the gates of Syracuse, but not a porta Agragantina. Thus we have in Diodorus Siculus, (13, 75), to karū tiny 'Axpadwov rväävl, and (13, 113), trpèc row roamy ric'Axpačtvic. The preferable reading, therefore, in Cicero (l.c.) is portas Achradinas, as indicating gates in that quarter of Syracuse termed Achradina. (Vid. Achradina.) AGRARIAE Leges, laws enacted in Rome for the division of public lands. In the valuable work on Roman history by Niebuhr (vol. 2, p. 129, seqq., Cambr. transl.), it is satisfactorily shown, that these laws, which have so long been considered as unjust attacks. upon private property, had for their object only the distribution of lands which were the property of the state, and that the troubles to which they gave rise were occasioned by the opposition of persons who had settled on these lands without having acquired any title to them. These laws of the Romans were so intimately connected with their system of establishing colonies in the different parts of their territories, that, to attain a proper understanding of them, it is necessary to bestow a moment's consideration on that system.—According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, their plan of sending out colonies or settlers began as early as the time of Romulus, who generally placed colonists from the city of Rome on the lands taken in war. The same policy was pursued by the kings who succeeded him; and, when the kings were expelled, it was adopted by the senate and the people, and then by the dictators. There were several reasons inducing the Roman government to pursue this policy, which was continued for a long period without any intermission; first, to have a check on the conquered people; secondly, to have 89

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