Obrazy na stronie

39.—Compare Aristot., de Mundo, c. 3.-Gellius, N. A., 10, 7.) Diodorus Siculus, # kaff' huā, śāāagoa (4, 18. – Compare Polyb., 3, 37.—Strab., 83. — Appian, Bell. Mithradat., c. 93. — Marimus Tyrius, 14, 2). Maximus Tyrius, # dewpo 94%agoa (41, 1). Strabo, # 8vrö; 94%agoa. (Compare Marc. Heracl., Peripl., p. 65. — Agathem., 2, 4.) Aristotle, # buróc 'Hpakāeian arm2&v JáAaaga (Meteor, 2, 1–Compare Dion. Hal., 1,3–Plut., Vit. Pomp., c. 25). The Latin writers in general, as we have already said, give it the appellation of Nostrum Mure (Sallust., Jug., c. 17.-Mela, 1, 1, 5.--Liv., 26, 4.—Cas., B. G., 5, 1. Avien., Or. Marit., v. 56—Compare Duker, ad Flor, 3, 6, 9.-Cort, ad Sallust, B. Jug., c. 18). Pliny styles it Mare internum (3, procm., c. 5). Florus, Mare intestinum (4, 2). Later writers, not classical, have Mare Mediterraneum. (Solin., c. 22.) Isidorus gives the following explanation of this name: “Quia per mediam terram usque ad Orientemperfunditur, Europam et Africam Asiamque disterminans.” (Orig., 13, 13. —Compare Priscian., Perieg., 52.) Orosius says, “Mare nostrum quod Magnum generaliter dictmus;” and Isidorus remarks, “quia cetera maria in comparatione ejus minora sunt.” (Oros., 1, 2–Isid., Orig., 13, 16.-Compare Hardouin, ad Plin, 9, 18. Burmann, ad Val. Flacc., Arg., 1, 50.) According to Polybius (3, 42), that part of the Mediterranean which lay between the Pillars of Hercules and the Rhone was called Xapóóvtov réAayot, while Aristotle calls the part between the Pillars and Sardinia Xapdovakóg (Meteor., 2, 1.-Id., de Mund., 3.-Eratosth., ap. Plin., 3, 10). Strabo gives the part between the Pillars and the Pyrenees the name of 'I6mptröv réâayo; (122. —Compare Agathem., 1, 3.-Dionys. Perieg., v. 69.-Niceph. Blem., ed. Spohn, p. 3). Pliny remarks, “Hispanum mare, quatenus Hispanias alluit; ab altis Ibericum aut Balearicum” (3, 2. — Id, ibid, 4, 34.—Compare Solin., c. 23.—Ampel., c. 7.—Ptol., 2, 6). According to Zonaras (Annal., 8, p. 406), the sea to the east of the Pyrenees was called the Sea of the Bebrycians. (Compare Markland, ad Mar. Tyr., 32, 3–Ukert's Geogr., vol. 2, p. 247, seqq., in notis.) Medit Rin A, the goddess of healing, whose festival, called Meditrinalia, was celebrated at Rome and throughout Latium on the 5th day before the Ides of October. (Compare the Ancient Calendar given by Gruter, p. 133.) On this occasion new and old wine were poured out in libation, and tasted, “medicamenti causa.” Compare the explanatory remarks of Festus : “Meditrinalia dicta hac de causa. Mos crat Latinis populis, quo die quis primum gustaret mustum, diccre ominis gratia, vetus novum vinum bibo: veteri novo morbo medeor.” A quibus verbis Meditrina deat nomen captum, ejusque sacra Meditrinalia dicta sunt.” (Festus, s. v.–Consult Dacier, ad loc.) Meności, a people of Venetia, in Cisalpine Gaul, noticed only by Strabo (216). From the affinity which their name bears to that of the Meduacus or Brenta, it seems reasonable to place them near the source of that river, and in the district of Bassano. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 125.) Edoicus or Medusscus, I. Major, a river of Venetia, now the Brenta.—II. Minor, a river of Venetia, now the Bachiglione.—Both these rivers rise in the territory of the Euganei, and fall into the Adriatic below Venice. Patavium was situate between these two streams, but nearer the Medoacus Minor. (Plin., 3, 16.-Liv., 10, 2.) Medobriga, a city of Lusitania, southwest of Norba Caesarea; now Marvao, on the confines of Portugal. (Cas., Bell. Afric., c. 48.) Medon, son of Codrus, the 17th and last king of Athens, was the first of the perpetual archons. He held the office for life, and transmitted it to his posterity; but still it would appear that, within the house of the Medontidae, the succession was determined by

the choice of the nobles. It is added, that the archon at this period, though holding the office for life, was nevertheless deemed a responsible magistrate, which implies that those who elected had the power of deposing him ; and, consequently, though the range of his functions may not have been narrower than that of the king's, he was more subject to control in the exercise of them. This indirect kind of sway, however, did not satisfy the more ambitious spirits; and we find them steadily, though gradually, advancing towards the accomplishment of their final object—a complete and equal participation of the sovereignty. Aster twelve perpetual archonships, ending with that of Alcmason, the duration of the office was limited to ten years; and through the guilt or calamity of Hippomanes, the fourth decennial archon, the house of Medon was deprived of its privilege, and the supreme magistracy was thrown open to the whole body of the nobles. This change was speedily followed by one much more important: the archonship was reduced to a single year; and, at the same time, its branches were severed, and were distributed among nine new magistrates. (Vid. Archontes.—Thirlwall's History of Greece, vol. 2, p. 16. – Compare Clinton, Fast. Hell., vol. 1, p.

ix., seqq.) Medulicus. Vid. Medoacus. Meduina, a river of Gallia Belgica, flowing into the Ligeris or Loire. Now the Mayenne. (Lucan,

1, 438.-Theod. Aurel., 4, carm. 6.) Medus, I. a river of Persis, falling into the Rogomanes; now the Abi-Kuren. (Strabo, 729.)—By the Medum flumen in Horace (Od., 2, 9, 21) is meant the Euphrates.—II. A son of AEgeus and Medea, who was fabled to have given name to Media, in Upper Asia. (Wid. Medea.) Medusa, one of the three Gorgons, daughter of Phorcys and Ceto, and the only one of the number that was not immortal. (Apollod., 2, 4, 2.) According to one legend, Medusa was remarkable for personal beauty, and captivated by her charms the monarch of the sea. Minerva, however, incensed at their having converted her sanctuary into a place of meeting, à. ed the beautiful locks of Medusa into serpents, and made her in other respects hideous to the view. Some accounts make this punishment to have besallen her because she presumed to vie in personal attractions with Minerva, and to consider her tresses as far superior to the locks of the former. (Serr., ad Virg., AEn., 6, 289.) Apollodorus, however, gives the Gorgons snaky tresses from their birth. (Vid. Gorgones.)—Medusa had, in common with her sisters, the power of converting every object into stone on which she fixed her eyes. Perseus slew her (rid. Perseus), and cut off her head ; and the blood that flowed from it produced, say the poets, the serpents of Africa, since Perseus, on his return, winged his way over that country with the Gorgon's head. The conqueror gave the head to the goddess Minerva, who

placed it in the centre of her agis or shield. (Wid.
MEGAERA, one of the Furies. (Vid. Furiae.)
Megalesia, games in honour of Cybele. (Wid.

Ludi Megalenses.) Megalia or Megaris, a small island in the Bay of Naples, near Neapolis, on which the Castle del Oro now stands. (Plin., 3, 6.-Colum., R. R., 10.) MEGALopólis, the most recent of all the Arcadian cities, and also the most extensive, situate in the southern part of Arcadia, in a wide and fertile plain watered by the Helissus, which flowed from the central parts of Arcadia, and nearly divided the town into two equal parts. Pausanias informs us, that the Arcadians, having, by the advice of Epaminondas, resolved on laying the foundations of a city, which was to be the capital of their nation, deputed ten commissioners, selected from the principal states, to make the

necessary arrangements for conducting the new colony. (Pausan., 8, 27.) This event took place in the 102d Olympiad, or 370–1 B.C. The territory assigned to Megalopolis was extensive, since it reached as far as the little states of Orchomenus and Caphyae on the northeast, while to the south and southwest it adjoined Laconia and Messenia. (Pausan., 8, 25.) Diodorus affirms, that the city contained about 15,000 men capable of bearing arms, according to which calculation we may compute the whole population at 65,000. (Diod. Sic., 18, 70.) The Megalopolitans experienced no molestation from the Lacedaemonians as long as Thebes was able to protect them; but, on the decline of that city, and when it also became engaged in the sacred war against the Phocians, they were assailed by the Spartans, who endeavoured to obtain possession of their town; these attacks, however, were easily repelled by the aid of the Argives and Messenians. (Pausan., 8, 37.) To the Athenians the Megalopolitans were likewise indebted for their protection against the attempts of Sparta, as well as for their assistance in settling some dissensions in their republic, which had led to the secession of several townships that originally contributed to the soundation of the city. (Demosth., Orat. pro Megalop., p. 202.) In order to strengthen themselves still farther against the Lacedaemonians, they formed an alliance with Philip, son of Amyntas, who conciliated the favour of the Arcadians not only towards himself, but towards all his successors. (Pausan, 8, 27.-Polyb., 2, 48.) On the death of Alexander, Megalopolis had to defend itself against the army of Polysperchon, who was engaged in war with Cassander. This general vigorously assaulted the city, but, owing to the bravery of the inhabitants, headed by Damis, who had served under Alexander, his attacks were constantly repulsed. (Diod. Sic., 18, 70.) Subsequently we find Megalopolis governed by tyrants, the first of whom was Aristodemus of Phigalea, whose excellent character obtained for him the surname of Xpmaróc. Under his reign the Spartans again invaded Megalopolis, but were defeated after an obstinate conflict; Acrotatus, the son of Cleomenes, who commanded the army, being among the slain. (Pausan., 8, 27.) Some time after the death of Aristodemus, the sovereignty was o usurped by Lydiades, a man of ignoble birth, but of worthy character, since he voluntarily abdicated his authority for the benefit of his countrymen, in order that he might unite them with the Achaean confederacy. (Pausan, 8, 27–Polyb., 2, 44.) At this period Megalopolis was assailed for the third time by the Spartans; who, having defeated the inhabitants, laid siege to the city, of which they would have made themselves masters but for a violent wind, which overthrew and demolished their engines. (Pausan., 8, 27.) Not long, however, after this failure, Cleomenes, the son of Leonidas, in violation of the existing treaty, surprised the Megalopolitans by night, and, putting to the sword all who offered any resistance, destroyed the city. Philopoemen, with a considerable part of the population, escaped into Messenia. (Polyb., 2, 55.— Pausan., 8, 27.) Megalopolis was restered by the Achaeans aster the battle of Sellasia; but it never agains rose to its former flourishing condition. The virtues and talents of its great general Philopoemen added materially to its celebrity and influence in the Achaean councils, and after his death its fame was upheld by the abilities of Lycortas and Polybius, who trod in the steps of their gifted countryman, and were worthy of sharing in the lustre which he had reflected on his native city. (Pausan., 8, 49.-Polyb., 2, 40. —Id., 10, 24.- Id., 24, 9.-Plut., Wit. Philopæm.) In the time of Polybius, Megalopolis was fifty stadia in circumference, but its population was only equal to half that of Sparta; and when Strabo wrote, it was so reduced that a comic poet was justified in saying,

'Epmuta ueyáàm Kariv # Meyazórożuc. (Strabo, 388. —The village of Sinamo has been built on the site, and amid the ruins of Megalopolis. (Dodwell, Tour, vol. 2, p. 375.-Pouquerille, Voyage de la Grece, vol. 5, p. 494.) Dodwell says that Sinano, which con: sists of an aga's pyrgo and a few cottages, is situated “just without the aucient walls.” Pouqueville, however, makes the distance one mile between Sinano and the ruins of Megalopolis. The former is undoubtedly the more accurate statement. Leondari has been erroneously regarded by some as occupying the site of this ancient city. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 329, seqq.) Mega Nira, the wife of Celeus, king of Eleusis in Attica. She was mother of Triptolemus, to whom Ceres taught agriculture. Meganira received divine honours after death, and had an altar raised to her near the sountain where Ceres had first been seen when she arrived in Attica. (Pausan., 1, 39.) Meg Kra, a daughter of Creon, king of Thebes, given in marriage to Hercules, because he had delivered the Thebans from the tribute they had bound themselves to pay to the Orchomenians. Subsequently, having been rendered insane by Juno, Hercules threw into the fire the children of whom he had become the father by Megara. (Apollod, 2, 4, 12.) He afterward gave her in marriage to Iolatis. (Apollod, 2, 6, 1.) Megira (gen. -at ; and also, as a neuter plural, -a, -orum: in Greek, rà Méyapa), a city of Greece, the capital of a district called Megaris, about 210 stadia northwest of Athens. It was situate at the foot of two hills, on each of which stood a citadel: these were named Caria and Alcatholis. It was connected with the port of Nisaea by two walls, the length of which was about eight stadia (Thucyd., 4, 66), or eighteen according to Strabo (391). They were erected by the Athenians, at the time that the Megareans placed themselves under their protection. (Thucyd., 1, 103.). The distance from Athens, as has been already stated, was 210 stadia. (Procop., Bell. Wand, 1, 1.) Dio Chrysostom calls it a day's journey. (Orat., 6.) Modern travellers reckon eight hours. (Dodwell, vol. 2, p. 177.) The writer just referred to states that Megara is now but a miserable place; the houses small, and flat roofed. One only of the hills is occupied by the modern town ; but on the other, which is the more eastern of the two, are some remains of the ancient walls, which appear to have been massive and of great strength. Not any of the numerous temples described by Pausanias can now be identified with certainty. Altogether, there are few places in Greece where the ancient monuments have so totally disappeared. (Dodwell, vol. 2, p. 177.—Compare Gell's Itin., p. 16.)— Tradition, as Pausanias affirms, represented Megara as already existing under that name in the time of Car, the son of Phoroneus; while others have derived it from Megarus, a Boeotian chief, and son of Apollo or Neptune. (Pausan., 1,39–Steph. Byz., s. v. Méyapa.) Car was succeeded by Lelex, who, as was reported, came from Egypt, and transmitted his name to the ancient race of the Leleges, whom we thus trace from the Achelotis to the shores of the Saronic Gulf. Lelex was followed by Cleson, and Pylas, who abdicated his crown in favour of Pandion, the son of Cecrops, king of Athens, by which event Megaris became annexed to the latter state. (Pausan., 1,39.) Nisus, the son of Pandion, received Megaris as his share of his father's dominions. (Strabo, 392.) The history of this prince and his daughter Scylla, as also the capture of Megara by Minos, are found in all the mythological writers of Greece; but Pausanias observes (1, 39) that these accounts were disowned by the Megareans. Nisus is said to have founded Nisaea, the port of Megara; whence the inhabitants of that city were surnamed Nisaei, to distinguish them from the Megareans of Sicily, their colonists. (Tool, 12, 27.) The walls of Megara, which had been destroyed by Minos, were rebuilt by Alcatholis, the son of Pelops, who came from Elis. (Pausan., 1, 41.) In this undertaking, Apollo was said to have assisted him. (Theogn., 771.—Ovid, Met., 8, 14.) Hyperion, the son of Agamemnon, according to Pausanias, was the last sovereign of Megara; after his death, the government, by the advice of an oracle, became democratical. (Pausan, l, 43.) As a republic, however, it remained still subject to Athens. Strabo indeed asfirms, that, till the reign of Codrus, Megaris had always been included within the limits of Attica; and he thus accounts for Homer's making no special mention of its inhabitants, from his comprehending them with the Athenians under the general denomination of Ionians. (Strab., 392.) In the reign of Codrus, Megara was wrested from the Athenians by a Peloponnesian force; and a colony having been established there by the Corinthians and Messenians, it ceased to be considered as of Ionian origin, but thencesorth became a Dorian city, both in its language and political institutions. The pillar, also, which marked the boundaries of Ionia and the Peloponnesus, was on that occasion destroyed. (Strab., 393.—Pausan., 1, 39.— The scholiast on Pindar (Nem. 7) informs us, that the Corinthians, at this early period, considering Megara as their colony, exercised a sort of jurisdiction over the city. Not long after, however, Theagenes, one of its citizens, usurped the sovereign power, by the same method, apparently, which was afterward adopted by Pisistratus at Athens. (Aristot., Rhet, 1, 2. —Id., Polit., 5, 5. Thucyd., 1, 126.) He was finally expelled by his countrymen; after which event a moderate republican form of government was established, though afterward it degenerated into a violent democracy. (Plut., Quast. Gr., 18.) This should probably be considered as the period of Megara's greatest pros(i. since it then founded the cities of Selymbria, Iesembria, and Byzantium, on the shores of the Euxine, and Megara Hyblaea in Sicily. (Strabo, 319.) It was at this time also that its inhabitants were engaged in war with the Athenians for the possession of Salamis, which, after an obstinate contest, finally remained in the hands of the latter. (Pausan., 1, 40.—Strabo, 394.) The Megareans fought at Artemisium with twenty ships, and at Salamis with the same number. (Herod., 8, 1,45.) They also gained some advantage over the Persians under Mardonius, in an inroad which he made into their territory (Pausan., 1, 40); and, lastly, they sent 3000 soldiers to Plataea, who deserved well of their country in the memorable battle fought in its plains. (Herod., 9, 21–Plut., de defect. Orac., p. 186.) After the Persian war, we find Megara en§. in hostilities with Corinth, and renouncing the

eloponnesian confederacy to ally itself with Athens. (Thucyd, 1, 103.—Diod. Sic, 2, 60.) This state of things was not, however, of long duration; for the Corinthians, after effecting a reconciliation with the oligarchical party in Megara, persuaded the inhabitants to declare against the Athenians who garrisoned their city. . These were presently attacked and put to the sword, with the exception of a small number who escaped to Nisaea. (Thucyd., 1,114.) The Athenians, justly incensed at this treacherous conduct, renounced all intercourse with the Megareans, and issued a decree excluding them from their ports and markets; a measure which appears to have been severely felt by the latter, and was made a pretence for war on the part of their Peloponnesian allies. (Thucyd., 1, 67, 139.) Megara was, during the Peloponnesian war, exposed, with the other cities of Greece, to the tumults and factions engendered by violent party spirit. The partisans of the democracy favoured, it is true, the Peloponnesian cause ; but, dreading the efforts of the adverse faction, which might naturally look for support from the Lacedaemonians in restoring the government

to the form of an oligarchy, they formed a plan of giving up the city to the Athenians in the seventh year of the war. An Athenian force was accordingly despatched, which appeared suddenly before Nisaea, the port of Megara, and, having cut off the Peloponnesian troops which garrisoned the place, compelled them to surrender. Megara itself would also have fallen into their hands, if Brasidas had not at this juncture arrived with a Spartan army before the walls of that city, where he was presently joined by the Boeotians and other allies. On his arrival, the Athenians, not feeling sufficiently ...” to hazard an action, withdrew to Nisaea, and, after leaving a garrison in that port, returned to Athens. The leaders of the democratical party in Megara, now fearing that a reaction would ensue, voluntarily quitted the city, which then returned to an oligarchical form of government. (Thucyd., 4, 66, seq.) From this period we hear but little of Megara in Grecian history; but we are told that its citizens remained undisturbed by the contest in which their more powerful neighbours were engaged, and in the tranquil enjoyment of their independence. “The Megareans,” says Isocrates, “from a small and scanty commencement, having neither harbours nor mines, but cultivating rocks, nevertheless possess the largest houses of any people in Greece; and though they have but a small force, and are placed between the Peloponnesians, the Thebans, and our own city, yet they retain their independence and live in peace” (de Pace, p. 183).—Philosophy also flourished in this city, Euclid, a disciple of Socrates, having founded there a school of some celebrity, known by the name of the Megaric sect (Strab., 393.-Cic., Orat., 3, 17.-Id., Acad., 2, 42.) —Plutarch reports, that the Megarcans offered to make Alexander the Great a citizen of their town, an honour which that prince was inclined to ridicule, though they asserted it had never been#. to any foreigner except Hercules. (Plut., de Monarch., f 238.) Aster the death of that monarch, Megara fell successively into the hands of Demetrius Poliorcetes, Ptolemy Soter, and Demetrius, son of Antigonus Gonatas, by whom, according to Plutarch, the tity was destroyed (de Instit. Puer., p. 3); but, as Pausanias mentions a war waged by the Megareans against Thebes, in which they were assisted by the Achaeans, we may infer that it was subsequently restored (8, 50), and we know that it was taken by the Romans under Metellus (Pausan, 7, 15) and Calenus. (Plut., Vit. Brut.) Strabo also affirms (393), that Megara still existed in his time, though much reduced, as we are assured by Sulpicius, in the well-known passage of his letter to Cicero (ad Fam., 4, 5). “Post me crat Egina, ante Megara, dertra Piraeus, sinistra Corinthus ; qua, oppida guedam tempore florentissina fuerunt, nunc prostrata et diruta ante occulos jacent.” Pausanias affirms, that Megara was the only city of Greece which was not restored by Hadrian, in consequence of its inhabitants having murdered Anthemocritus, the Athenian herald (1, 36). Alarc completed the destruction of this once flourishing city. (Procop., Bell. Vand., 1, 1– Cramer's Awe. Greece, vol. 2, p. 424, seqq.)—II. A city of Sicily, founded by a colony from Megara in Greece. (Wid. Hybla, III.) Megiris, a small territory of Greece, lying to the west and northwest of Attica. Its capital was Megara. (Vid Megara ; under which head an historical sketch is given.) It was separated from Boeotia, on the north, by the range of Mount Cithaeron; and from Attica by the high land, which descends from the northwest boundary of the latter country, and terminates, on the west side of the bay of Eleusis, in two summits, formerly called Kerata, or the Horns, and now Kandili. Megaris was divided from the Corinthian territory on the west by the Onean range of mountains, through which there were only two roads from Corinth into Megaris: one of these, called the Scironian Pass, which is the steep escarpment of the mountains that terminate on the coast of the Saronic Gulf, passed by Crommyon (Strabo, 391); and along the side of the escarpment was the direct road from Corinth to Athens. This road was made wide enough, by the Emperor Hadrian, for two vehicles abreast (Pausan., 1, 40, 10), but at present it only admits a single vehicle, except in a few places (Thiersch, De l'Etat Actuel de la Grece, 2, p. 32); yet the road, on the whole, is in good condition. The other road, following the coast of the Corinthian Gulf, crossed the Geranean Mountains, which belong to the Oneian range, and led to Pegae, on the Corinthian Gulf, and thence into Boeotia.-The extreme breadth of Megaris, from Pegae to Nisaea on the Corinthian Gulf, is reckoned by Strabo at 120 stadia; and the area of the country is calculated by Mr. Clinton, from Arrowsmith's map, at 720 square miles. (Fast. Hell., vol. 2, p. 385.) Megaris is a rugged and mountainous territory, and contains only one plain of small extent, in which the capital Megara was situated. The rocks are chiefly, if not entirely, calcareous. The country is very deficient in springs. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 15, p. 64.) Megasthènes, a Greek historian and geographical writer in the age of Seleucus Nicator, king of Syria, about 300 years before Christ. He was sent by Seleucus to Palibothra in India, to renew and confirm a go." treaty with Sandrocottus, monarch of the rasii. He remained there many years, and after his return he wrote, under the title of Indica ('Ivöuká), an account of whatever he had seen or heard during his travels. His work is lost; but Strabo, Arrian, and Ælian have preserved some fragments of it. He was the first who made the western nations acquainted with the countries beyond the Ganges, and with the manners of their inhabitants. Strabo has on several occasions expressed an unfavourable opinion of the trustworthiness of Megasthenes; but still it is quite certain, that the work of the latter contained much valuable information, which was then entirely new to the Greeks. Megasthenes gave the first account of Taprobane or Ceylon. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr, vol. 3, p. 383.) Mela, Pomposius, a geographical writer, the first Latin author of a general work on this subject, and who flourished during the reign of the Emperor Claudius. He was born in Spain, of an illustrious Roman family, the Pomponii, who pretended to trace up their lineage to Numa. Some critics have thought that Mela only belonged to this family by adoption, and that he was that third son of the rhetorician Marcus Seneca to whom this writer dedicated his works; while others are inclined to regard him as the grandson of Seneca the philosopher. (Consult Tzschucke, Diss. de Pomp. Mel, c. 1.) In either of these cases, however, the word Annæus would most probably have been added to his name.—There is reason to believe that his true name was not Mela, but Mella. (Compare Voss., de Hist. Lat., 1, 25. — Fabricius, Bibl. Lat., 2, 8, p. 75, seqq.—Sare, Onomast., 1, p. 243.− Tzschucke, Diss. de Pomp. Mel.) Pomponius Mela names his native city in one passage of his work (2, 6), but the text unfortunately is so corrupt, that it is uncertain whether we ought to read Tingentera, Mellaria, Tartessus, or Tingisbera. He lived, as has been already remarked, under the Emperor Claudius, for the passage (3, 6) in which he speaks of a triumph which the emperor was upon the point of celebrating over the Britons, can only apply to that monarch. Pomponius Mela was the author of a geographical outline or abridgment, entitled “De Situ Orbis,” or, as some manuscripts read, “De Chorographia.” This work is divided into three books. After having spoken of the world in general, and given a sketch of the geography of Asia, Europe, and Africa, the writer

commences his more particular description with this latter country. Mauritania, as being the westernmost quarter, is treated of first ; from this he proceeds in an eastern direction, traverses Numidia, Africa Propria, and Cyrenaica, and then describes Egypt, which latter country he regards as forming part of Asia. From Egypt he passes into Arabia, Syria, Phoenicia, Cilicia, and the different provinces of Asia Minor.— The second book opens with European Scythia. Mela then treats of Thrace, Macedonia, and Greece. He next passes into Illyria, and from Illyria into Italy. From Italy he proceeds to Gaul, and from Gaul to Spain. He finally describes the isles of the Mediterranean.—In the third book he returns to Spain, of which he had in the previous book described merely the westernmost part; he then gives an account of the Atlantic coast of Gaul, which conducts him to Germany, and from Germany he passes to Sarmatia and to the extremity of Scythia. Having thus gone round our hemisphere, he next gives an account of the islands in the Northern Ocean, of the Eastern Ocean, of India, and of the Red Sea, including under the lastmentioned appellation the Arabian and Persian Gulfs. He next passes to Ethiopia, and concludes his work by a description of the sea which washes the western shores of Africa. —Mela did not, like Strabo, actually visit a large portion of the countries which he describes : he has followed, however, though often without citing them, the best Greek and Roman authorities, and, above all, the geographical writings of Eratosthenes: he has consulted and followed these authorities with judgment and care, and has admitted into his work only a comparatively small number of fables, which must be set down to the account of the age in which he lived, when great ignorance still prevailed in relation to some of the simplest laws of nature. The style of his narrative is marked by conciseness and precision ; he has been successful, at the same time, in avoiding the dryness of a mere nomenclature, by intermingling agreeable descriptions, physical discussions, and notices of remarkable events of which the places that he describes have been the theatre. His work, however, is not exempt from errors: sometimes, from not paying sufficient attention to the eriods when the writers whom he sollows respective|. flourished, he describes things as existing which had ceased to exist; various omissions also occur in the course of his work; no mention, for example, is made of Canna, Munda, Pharsalia, Leuctra, and Mantinea, all famous in the annals of warfare; nor of Ecbatana and Persepolis, the capitals of great empires nor of Jerusalem, to which so high a religious im, portance is attached; nor of Stagira, the native place of one of the greatest philosophers of antiquity. Like Strabo, he considers the earth as penetrated by four great inlets of the ocean, of which the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf were three ; the fourth was the Caspian Sea. This singular error as to the Caspian is the more remarkable, when contrasted with the fact that Herodotus knew the Caspian to be a lake. (Herod., 1, 203.—Strabo, 121.-Mela, 1, 1.—Id., 3, 6)—The best editions of Mela are, that of Gronovius, Lugd. Bat., 1685, 8vo, frequently reprinted, and that of Tzschucke, Lips., 1807, 7 vols. 8vo (in 3). Melampus, I. a celebrated soothsayer of Argos, son of Amythaon and Idomene, and famed also for skill in the healing art. His father resided at Pylos, but he himself lived in the country near that place. Before his house stood an oak-tree, in a hole of which abode some serpents. His servants finding these animals, killed the old ones, whose bodies Melampus burned, but he saved and reared the young ones. As he was sleeping one day, these serpents, which were now grown to full size, came, and getting each on one of his shoulders, licked his ears with their tongues. He awoke in some terror; and, to his astonishment, found that he understood the voices of the birds which were flying around him; and, learning from their tongues the future, he was enabled to declare it to mankind. Meeting Apollo on the banks of the Alpheus, he was taught by him the art of reading suturity in the entrails of victims, and he thus became an excellent soothsayer. (Apollod., 1, 9, 11.-Schol, ad Apoll. Rhod, 1, 118) Meanwhile, his brother Bias sell in love with Pero, the daughter of Neleus. As the hand of this beautiful maiden was sought by most of the neighbouring princes, her father declared that he would give her only to him, who should bring him from Thessaly the cows of his mother Tyro, which Iphiclus of Phylace detained, and which he guarded by means of a dog whom neither man nor beast could venture to approach. Bias, relying on the aid of his brother, undertook the adventure. Melampus, previously declaring that he knew he should be caught and confined for a year, but then get the cattle, set out for Phylace. Every thing fell out as he said.— The herdsman of Iphiclus took him, and he was thrown into prison, where he was attended by a man and a woman. The man served him well, the woman badly. Towards the end of the year he heard the worms in the timber conversing with one another. One asked how much of the beam was now gnawed through ; the others replied that there was little remaining. Melampus immediately desired to be removed to some other place ; the man took up the bed at the head, the woman at the foot, Melampus himself They had not got quite out of the house, when the roof fell in and killed the woman. This coming to the ears of Iphiclus, he inquired, and learned that Melampus was a soothsayer or Mantis. He therefore, being childless, consulted him about having offspring. Melampus agreed to tell him on condition of his giving him the cows. The seer, on Iphiclus assenting to his terms, then sacrificed an ox to Jupiter, and, having divided it, called all the birds to the feast. All came but the vulture; but no one of them was able to tell how Iphiclus might have children. They therefore brought the vulture, who gave the requisite information. io, became the father of a son named Podarces; and Mclampus drove the kine to Pylos, whereupon Pero was given to his brother. (Od., 11,287.-Schol., ad loc.—Od., 15, 225. —Apollod., 1, 9, 11.-Schol ad Theocr., 3, 43.)— Melampus was also famous for the cure of the daughters of Proetus, who were afflicted with insanity. For an account of this legend, consult the article Praetides. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 436, seq.)—II. A writer on divination, who lived in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus. He was the author of a treatise entitled Mavrukh trepi Tažusov, “Divination from vibrasions of the muscles,” and of another styled IIepi #2 autov rod adjuatos, “Art of divining from marks on the body.” We have only fragments remaining of these two works. The library at Vienna contains another work of this same writer's, in manuscript, on the Art of predicting from the phases of the moon. The fragments of Melampus were edited by Perusius, at the end of his AFlian, Roma, 1545, 4to, and subsequently by Sylburgius, who, in his edition of Aristotle, reunited them to the physiognomical works of that philosopher. They are to be sound also in the Scriptores Physiognomia. Veteres of Franz, Altenb., 1780, 8vo. Mel AMPYges, an epithet applied to Hercules in the Greek mythology, and connecting him with the legend of the Cercopes. These last, according to Diodorus Siculus (4, 31), dwelt in the vicinity of Ephesus, and ravaged the country far and wide, while Hercules was leading with Omphale a life of voluptuous repose. Their mother had cautioned them against one to whom the name Melampyges should apply, but they

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disregarded her warning, and the hero, having at length been roused from his inactivity, proceeded against them by order of Omphale, and, having overcome them, brought them to her in chains.—A difserent tradition placed the Cercopes in the islands facing the coast of Campania. }. according to this latter account, being engaged in his war with the Titans, came to these islands to demand succours of the Arimi. The people promised him their aid, but asterward made sport of him, whereupon the irritated deity changed them into apes (Titonkou), and from that period the islands of Inarime and Prochyta were called Pithecusae (IIuffmroical, from tritonKoç.-Wid, however, another explanation under the article Pithecusae.)—The legend of the Cercopes appears to be an astronomical one. The Lydian Hercules is the sun, pale and enfeebled at the winter solstice, and which in some sense may be said to turn its obscurer parts upon the earth; while the Cercopes, as symbols of this period of languor, crowd around and insult him. On the approach, however, of the vernal equinox, the god resumes his former energies and subjugates his foes. In like manner Jupiter, the sun of suns, overcomes and dissipates all things that tend to obscure the light and disturb the repose of the universe. (Guigniaut, vol. 2, p. 181.) Melanch LAFN1, a people near the Cimmerian Bosporus, so called from their black garments. Mannert conjectures then to have been the progenitors of the modern Russians. By later writers they are called Rhoxolani. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 134, 167.) Melanippides, I. a lyric poet, who flourished about 500 B.C. He was either, as some suppose, a native of the island of Melos, or, as others think, of the city of Miletus.—II. A poet, who lived about 446 B.C., at the court of Perdiccas II, king of Macedonia. He was the grandson of the former. Various poems are ascribed to these two individuals, and it is a difficult matter to make a division between them. They composed dithyrambics, epopees, o and songs. The younger Melanippides is placed by Plutarch in the number of those who corrupted the ancient music by the novelties which they introduced. He also composed some tragedies. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 289.) MELANippus, a son of Astacus, one of the Theban chiefs who desended the gates of Thebes against the army of Adrastus, king of Argos. He was opposed by Tydeus, whom he wounded mortally. As Tydeus lay expiring, Minerva hastened to him with a remedy which she had obtained from Jupiter, and which would make him immortal; but Amphiaraus, who hated Tydeus as the chief cause of the war, perceiving what the goddess was about, cut off the head of Melanip: pus, whom Tydeus, though wounded, had slain, and brought it to him. The savage warrior opened it and devoured the brain, and Minerva, in disgust, withheld her aid. (Bacchyl., ap. Schol ad Aristoph, Ar., 1536. —Eurip., Frag. Meleag., 18.-Keightley's Mythology, p. 479.) - Melanthius, I. an Athenian tragic poet, of inferior reputation, a contemporary of Aristophanes. He was afflicted with the leprosy, to which the comic poet alludes in the Aces (b. 151). In the Paz (v. 974) he is ridiculed for his gluttony.—II. A painter, whose na: tive country is uncertain. He was a contemporary of Apelles, and received, in connexion with him, the instructions of Pamphilus in the art of painting. (Plin; 35, 10, 36.) Quintilian particularly mentions his skill in the designs of his pictures; and Pliny observes, that he was one of those painters who, with only four colours, produced pieces worthy of immortality. Even Apelles conceded to him the palm in the arrangement or grouping of his figures. (Plin, l.c.). That his pictures were held in high estimation, is evident from

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