Obrazy na stronie

the circumstance that Aratus, no mean judge of works of art, collected from every quarter the productions of Melanthius along with those of Pamphilus, and made a present of then to Ptoleniy III., king of Egypt. (Plut., Vit. Arat., c. 21.) He left a treatise on Painting, a fragment of which has been preserved by Dio: genes Laertius (4, 18), and of which Pliny availed hiinself in writing the 30th book of his Natural History. (Sillig, Duct Art., s. v.) Mel ANThus, a son of Andropompus, whose ancestors were kings of Pylos, in Messenia. Having been driven by the Heraclidae from his paternal kingdom, he came to Athens, where Thymoetes, monarch of Attica, gave him a friendly reception. Some time after this, the Boeotians, under Xanthus, having invaded Attica, Thymoetes marched forth to meet them. Xanthus thereupon proposed to decide the issue of the war by single combat, but Thymoetes shrank from the risk, whereupon Melanthus came forward and accepted the challenge. By a stratagem, famous in after ages, he diverted the attention of his adversary, and slew him as he turned to look at the ally whom Melanthus affected to see behind him. The victor was rewarded with the kingdom, which Thymoetes had forfeited by his pusillanimity, and which now passed for ever from the house of Erechtheus. Melanthus transmitted the crown to his son Codrus. (Pausan., 2, 18.-Thirlwall's Greece, vol. 1, p. 274.) Melas (gen. -at), I. a deep gulf formed by the Thracian coast on the northwest, and the shore of the Chersonese on the southeast; its appellation in modern geography is the Gulf of Suros.—II. A river of Thrace, now the Cavatcha, emptying into the Sinus Melas at its northeastern extremity. (Herod., 7, 58.— Liv., 38, 40.-Plin., 4, 11.)—III. A river of Thessaly, in the vicinity of the town of Trachis. (Herod., 7, 199. – Liv., 37, 24.)—IV. A small river of Boeotia, near Orchomenus, emptying into the Lake Copais. (Pausan., 9, 38.) Plutarch says that it rose close to the city, and very soon became navigable, but that part of it was lost in the marshes, while the remainder joined the Cephissus. (Wit. Syll.—Strab., 415.) Pliny remarks of its waters, that they had the property of dying the fleeces of sheep black (2, 103). In the marshes formed near the junction of this river with the Cephissus grew the reeds so much esteemed by the ancient Greeks for making pipes and other wind-instruments. (Pindar, Pyth., 12, 42. — Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 249.)—W. A river of Cappadocia, rising near Caesarea ad Argaeum, and falling into the Euphrates near the city of Melitene. Schillinger (Reise., p. 68) calls it the Gensin; but on D'Anville's map it bears in the beginning of its course the name of Koremoz, and near its mouth that of Kirkghedid. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 296.) —VI. A river of Pamphylia, rising in the range of Mount Taurus, to the west of Homonada, and running into the sea between Side and Coracesium. (Strabo, 667.). It formed originally the boundary between Pamphylia and Cilicia. (Plin., 5, 27.) According to Leake, there can be no doubt that the Melas is the river now called Menavgät-su, for Zosimus (5, 16) and Mela (1, 14) agree in showing its proximity to Side. Strabo, Mela, and the Stadiasmus, all place it to the eastward of Side, and the distance of 50 stadia in the Stadiasmus between the Melas and Side is precisely that which occurs between the ruins of Side and the mouth of the river of Menavgat, (Leake's Tour, p. 196.) Melda: or Melborum urbs, a city of Gaul, now Meaux. (Cas., B. G., 5, 5–Plin., 4, 13.) Meleiger, I. a celebrated hero of antiquity, son of OEneus, king of AEtolia, by Althaea, daughter of Thestius. When he was seven days old, the Moira, or Fates came to the dwelling of his parents, and declared that when the billet which was burning on the

[ocr errors]

hearth should be consumed, the babe would die. Althasa, on hearing this, snatched the billet from the fire, and laid it carefully away in a coffer. The same of Meleager increased with his years; he signalized himself in the Argonautic expedition, and subsequently in the Calydonian boar-hunt. Of this latter event there appear to have been two legends, an earlier and a later one. The former appears to have been a tale of great antiquity, and is commemorated in the Iliad (9, 527). According to this version of the story, CEneus, in the celebration of his harvest-home feast (9ažíawa), had treated Diana with neglect, and the goddess took vengeance upon him by sending a wild boar of surpassing size and strength to ravage the territory of Calydon. Hunters and dogs were collected from all sides, and the boar was, with the loss of several lives, at length destroyed. A quarrel arose, however, between the Curetes and Ætolians about the head and hide, and a war was the consequence. As long as Meleager fought, the Curetes had the worst of it, and could not keep the field; but when, enraged at his mother Althaa, he remained with his wife the fair Cleopatra, and abstained from the war, noise and clamour rose about the gates, and the towers of Calydon were shaken by the victorious Curetes: for Althaea, grieved at the fate of her brother, who had fallen in the fight, had with tears invoked Pluto and Proserpina to send death to her son. The elders of the AEtolians supplicated Meleager: they sent the priests of the gods to entreat him to come forth and defend them: they offered him a piece of land (réuevoc) of his own selection. His aged father OEneus ascended to his chamber and implored him, his sisters and his mother supplicated him, but in vain. He remained inexorable, till his very chamber was shaken, when the Curetes had mounted the towers and set fire to the town. Then his wife besought him with tears, picturing to him the evils of a captured town, the slaughter of the men, the dragging away into captivity of the women and children. §. by this last appeal, he arrayed himself in arms, went forth and repelled the enemy; but, not having done it out of regard for them, the Ætolians did not give him the proffered recompense.—Such is the more ancient form of the legend, in which it would appear that the AEtolians of Calydon and the Curetes of Pleuron alone took part in the hunt. In after times, when the vanity of the different states of Greece made them send their national heroes to every war and expedition of the mythic ages, it underwent various modifications. Meleager, it is said (Nicand., ap. Anton. Lib., 2.—Apollod., 1, 8, 2.-Ovid, Met., 8, 270, seqq.—Hygin, fab., 181, 5), invited all the heroes of Greece to the hunt of the boar, proposin the hide of the animal as the prize of whoever .# slay him. Of the Ætolians there were Meleager, and Dryas son of Mars; of the Curetes, the sons of Thestius; Idas and Lynceus, sons of Aphareus, came from Messene; Castor and Pollux, sons of Jupiter and Leda, from Laconia; Atalanta, daughter of Iasus, and Ancaeus and Cepheus, sons of Lycurgus, from Arcadia; Amphiaraus, son of Oicles, from Argos; Telamon, son of Æacus, from Salamis ; Theseus, son of AEgeus, from Athens; Iphicles, son of Amphitryon, from Thebes ; Peleus, son of AEacus, and Eurytion, son of Actor, from Phthia; Jason, son of Æson, from Iolcos; Admetus, son of Pheres, from Pherae; and Pirithous, son of Ixion, from Larissa.-These chiefs were entertained during nine days in the house of CEneus. On the tenth, Cepheus and Ancaeus, and some others, refused to hunt in company with a maiden; but Meleager, who was in love with Atalanta, obliged them to give over their opposition. The hunt began; Ancaeus and Cepheus speedily met their fate from the tusks of the boar: Peleus accidentally killed Eurytion: Atalanta, with an arrow, gave the monster the first wound; Amphiaraus shot blin in o: eye; and

Meleager ran him through the flanks and killed him. He presented the skin and head to Atalanta; but the sons of shestius, his two uncles, offended at this preference of a woman, took the skin from her, saying that it sell to them of right, on account of their family, if Meleager resigned his claim to it. Meleager, in a rage, killed then, and restored the skin to Atalanta. Althaea, on hearing of the death of her brothers, influenced by resentment for their loss, took from its place of concealment the billet, on which depended the existence of Meleager, and cast it into the flames. As it consumed, the vigour of Meleager wasted away; and when it was reduced to ashes, his life terminated. Repenting, when too late, of what she had done, Althat a put an end to her own life. Cleopatra died of grief; and the sisters of Meleager, who would not be comforted in their affliction, were, by the compassion of the gods, all but Gorgo and Deianira, changed into birds called Meleagrides.—There was another tradition, according to which Meleager was slain by Apollo, the protecting deity of the Curetes. (Pausan., 10, 31, 3–Keightley's Mythology, p. 321, seqq.)—II. A Greek poet, a native of Gadara in Coelesyria, and either contemporary with Antipater, or a very short time subsequent to him. He composed several works of a satirical character, which we find quoted under the following titles: 1. Xvuróatov, “The Banquet.”— 2. Aexibov kai oakī; atykptaic, “A mixture of volks of eggs and beans.”—3. Xáptrec, “The Graces.” Jacobs, however, thinks that the whole collection of his satires may have been rather entitled Xaptrec. (Animadu. in Anthol., 1, 1–Prolegom., p. xxxviii.)—III. Another poet, who has left about 130 epigrams. They are marked by purity of diction and by feeling, but they betray, at the same time, something of that sophistic subtlety which characterized his age. Occasionally we meet with words rather too boldly compounded. Meleager was the first who made a collection of epigrams, or an anthology. He entitled it Xrédavoc, “The Crown.” It contained a selection of the best pieces of forty-six poets, arranged in al*. order according to the names of the authors. is compilation is lost. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 4, p. 45, 55.) Mele Agripes, the sisters of Meleager, daughters of OEneus and Althaea. They were so disconsolate at the death of their brother Meleager, that they refused all aliment, and were changed into birds called Meleagrides. The youngest of these sisters, Gorgo and Deianira, who had been married, alone escaped this metamorphosis. (Apollod., 1, 8.-Ovid, Met., 8, b40.) Melrs (etis), a river of Asia Minor, near Smyrna. Some of the ancients supposed that Homer was born on the banks of this river, from which circumstance they call him Melesigènes. They also showed a cave, where it was said that Homer had composed his verses. (Pausan., 7, 5.) Chandler informs us that he searched for this cavern, and succeeded in discovering it above the aqueduct of the Meles. It is about four feet wide, the roof of a huge rock, cracked and slanting, the sides and bottom sandy. ... Beyond it is a passage cut, leading into a kind of well. (Travels in Asia Minor, p. 91.) According to the same traveller, the Meles, at the present day, is shallow in summer, not covering its rocky bed; but, winding in the deep valley behind the castle of Smyrna, it murmurs among the evergreens, and receives many rills from the slopes; after turning an overshot mill or two, it approaches the gardens without the town, where it branches out into small canals, and is divided and subdivided into still smaller currents, until it is absorbed, or reaches the sea, in ditches, unlike a river. In winter, however, after heavy rains, or the melting of snow on the mountains, it swells into a torrent rapid and deep, of. ten not fordable without danger; and it then finds its

way into the inner bay, where the ancient city stood. (Chandler's Travels,M. 76, seqq.) MELE sigićNrs or Leslak Na, a name given to Homer. (Vid. Meles and Homerus.) Meliboea, I. a town of Thessaly, in the district of Estia-otis, near Ithome. (Lir., 36, 13.)—II. A city of Thessaly, in the district of Magnesia. According to Livy (44, 13), it stood at the base of Mount Ossa, in that part which stretches towards the plains of Thessaly, above Demetrias. Homer assigns it to the domains of Philoctetes (Il., 2, 716), hence called “Melibarus dur” by Virgil. (AEn., 3,401.) Meliboea was attacked in the Macedonian war by M. Popilius, a Roman commander, at the head of five thousand men ; but the garrison being re-enforced by a detachment from the army of Perseus, the enterprise was abandoned. (Livy, l.c.) We know from Apollonius (Arg., 1, 592) that it was a maritime town. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 423.) According to Pouqueville (Voyage, vol. 3, p. 404), the village of Daoukli indicates the site of the ancient Meliboea. (Compare Paul Lucas's map, appended to his Travels, 1704.) Melice Rt A or Melice Rtes, a son of Athamas and Ino. He was saved by his mother from the fury of his father, who prepared to dash him against a wall as he had done his brother Learchus. The mother was so terrified that she threw herself into the sea, with Melicerta in her arms. Neptune had compassion on Ino and her son, and changed them both into seadeities. Ino was called Leucothoe or Matuta, and Melicerta was known among the Greeks by the name of Palaemon, and among the Latins by that of Portumnus. (Vid. Leucothoe and Ino. — Apollod., 1, 9; 3, 4.— Pausan., 1, 44.—Ovid, Met., 4, 529.) MELIGüNis, one of the earlier names of Lipara. (Wid. Lipara.) Melli. Vid. Malii. Melissa, I. a daughter of Melissus, king of Crete, who, with her sister Amalthaea, fed Jupiter with the milk of goats. According to the account quoted by Lactantius, she was appointed by her father the first priestess of Cybele. (Lactant., 1, 22.)—II. A nymph, who first discovered the means of obtaining honey through the aid of bees. She was fabled to have been herself changed into one of these little creatures. (Columell., 9, 2.)—III. One of the Oceanides, who married Inachus, by whom she had Phoroneus and AEgialus.—IV. A daughter of Procles, who married Periander, the son of Cypselus, by whom, in her pregnancy, she was killed with a blow of his foot, by the false accusation of his concubines. (Diog. Lacrt., 1, 100.-Herod., 3, 50.-Bähr, ad Herod., l.c.—Pausan., 1, 28.) Melissus, a philosopher of Samos, of the Eleatic sect, who flourished about 440 B.C. He was a disciple of Parmenides, to whose doctrines he closely adhered. As a public man, he was conversant with af. fairs of state, and acquired great influence among his countrymen, who had a high veneration for his talents and virtues. Being appointed by them to the command of a fleet, he obtained a great naval victory over the Athenians. As a philosopher, he maintained that the principle of all things is one and immutable, or that whatever exists is one being; that this one being includes all things, and is infinite, without beginning or end ; that there is neither vacuum nor motion in the universe, nor any such thing as production or decay; that the changes which it seems to suffer are only illusions of our senses, and that we ought not to lay down anything positive concerning the gods, since our knowledge of them is so uncertain. Themistocles is said to have been one of his pupils. (Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol.1, p. 418, seqq.) Melita, I. an island in the Mediterranean, sixty miles southeast of Sicily, now Malta. It is first mentioned by Scylax (p. 50), but is considered by him as belonging to Africa, from its having Punic inhabitants, and being no farther from Africa than from Sicily. The earlier Greek historians do not mention it, since it was regarded as a Carthaginian island, and lay without their historical limits. Diodorus Siculus is the first that gives us any account of it. “There are,” he says, “over against that part of Sicily which lies to the south, three islands at a distance in the sea, each of which has a town and safe ports for ships overtaken by tempests. The first, called Melite, is about 800 stadia from Syracuse, and has several excellent harbours. The inhabitants are very rich, inasmuch as they exercise many trades, and, in particular, manufacture cloths remarkable for their softness and fineness. Their houses are large, and splendidly ornamented with projections and stucco (Yelagow kai kováuaat). The island is a colony of the Phoenicians, who, trading to the Western Ocean, use it as a place of refuge, because it has excellent ports, and lies in the midst of the sea. Next to this island is another named Gaulus (Gozo), with convenient harbours, which is also a colony of Phoenicians.” (Diod. Sic., 5, 12.) Malta is said to have been subsequently occupied by the Greeks; but, however this may be, the Carthaginians obtained possession of it B.C. 402. In the first Punic war it was plundered by the Roman consul Attilius. (Orosius, 4, 8.) In the second Punic war it surrendered to the Romans, and was regarded henceforth as an appendage to the province of Sicily. Its commerce declined under its new masters, and the island became a not unfrequent haunt of pirates. It appears, however, that its temple of Juno was rich enough to be an object of plunder to the rapacious Verres when he was praetor of Sicily. (Cic. in Verr., 4, 46.) The linen cloth of Malta was considered an article of luxury at Rome. After the division of the Roman empire at the death of Constantine, this island was included in the share allotted to Constantius. It fell subsequently into the hands of the Goths, who were expelled by Belisarius, A.D. 533. The Arabs conquered it in 870, and though it was recovered, and held by the Eastern empire for the space of 34 years, it was retaken by the Arabs, and the Greek inhabitants were exterminated. In 1120, Count Roger, the Norman conqueror of Sicily, took possession of Malta and expelled the Arabs. Malta was thus again attached to the island of Sicily, and it became subject to the different dynasties which successively governed that island. In 1516, Sicily, with the Maltese islands, passed to the Emperor Charles W., as heir to the crown of Arragon. On the 4th March, 1530, Charles granted to the Knights of St. John, who had been recently expelled from Rhodes by the Turks, the ownership of all the castles, fortresses, and isles of Tripoli, Malta, and Gozo, with complete jurisdiction. The sovereignty of Malta was by this grant, in effect, surrendered to the knights, though the form of tenure from the crown of Sicily was maintained by the reservation of the annual payment of a falcon by the same to the King of Sicily or his viceroy. It was soon fortified by the knights, and underwent several memorable sieges. In 1798, Bonaparte took possession of it on his expedition to Egypt; and in 1800, the French garrison was obliged by famine to capitulate to a British force. In 1814, the possession of it was confirmed to Great Britain by the treaty of Paris.-The cotton manufactories of Malta have been celebrated for many ages, and would seem to trace their origin to the times of the Phoenicians. The soil consists of a thin covering of earth on a soft, calcareous rock, and is increased by breaking up the surface of the stone into a sort of gravel, and mixing it through the earth. It is no uncommon thing, however, for soil to be transported from Sicily, especially when a proprietor wishes to make a new garden; a fact that could hardly be inferred from the number and excellent flavour of the Maltese oranges, from its beautiful .5 L

roses, and the exhalations of a thousand flowers.The city of Melita, the ancient capital, lay some distance inland, where Citta Pinto is at present situated.—Two questions are connected with this island. The first relates to the voyage of St. Paul, which will be considered under Melita II. ; the other is of a more trivial nature, namely, which island, this or the Illyrian Melita (now Meleda), furnished the Catuli Melitari, so much esteemed by the Roman ladies. Pliny, on the authority of Callimachus and Stephanus of Byzantium, pronounces in favour of Meleda, Strabo of Malta (280).II. An island in the Adriatic, northwest of Epidaurus, and lying off the coast of Dalmatia. Its modern name is Meleda. —The question has often been agitated, whether it was on this island, or Melita (now Malta) below Sicily, that St. Paul was shipwrecked. (Acts,27 and 28.) Upon a fair review of the whole subject, it will be found that the Illyrian island presents the better claim to this distinction. The following reasons may be alleged in favour of this side of the question: 1. The vessel, when lost, was in “Adria,” the Adriatic

Gulf, which cannot by any geographical contrivance,

be made to extend, as some would wish to have it, to the coast of Africa. —2. The island on which the Apostle was wrecked was an obscure one in the Adriatic sea, formerly called Melita, and now known by the name of Meleda. This island lies confessedly in the Adriatic, off the coast of Illyricum ; it lies, too, nearer the mouth of the Adriatic than any other island of that sea, and would, of course, be more likely to receive the wreck of any vessel that would be driven by tempests to that quarter.—3. Meleda is situate, moreover, nearly N.W. by N. of the southwest promontory of Crete, and nearly in the direction of a storm from the southeast quarter.—4. The manner likewise in which Melita is described by St. Luke agrees with the idea of an obscure place, but not with the celebrity of Malta at that time. Cicero speaks of Melita (Malta) as abounding in curiosities and riches, and possessing a remarkable manufacture of the finest linen. (Orat. in Verr., 4, 18, 46.) Malta, according to Diodorus Siculus (5, 1), was furnished with many and very good harbours, and the inhabitants were very rich ; for it was full of all sorts of artificers, among whom were excellent weavers of fine linen. The houses were stately and beautiful, and the inhabitants, a colony of Phoenicians, famous for the extent and lucrative nature of their commerce. It is difficult to suppose that a place of this description could be meant by such an expression as “an island called Melita;” nor could the inhabitants, with any propriety of speech, be understood by the epithet “barbarous.” É. the Adriatic Melita persectly corresponds with that description. Though too obscure and insignificant to be particularly noticed by ancient geographers, the opposite and neighbouring coast of Illyricum is represented by Strabo in such a way as perfectly corresponds with the expression of the apostle. – 5. Father Giorgi, an ecclesiastic of Melita Adriatica, who has written on this subject, suggests, very properly, that as there are now no serpents in Malta, and as it should seem there were none in the time of Pliny, there never were any there, the country being dry and rocky, and not affording shelter or proper nourishment for animals of this description. But Meleda abounds with these reptiles, being woody and damp, and favourable to their way of life and propagation.—6. The disease with which the father of Publius was affected (dysentery combined with sever, probably intermittent) affords a presumptive evidence of the nature of the island. Such a place as Malta, dry, and rocky, and remarkably healthy, was not likely to produce such a disease, which is almost peculiar to moist situations and stagnant waters, but might well suit a country woody and damp, and, probably for want of draining, exposed to the putrid effluvia of confined moisture.—7. It has been alleged, however, in favour 817

of Malta's having been the island in question, that, had Meleda been the one, St. Paul would not have called at Syracuse in his way to Rhegium, “which is so far out of the track,” says a writer who advocates this opinion, “that no example can be produced in the history of navigation of any ship going so far out of her course, except it was driven by a violent tempest.” This argument tends principally to show that the writer had a very incorrect idea of the relative situations of the places to which he refers. The ship which carried St. Paul from the Adriatic to Rhegium would not deviate from its course more than half a day's sail by touching at Syracuse ; and the delay so occasioned would probably be but a few hours more than it would have been had they proceeded to Syracuse in their way to the Straits of Messina from Malta. Besides, the master of the ship might have, and probably had, some business at Syracuse, which had originated at Alexandrea, from which place it must have been originally intended that the ship should commence her voyage to Puteoli; and in this course the calling at Syracuse would have been the smallest deviation possible.—8. Again, supposing the ship to have come from Malta, it must have been on account of some business, probably commercial, that they touched at Syracuse in their way to Puteoli, as Malta is scarcely more than one day and night's sail from Syracuse : whereas there might be some reasons respecting the voyage, had the ship come from Meleda, which is more than five times that distance, and probably a more uncertain navigation.—9. As regards the wind Euroclydon, it may be observed, that the word evidently implies a southeast wind. It is composed of Etpot, the southeast wind, and k2 vööv, a wave, an addition highly expressive of the character and effects of this wind, but probably chiefly applied to it when it became typhonic or tempestuous. Typhon is described by Pliny (2, 48) as praecipuo navigantium pestis, non antennas modo, perum ipsa navigia contorta frangens. The course of the wind from the southeast would impel the ship towards the island of Crete, though not so directly but that they might weather it, as they in fact did, and got clear, though it appears they encountered some risk of being wrecked when running under, or to the south of the island of Clauda or Gaudos, which lies opposite to the port of Phoenice, the place where they proposed to winter. A circumstance occurs in this part of the narrative which creates some difficulty. They who navigated the ship were apprehensive of falling among the Syrtes, which lay on the coast of Africa, nearly to the southwest of the western point of Crete. But we should consider that this danger lay only in the fears of the mariners, who, knowing the Syrtes to be the great terror of those seas, and probably not being able to ascertain from what quarter the wind blew, neither sun nor stars having been visible for several days, and as these violent typhonic Levanters are apt to change their direction, might entertain apprehensions that they might be cast on these dangerous quicksands. The event, however, proved that the place of their danger was mistaken. (Classical Journal, vol. 19, p. 212, seqq.—Hale's Analysis of Chronology, vol. 1, p. 464, seqq., ed. 2d, 1830.) MELITENE, a district of Asia Minor, in the southeastern part of Armenia Minor, and lying along the right bank of the Euphrates. The soil was fertile, and yielded fruits of every kind; in this respect differing from the rest of Cappadocia, of which Armenia Minor was a part. The chief product was oil, and a wine called Monarites, which equalled the best of Grecian growth. (Strab., 535. Plin., 6, 3.) Its capital was Melitene, now Malatie, on a branch of the river Melas. (Plin., 5, 24.—Steph. Byz., s.r.—Procop., de AEdif., 3, 5.) Melitus, one of the accusers of Socrates.

[ocr errors]

he had prevailed, and Socrates had been ignominiously put to death, the Athenians repented of their severity to the philosopher. Melitus was condemned to death; and Anytus, another of the accusers, to escape a similar fate, went into voluntary exile. (Diog. Laert., 2.) Melirs or MA:lius, Spurius, a Roman knight, suspected of aiming at kingly power, in consequence of his uncommon h6erality in supplying the populace with corn. He was summoned by the dictator L. Q. Cincinnatus to appear before him ; and, having refused so to do, was slain on the spot by Ahala, the master of the horse. (Liv., 4, 13, seqq.—Wid. ALGuimelium.) MELLA or MELA, a small river of Cisalpine Gaul, near Brixia. It retains its ancient name. (Varg., Georg., 4, 278–Catullus, 66, 32.) Melos, now Milo, an island in the AEgean Sea, forming one of the group of the Cyclades. It was situate, according to Strabo (84), about 700 stadia to the southeast of Cape Scyllaeum, and nearly as many, in a northeastern direction, from the Dictynnaean promontory in Crete. It was first inhabited by Phoenicians (Steph. Byc., s. v. Māoc), and afterward colonized by Lacedæmon, nearly 700 years, as Thucydides relates, before the Peloponnesian war. This island adhered to the interest of that state against the Athenians, and successfully resisted at first an attempt made by the latter to reduce it. (Thucyd., 3, 91.) But some years after, the Athenians returned with a greater force; and, on the rejection of all their overtures, in a conference which the historian has preserved to us, they proceeded to besiege the principal town, which they at length captured after a brave and obstinate resistance. Having thus gained possession of the city, they, with a degree of barbarity peculiar to that age, put all the males to death, enslaved the women and children, and sent 500 colonists into the island. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 404.) MELPes, a river of Lucania, flowing into the sea to the southeast of the promontory of Palinurus. (Plin., 3, 5.) It is now the Molpa, and is probably the same stream which Lycophron (v. 1083) calls the Membles. Melpomi.NE, one of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. Her name is derived from u82Touai, “to celebrate in song.” She presided over tragedy, of which the poets made her the inventress. Hence the language of Ausonius, “Melpomene tragico proclamat moesta boatu.” (Auson, Idyll. ult, v. 2.) She was commonly represented as veiled, and holding in her hand a tragic mask. Her instrument was the lyre. Melpomene became, by the river-god Achelous, the mother of the Sirens. (Vid. Musae.) MEMMA (more correctly REMMIA) Lex, a law, by whom proposed, or in what year, is uncertain. . It ordained, that an accusation should not be admitted against those who were absent in the service of the public. (Val. Maz., 3, 7, 9–Suet., Wit. Jul., 23); and if any one was convicted of false accusation, that he should be branded on the forehead with a letter; probably K, as anciently the name of this crime was written KALUMNIA.—As regards the correct form of the name of this law, consult jo. Ant. Rom-, p. 731, ed. Haubold. MEMM11, the name of one of the branches of an old plebeian house, who were themselves subdivided into the families of the Galli and Gemelli. The most remarkable of the Memmii were the following—I. C. Memmius Gallus, was praetor B.C. 176 and 170, and afterward ambassador to the AEtolians.—II. C. Memmius Gallus, son of the preceding, was tribune of the commons, and a bold and popular speaker. It was he who induced the people to summon Jugurtha, king of Numidia, to Rome, in order to expose, if possible, by his means, the corruption of the Roman nobility. (Wid. Jugurtha.) He was afterward elected consul, B.C. 100, but was assassinated by Glaucia, a dis appointed candidate. (Vid. Marius.)—III. L. Memmius Gemellus, was tribune of the commons B.C. 64, and praetor B.C. 59, in which latter capacity he had the government of Bithynia. He was distinguished as an orator and poet, and was the friend and patron of Catullus and Lucretius, the latter of whom dedicated his poem to him. Cicero describes him as a man of great literary acquirements, and well acquainted with the Grecian language and literature. (Brut., 70.) The same writer, however, represents him elsewhere as a man of licentious habits. (Ep. ad Att., 1, 18.) He was an opponent of Caesar's, and was driven into exile by means of the latter, on the charge of bribery in suing for the consulship, and also of extortion in the province of Bithynia. He died in exile. (Cic, Ep. ad Fam., 13, 1–Manut, ad loc.—ld., Ep. ad Att., 6, 1.-Ernesti, Ind. Hist., s. v.) MEMNoN, I. a personage frequently mentioned by the Greek writers. He is first spoken of in the Odys. sey as the son of Eos, or the morning, as a hero remarkable for his beauty, and as the vanquisher of Antilochus (4, 188; 11, 521) Hesiod calls him the King of the Ethiopians, and represents him as the son of Tithonus. (Theog., 986.) He is supposed to have fought against the Greeks in the Trojan war, and to have been slain by Achilles. In the Yuxoa racia, a lost drama of Æschylus, the dead body of Memnon is carried away by his mother Eos. (Fragm. No. 261, ed. Dindorf.) He is represented by most Greek writers as King of the Ethiopians, but he is also said to have been commected with Persia. According to Diodorus (2,22), Tithonus, the father of Memnon, governed Persia, at the time of the Trojan war, as the viceroy of Teutamus, the Assyrian king; and Memnon erected at Susa the palace which was asterward known by the name of Memnonium. Diodorus also adds, that the Ethiopians claimed Memnon as a native of their country. Pausanias combines the two accounts: he represents Memnon as king of the Ethiopians, but also says that he came to Troy from Susa, and not from Ethiopia, subduing all the nations in his way. (Pausan., 10, 31, 6–Id., 1,42, 2.) AEschylus also, according to Strabo, spoke of the Cissian, that is, Susian, parentage of Memnon (Strabo, 720); and Herodotus mentions the palace at Susa, called Memnonia, and also says, that the city itself was sometimes described by the same name. (Herod., 5, 53, seq.-Id., 7, 151.) The great majority of Greek writers agree in tracing the origin of Memnon to Egypt or Ethiopia; and it is not improbable that the name of Memnon was not known in Susa till after the Persian conquest of Egypt, and that the buildings there called Memnonian by the Greeks were, in name, at least, the representative of those in Egypt. The partial deciphering of the Egyptian proper names affords us sufficient reason for believing, with Pausanias (1,42, 2), that the Memnon of the Greeks may be identified with the Egyptian Phamenoph, Phamenoth, Amenophis, or Amenothph, of which name the Greek one is probably only a corruption. Phamenoph is said to mean “the guardian of the city of Ammon,” or “devoted to Ammon,” “belonging to Ammon.”—Memnon, then, must be regarded as one of the early heroes or kings of Egypt, whose same reached Greece in very early times. In the eighteenth dynasty of Manetho the name of Amenophis occurs, with this remark: “This is he who is supposed to be the Memnon and the vocal stone.” He is Amenophis II., and the son of Thutmosis, who is said to have driven the shepherds out of Egypt.—As regards the vocal statue of Memnon, consult the article Memnonium II. (Encycl. Us. Knowl, vol. 15, p. 88, seq.) —II. A native of Rhodes, the brother of the wife of Artabazus satrap of Lower Phrygia. He was advanced, together with his brother Mentor, to offices of great trust and power by Darius Ochus, king of Persia. We are ignorant of the time of Memnon's birth, but

he is mentioned by Demosthenes as a young man in B.C. 352. (Aristocrat., p. 672.) Memnon possessed great military talents, and was intrusted by Darius Codomannus, the last king of Persia, on the invasion of Asia by Alexander, with an extensive command in Western Asia; but his plans were thwarted and opposed by the satraps, and it was contrary to his advice that the Persians offered battle to the Macedonians at the Granicus. After the defeat of the Persians on this occasion, Memnon was appointed to the chief command in Western Asia, as the only general who was able to oppose the Macedonians. He first retired to Miletus, and afterward withdrew to Halicarnassus in Caria, which he defended against Alexander, and only abandoned it at last when it was no longer possible to hold out. After the fall of Halicarnassus, Memnon entered into negotiations with the Lacedæmonians, with the view of attacking Macedonia. He was now completely master of the sea, and proceeded to subdue the islands in the AEgean. He took Chios, and obtained possession of the whole of Lesbos, with the exception of Mytilene, before which place he died, B.C. 333. The loss of Memnon was fatal to the Persian cause: if he had lived, he would probably have invaded Macedonia, and thus have compelled Alexander to give up his prospects of Asiatic conquest, in order to defend his own dominions. (Arrian, Erp. Al., 1, 20, seqq.— Id. ib., 2, 1, seqq.—Diod. Suc., 16, 52.—Id., 17, 23, seqq.—Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 15, p. 89.)—III. A native of Heraclea Pontica, in Bithynia, generally regarded as contemporary with Augustus, but who, in the opinion of some critics, ought to be placed in a later period. He wrote a history of his native city, and of the tyrants who had ruled over it, in twenty-four books. Photius has preserved for us an abridgment, or, rather, an extract from the 9th to the 16th book; for already, in his time, the first eight, as also the last eight books, were lost; and it is precisely from this circumstance that we are unable to fix the period when the history terminated, and which would give us some idea of the time when the author flourished. The extracts preserved by Photius are more interesting from the fact of Memnon's speaking, in the course of them, by way of digression, of other nations and communities with whom his townsmen had at any time political intercourse or relations. These extracts extend from the first year of the 104th Olympiad (B.C. 364) to B.C. 46–The latest and best edition of the fragments of Memnon is that of Orellius, Lips., 1816, 8vo, containing fragments of the works of other writers of Heraclea. (Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 4, p. 105.) MEMNoNium, I, the citadel of Susa. The city also bore the epithet of “Memnonian.” (Herod., 5,54; 7, 151. — Compare remarks under the article Memnon I.)—H. A splendid structure at Thebes, in Egypt, on the western side of the river. The ruins of the Memnonium are regarded at the present day as perhaps the most ancient in Thebes. This beautiful relic of antiquity looks to the east, and is fronted by a vast propylaeon, of which 234 feet in length are still remaining. The main edifice has been about 200 feet wide and 600 feet long, containing six courts and chambers, passing from side to side, with about 160 columns thirty feet high. All the sidewalks have been broken down, and the materials of which they were composed carried away; nothing remaining but a portion of the colonnade and the inner chambers, to testify to the traveller what a noble structure once occupied this interesting spot. Champollion considers the Memnonium to be the same with the tomb of Osymandias, described by Diodorus Siculus (1, 47). In the Memnonium is still to be seen the statue of Osymandias. It is pronounced to be by far the finest relic of art which the place contains, and to have been once its brightest ornament, though at present it is thrown down from its pedestal, laid * on the l

« PoprzedniaDalej »