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ducted himself with temper and wisdom. About B.C. 396 he returned to Sparta. In the following year, on occasion of a quarrel with Thebes, he was sent into Phocis to collect contingents from the northern allies, a task for which his name and popularity rendered him peculiarly fit. Having done this, and being on his way to join the Lacedæmonian army, he was surprised and slain by the Thebans at Haliartus in Boeotia. The force which he had collected was dispersed, and the war at once came to an end, with no credit to the Lacedæmonians, B.C. 395.—It is said that, urged by ambitious hopes, he meditated a scheme for abolishing the hereditary right of the descendants of Hercules, and rendering the Spartan throne elective, and that he had tampered largely with different oracles to promote his scheme. Xenophon, however, a contemporary historian, makes no mention of this rumour. The subject has been discussed by Thirlwall, in an Appendix to the fourth volume of his History of Greece. This writer thinks that Lysander actually formed such a project; and that the same motive which induced the Spartan government to hush up the affair, would certainly have led Xenophon carefully to avoid all allusion to it. (Hist. of Gr., vol. 4, p. 461.)—We have a Life of Lysander from Plutarch, and another from Nepos. (Plut., Wit. Lys. Nep., Vit. Lys.—Xen., Hist. Gr.—Enc. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 227.)—II. One of the ephori in the reign of Agis.-III. A grandson of Lysander. (Pausan., 3, 6.)

Lysias, one of the ten Athenian orators, was born at Athens B.C. 458. His father Cephalus was a native of Syracuse, who settled at Athens during the time of Pericles. Cephalus was a person of considerable wealth, and lived on intimate terms with Pericles and Socrates; and his house is the supposed scene of the celebrated dialogues relative to Plato's Republic. Lysias, at the age of fifteen, went to Thurii in Italy, with his brother Polemarchus, at the first foundation of the colony. Here he remained for thirty-two years; but, in consequence of his supporting the Athenian interests, he was obliged to leave Italy after the failure of the Athenian expedition to Sicily He returned to Athens B.C. 411, and carried on, in partnership with his brother Polemarchus, an extensive manufactory of shields, in which they employed as many as 120 slaves. Their wealth excited the cupidity of the thirty tyrants; their house was attacked one evening by an armed force while Lysias was entertaining a few friends at supper; their property was seized, and Polemarchus was taken to prison, where he was shortly after executed (B.C. 404). Lysias, by bribing some of the soldiers, escaped to the Piraeus, and sailed thence to Megarh. He has given us a graphic account of his escape in his oration against Eratosthenes, who had been one of the thirty tyrants. Lysias actively assisted Thrasybulus in his enterprise against the Thirty; he supplied him with a large sum of money from his own resources and those of his friends, and hired a considerable body of soldiers at his own expense. In return for these services Thrasybulus proposed a decree, by which the rights of citizenship should be conferred upon Lysias; but, in consequence of some informality, this decree was never carried into effect. He was, however, allowed the peculiar privileges which were sometimes granted to resident aliens (namely, toorážeta). Lysias appears to have died about B.C. 378. –The author of the Life of Lysias attributed to Plutarch mentions 425 orations of his, 230 of which were allowed to be genuine. There remain only 34, which are all forensic, and remarkable for the method which reigns in them. The purity, the perspicuity, the grace and simplicity which characterize the orations of Lysias, would have raised him to the highest rank in the art had they been coupled with the force and energy of Demosthenes. His style is elegant without being overloaded with ornament, and always preserves its tone. In the art of narration, Dionysius of Hali

carnassus considers him superior to all orators in he. ing distinct, probable, and persuasive; but, at the same time, admits that his composition is better adapted to private litigation than to important causes. The text of his harangues, as we now have it, is extremely corrupt. His masterpiece is the funeral oration in honour of those Athenians, who, having been sent to the aid of the Corinthians under the command of Iphicrates, perished in battle. Lysias is said to have delivered only one of the orations which he wrote. According to Suidas and other ancient writers, he also wrote some treatises on the art of Oratory, which art he is said by Cicero (Brut., 12) to have taught, and also discourses on love. There is still extant a treatise on love which bears the name of Lysias, and which has been edited by Haenish, Lips., 1827; but this work evidently belongs to a much later period in Greek literature. The best edition of Lysias, for the text, is that of Bekker, in his Oratores Attici. Useful editions have also been published by Taylor, 8vo, Cantab., 1740; Auger, 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1783; Reiske, in the Corpus Oratorum Græcorum, Lips., 1772, 2 vols. 8vo; and Dobson, in the Oratores Attici, Lond., 1828, 2 vols. 8vo. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 228.Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 207.) Lysimachia, I. a city in the Thracian Chersonese, founded by Lysimachus, near the site of Cardia, then fast declining in prosperity, and the inhabitants of which latter place were transferred hither by him. (Diod. Sic., 20, 29–Scymn., Ch., 702.) On his death Lysimachia fell successively into the hands of Seleucus, and Ptolemy, and Philip of Macedon. (Polyb., 18, 34.) It afterward suffered considerably from the attacks of the Thracians, and was nearly in ruins when it was restored by Antiochus, king of Syria. (Liv., 33, 38–Polyb., 23, 34.) On the defeat of that monarch by the Romans, it was bestowed by them on Eumenes, king of Pergamus. (Polyb., 22, 5.) Lysimachia continued to exist in the time of Pliny (4, 11), and still later, in the time of Justinian. (Amm. Marcell., 22, 8–Procop., de a dif., 4, 10.) But in the middle ages the name was lost in that of Hexamilion, a fortress constructed probably out of its ruins, and so called, doubtless, from the width of the isthmus on which Lysimachia had stood. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 7, 202.-Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p 326.)—IL. A town of Ætolia, near a lake named Hydra, and between Arsinoë and Pleuron. (Strabo, 460.) Lysim Kchus, one of the officers of Alexander the Great, was born of an illustrious Macedonian family. (Justin, 15, 3.) In the general distribution of the provinces or satrapies among the chief Macedonian officers after the death of Alexander, Lysimachus received Thrace and the neighbouring countries. It was not, however, without difficulty that he obtained possession of the province which had been assigned him: he was vigorously opposed by Seuthes, king of Thrace, and other native princes, and it was some time before his power was firmly established in that country. In B.C. 314 he joined Cassander, Ptolemy, and Seleucus, in their endeavour to check the power of Antigonus; but he does not appear to have been able to take an active part against Antigonus, in consequence of the revolt of many Thracian tribes, who had been excited by the latter to make war upon him. The peace which was made between the contending parties, B.C. 311, lasted only for a short time; and the war was continued, with various success, till the conquests of Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, in Greece, roused the confederates to make more vigorous exertions; and Lysimachus accordingly marched into Asia Minor, where he took several places, and acquired immense plunder. Antigonus hastened to meet him, but could not sorce him to a battle. In the following year, Lysimachus, having formed a junction with the forces of Seleucus and the other confederates, met Antigonus : Ipsus, in 77

Phrygia, where a bloody battle was sought, in which Antigonus was slain and his army totally defeated. The dominions of Antigonus were divided among the conquerors, and Lysimachus obtained the northwestern part of Asia Minor. He shortly after married Arsinoë, the sister of Ptolemy, king of Egypt, although his eldest son Agathocles had already married Lysandra, the half sister of Arsinoë. In B.C. 286 he obtained possession of the throne of Macedon, and obliged Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who had laid claims to that country, to retire to his native dominions. Hitherto the career of Lysimachus appears to have been a fortunate one, but the latter part of his life was imbittered by family dissensions and intestine commotions. Arsinoë, fearsul lest her children should be exposed, after the death of her husband, to the violence of Agathocles, pool. Lysimachus to put him to death. Agathocles ad been an able and successful general; he was also a great favourite with the people, who deeply resented his death; and Lysimachus found himself involved in almost open war with his own subjects. Lysandra, the widow of Agathocles, fled to Babylon, and entreated Seleucus to make war against Lysimachus. The Syrian king was willing enough to take advantage of the troubled state of his rival's kingdom; but Lysimachus, anticipating his intentions, marched into Asia, and sell in a battle with the forces of Seleucus, in the seventieth year of his age according to Appian (Bell. Syr., c. 64), or in his seventy-fourth according to Justin (17, 1.—Compare Plut., Wit. Demetr.—Justin.—Pausan., 1, 9, seq.). The town of Lysimachia was founded by this monarch. (Vid. Lysimachia.--Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 228.) Lysippus, I. a celebrated sculptor and statuary, born at Sicyon, and placed by Pony in the 114th Olympiad, B.C. 324. He was contemporary, therefore, with Alexander the Great. Lysippus was at first a worker in brass, and then applied himself to the art of painting, until his talent and inclinations led him to fix upon the profession of a sculptor. He was particularly distinguished for his statues in bronze, which are said to have been superior to all other works of a similar kind. He introduced great improvements into his art, by making the head smaller, and giving the body a more easy and natural position, than was usual in the works of his predecessors. Pliny informs us, that his statues were admired, among other things, for the beautiful manner in which the hair was always executed. (Plin., 34,8.) Lysippus is said to have been self-taught, and to have attained his excellence by studying nature alone. His talents were appreciated by his contemporaries; the different cities of Greece were anxious to obtain his works; and Alexander is reported to have said, that no one should paint him but Apelles, and no one represent him in bronze except Lysippus. (Plin., 7, 37–Cic, Ep. ad Fam., 5, 12.) His reputation survived his death; many of his most valuable works were * to Rome, in which city they were held in so much esteem, that Tiberius is said to have almost excited an insurrection by removing a statue of Lysippus, called Apoxyomenos, from the warm baths of Agrippa to his own palace.—Lysippus is said to have executed 610 statues, all of the greatest merit (Plin., 34, 7), many of which were colossal figures. Pliny, Pausanias, Strabo, and Vitruvius have preserved long lists of his works; of which the most celebrated appear to have been, various statues of Alexander, executed at different periods of his life; a group of equestrian statues of those Greeks who fell at the battle of the Granicus; the Sun drawn in a chariot by four horses, at Rhodes; a colossal statue at Tarentum; a statue of Hercules, at Alyzia in Acarnania, which was afterward removed to Rome; and a statue of Oppor. tunity (kalpóc), represented as a youth, with wings on his ankles, on the point of flying from the earth.— Among the numerous pupils of Lysippus, the most

celebrated was Chares, who executed the Colossus at Rhodes. (Junius, de Pict. Wet. Catal., p. 109, seqq. —Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.–Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 228, seq.)—II. A painter, whose country is uncertain, but who appears to have been acquainted with the art of enamelling; for on one of his pictures kept at Ægina, there was inscribed the word Évéxas. (Plin., 35, ll.—Sullig, Dict. Art., s. v.) Lysis, a native of Tarentum, and member of the Pythagorean sect. He and Philolaus were the only two disciples of Pythagoras who escaped the destruction of the school of Crotona. Lysis upon this retired to Thebes, where he ended his days, and where he is said to have had the illustrious Epaminondas for a pupil. It is difficult, however, to reconcile this fact with the established chronology, although it is vouched for by the best writers. Epaminondas was born 413 B.C.; and, supposing that Lysis was only 20 years old at the death of Pythagoras, he must have been 120 years of age when Epaminondas was first old enough to profit by his instruction. In making this calculation we suppose that Pythagoras died B.C. 496. The anachronism, however, becomes still more glaring, if, with Nauze and Freret, we fix the birth of Pythagoras at B.C. 460. Supposing, on the other hand, that this philosopher was born B.C. 576, which is the other extreme, Lysis must still have been 105 years old when Epaminondas was 16. It is better, therefore, to suppose that there were two Pythagoreans named Lysis, who have been confounded by the ancient writers.To Lysis are ascribed by some the “Golden Verses” of Pythagoras. (Burette, Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscr., &c., vol. 13, p. 226.) He wrote a commentary on the doctrine of his master, and also a letter to Hipparchus of Tarentum, reproaching him for his indiscretion in having divulged the secrets of their common master. This latter production has come down to us, and may be found among the Greek epistles collected by Aldus, and also among the Pythagorean fragments in Casaubon's edition of Diogenes Laertius. , (Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 304.) Many of the MSS. and early editions of No. (Wit. Epam., c. 2), give the reading Lysiam instead of Lysim, on which variation consult the notes of Bos and Fischer. Lysistritus, a statuary of Sicyon, who flourished in the 114th Olympiad. He was the brother of the celebrated Lysippus. (Plin., 35, 12,44.) He is said to have been the first artist that made use of gypsum moulds for wax casts. (Plan., l.c.) Lystra, a city of Asia Minor, placed by Ptolemy in Isauria; but, according to Pliny, Hierocles, and the Acts of the Apostles, it belonged to Lycaonia. It was in the vicinity of Derbe. Leake has the following remarks relative to its site, which go to confirm the opinion of Ptolemy: “Lystra appears to have been nearer than Derbe to Iconium; for St. Paul, leaving that city, proceeds first to Lystra and thence to Derbe, and in like manner returns to Lystra, to Iconium, and to Antiochia of Pisidia. And this seems to agree with the arrangement of Ptolemy, who places Lystra in Isauria, and near Isaura, which seems evidently to have occupied some part of the valley of Sidy Shehr or Bey-Shehr. Under the Greek empire, Homonada, Isaura, and Lystra, as well as Derbe and Laranda, were all included in the consular province of Lycaonia, and were bishoprics of the metropolitan see of Iconium. The similarity of names induced me first to believe that Lystra was situated at the modern Illisera ; but we find, as well in the civil arrangement of the cities in Hierocles, as in two ecclesiastical lists in the Notitia Episcopatuum, that Lystra and Ilistra were distinct places. I am inclined to think that the vestiges of Lystra may be sought for, with the greatest probability of success, at or near Wiran Khatoun or Khatoun Serai, about 30 miles to the southward of Iconium.” (Journal, p. 102.)

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MacAs, I. a people of Asrica who occupied the coast to the northwest of and near the Greater Syrtis. They are thought to have been the same with those named Syrtites by Pliny. Herodotus states that they had a curious custom of leaving only a tust of hair in the centre of their head, carefully shaving the rest, and that, when they went to war, they used the skins of ostriches instead of shields (4, 175). The river Cinyps flowed through their territory. (Compare Diod. Sic., 3, 48.)—II. A people of Arabia Deserta, on a pro}. of land where the Sinus Persicus is narrowest. tolemy calls the promontory Assabo ; its modern name, however, Cape Mussendon, bears some faint resemblance to that of the Macae. (Bischoff und Möller, Wörterb. der Geogr., s. v.) MacArtis, an ancient name of Crete. Macedonia, a country of Europe, lying to the west of Thrace, and north and northeast of Thessaly. The boundaries of this country varied at different times. When Strabo wrote, Macedonia included a considerable part of Illyria and Thrace; but Macedonia Proper may be considered as separated from Thessaly, on the south, by the Cambunian Mountains; from Illyria, on the west, by the great mountain chain called Scardus and Bernus, and which, under the name of Pindus, also separates Thessaly from Epirus; from Moesia, on the north, by the mountains called Orbelus and Scomius, which run at right angles to Scardus ; and from Thrace, on the east, by the river Strymon. The Macedonia of Herodotus, however, was still more limited, as is afterward mentioned. Macedonia Proper, as defined above, is watered by three rivers of considerable size, the Axius, Lydias, and Hallacmon, all which flow into the Sinus Thermaicus, the modern Gulf of Saloniki. The whole of the district on the seacoast, and to a considerable distance into the interior, between the Axius and the Haliacmon, is very low and marshy.—The origin and early history of the Macedonians are involved in much obscurity. Some moderns have attempted, against all probability, to derive the name from the Kittim mentioned in the old Testament (Gen. 10, 4.—Numb. 24, 24.—Jer. 2, 10.Ezek. 27, 6.—Dan. 11, 30). This opinion appears to have ariscn, in part, from the description of the country inhabited by the Kittim, which is supposed to answer to Macedonia; but still more from the fact, that, in the book of Maccabees, Alexander the Great is said to have come from the land of Cheittieim (£4. rijc yńs Xetrtuetu, 1 Macc. 1, 1), and Perses is called king of the Kittians (Kurruéany, 1 Macc. 8, 5).-In inquiring into the early history of the Macedonians, two questions, which are frequently confounded, ought to be carefully kept distinct, namely, the origin of the Macedonian people, and that of the Macedonian monarchy under the Temenidae ; for, while there is abundant reason for believing that the Macedonian princes were descended from an Hellenic race, it appears probable that the Macedonians themselves were an Illyrian pcople, though the country must also have been inhabited in very early times by many Hellenic tribes. The Greeks themselves always regarded the Macedonians as barbarians, that is, as a people not of Hellenic origin; and the similarity of the manners and customs, as well as the languages, as far as they are known, of the early Macedonians and Illyrians, appear to establish the identity of the two nations. In the time of Herodotus, the name of Macedonis comprehended only the country to the south and west of the Lydias, for he observes that Macedonis was separated from Bottiaeis by the united mouth of the Lydias and Haliacmon (Herod., 7, 127). How far inland Herodotus conceived o Macedonia extended, does not appear 5

from his narrative.—According to many ancient writers, Macedonia was anciently called Emathia (Plin., 4, 17.-Justin, 7, 1.-Aul. Gell., 14, 6); but we also find traces of the name Macedonians, from the earliest times, under the ancient forms of Macetae (MakéTau), and Macedni (Maked vot). They appear to have dwelt originally in the southwestern part of Macedonia, near Mount Pindus. Herodotus says that the Dorians dwelling under Pindus were called Macedonians (1, 56.-Compare 8, 43); and, although it may for many reasons be doubted whether the Macedonians had any particular connexion with the Dorians, it may be inferred, from the statement of Herodotus, that the Macedonians once dwelt at the foot of Pindus, whence they emigrated in a northeasterly direction.—The origin of the Macedonian dynasty is a subject of some intricacy and dispute. There is one point, however, on which all the ancient authorities agree; namely, that the royal family of that country was of the race of the Temenidae of Argos. The difference of opinion principally regards the individual of that family to whom the honour of founding this monarchy is to be ascribed. The account of Herodotus seems most worthy of being received. According to this writer, three brothers named Gavanes, Aéropus, and Perdiccas, descended from Temenus, left Argos, their native place, in quest of fortune, and, arriving in Illyria, passed thence into Upper Macedonia, where, after experiencing some singular adventures, which Herodotus details, they at length succeeded in acquiring possession of a principality, which devolved on Perdiccas, the youngest of the brothers, who is therefore considered, both by Herodotus (8, 137) and Thucydides (2,99), as the founder of the Macedonian dynasty. These writers have also recorded the names of the succes. sors of this prince, though there is little to interest the reader in their history.—Before the time of Philip, father of Alexander, all the country beyond the river Strymon, and even the Macedonian peninsula from Amphipolis to Thessalonica, belonged to Thrace, and Paeonia likewise on the north. Philip conquered this peninsula, and all the country to the river Nessus and Mount Rhodope; as also Paeonia and Illyria beyond Lake Lychnitis. Thus the widest limits of Macedonia were from the AEgean Sea to the Ionian, where the Drino formed its boundary. The provinces of Macedonia in the time of Philip amounted to nineteen. Macedonia first became powerful under this monarch, who, taking advantage of the strength of the country and the warlike disposition of the inhabitants, reduced Greece, which was distracted by intestine broils, in the battle of Chaeronea. His son Alexander subdued Asia, and by an uninterrupted series of victories for ten successive years, made Macedonia, in a short time, the mistress of half the world. After his death, this immense empire was divided. Macedonia received anew its ancient limits, and, after several battles, lost its dominion over Greece. The alliance of Philip II. with Carthage, during the second Punic war, gave occasion to this catastrophe. The Romans delayed their revenge for a season; but, Philip having laid siege to Athens, the Athenians called the Romans to their aid; the latter declared war against Macedonia; Philip was compelled to sue for peace, to surrender his vessels, to reduce his army to 500 men, and defray the expenses of the war. Perseus, the successor of Philip, having taken up arms against Rome, was totally defeated at Pydna by Paulus AEmilius, and the Romans took possession of the country. ... Indignant at their oppression, the Macedonian nobility and the whole nation rebelled under Andriscus; but, after a long struggle, they were overcome by Quintus Caecilius, surnamed, from his conquest, Macedonicus; the nobility were exiled, and the country became a Roman province B.C. 148. It is very difficult, however, to determine the boundaries of this * of Macedonia. According to the “Epitomizer” of Strabo (lib. 7), it was bounded by the Adriatic on the west; on the north by the mountains of Scardus, Orbelus, Rhodope, and Haemus ; on the south by the Via Egnatia; while on the east it extended as far as Cypsela and the mouth of the Hebrus. But this statement with respect to the southern boundary of Macedonia cannot be correct, since we know that the province of Macedonia was bounded on the south by that of Achaia; and although it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to fix the precise boundaries of these provinces, yet it does not appear that Achaia extended farther north than the south of Thessaly.—Macedonia now forms part of Turkey in Europe, under the name of Makedonia or Filiba Vilajeti, and contains about

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700,000 inhabitants, consisting of Walachians, Turks,

Greeks, and Albanians. The southeastern part is under the pacha of Saloniki; the northern under beys or agas, or forms free communities. The capital Saloniki, the ancient Thessalonica, is a commercial town, and contains 70,000 inhabitants.-Ancient Macedonia was a mountainous and woody region, the riches of which consisted chiefly in mines of gold and silver; the coasts, however, produced corn, wine, oil, and fruits. Modern Macedonia is said to possess a soil more fruitful than the richest plains of Sicily, and there are few districts in the world so fertile as the coast of Athos or the ancient Chalcidice. The land in the valleys of Panomi and Cassandria, when grazed by the lightest plough, yields, it is said, a more abundant harvest than the finest fields in the department between the Eure and the Loire, or the granary of France; if the wheat in its green state be not browsed by sheep or cut with the scythe, it perishes by too much luxuriance. Maceconia is also famous for its cotton and tobacco, and its wines are some of them equal to those of Burgundy. (Malte-Brun, Geogr, vol. 6, p. 156, seqq., Eng. transl. —Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 164, seqq.— Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 241.)--For a list of the ancient kings of Macedonia, with remarks on their reign, consult Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, p. 221, seqq., 2d ed. Macer, I. a Latin poet, a native of Verona. He was the author of a poem on birds, entitled Ornithogonia, and of another on snakes, under the title of Theriaca. This last was an imitation, in some degree, of the Theriaca of Nicander. (Quint., Inst. Or., 10, 1, 56.-Spalding, ad Quint., Inst. Or., 6, 3, 96.) We have no remains of either of these works. The poem De Herbarum virtutibus, commonly ascribed to him, is now regarded as a production of the middle ages. (Gyrald, Dial, 4, p. 217, seqq. Broukhus., ad Tibull, p. 274.—Weesenmyer, Bibliogr. Analekt., p. 84.)—II. A friend of Ovid's, who wrote a continuation of the Iliad, and also an Antehomerica. He has been frequently confounded with the preceding, but flourished, in truth, at a later period. The former died in Asia, B.C. 17. (Compare the remarks of Wernsdorff, Poet. Lat. Min., vol. 4, p. 579, seqq.) MAchANIDAs, a powerful tyrant of Sparta, whose views at one time extended to the subjugation of all Peloponnesus. He was defeated and slain by Philopoemen in battle near Mantinea. (Plut., Vit. Philop.) MAchAon, a celebrated physician, son of AEsculapius, and brother to Podalirius. He went to the Trojan war, where his skill in surgery and the ". art proved of #. service to his countrymen. Machaon was one of those shut up in the wooden horse, and is by some supposed to have fallen on the night that Troy was taken. He received divine honours after death, and had a temple erected to him. (Hom., Il., 2, 731. — Virg., AEn, 2, 263.)—Schwenck derives the name from the old verb uáxw, the root of unravà, and makes it denote one who is skilful with the hand. (Andeut., p. 206.) “Machaon,” observes the President Goguet (Origin of Laws, &c., vol. 2, p. 267,

Eng. transl.), “was himself a very able physician. He was a soldier as well as a physician. He was wounded dangerously in the shoulder in a sally which the Trojans had made. Nestor immediately brought him back to his tent. Scarce are they entered there, before Machaon took a drink mixed with wine, in which they had put the scrapings of cheese and barley-flour. (Il., 11, 506, seqq.) What ill effects must not this mixture produce, since wine alone is very opposite to the healing of wounds! The meats which Machaon afterward used (Il., 11, 629) do not appear in any way proper for the state in which he found himself. In another part of the Iliad (4, 218) Menelaus is wounded with an arrow : they make Machaon immediately come to heal him. The son of Æsculapius, after having considered the wound, sucks the blood, and puts on it a dressing to appease the pain. Homer does not specify what entered into that dressing. It was only composed, according to all appearances, of some bitter roots. This conjecture is founded on the following circumstance: in the description which the poet gives of the healing of such a wound, he says expressly that they applied to the wound the juice of a bitter herb bruised (11,845). It appears that this was the only remedy which they knew. The virtue of these plants is to be styptic.” To what is here said may be added the remarks of an eminent physician of our own country. “It appears that the practice of Machaon and Podalirius was very much confined to the removal of the darts and arrows with which wounds had been inflicted, and afterward to the application of fomentations and styptics to the wounded parts; for, when the heroes recorded by Homer were in other respects severely injured, as in the case of Æneas, whose thigh-bone was broken by a stone thrown by Diomede, he makes no mention of any other than supernatural means employed for their relief.” (Hosack's Medical Essays, vol. 1, p. 38.) MAcRA, a river flowing from the Apennines, and dividing Liguria from Etruria, now the Magra. (Lucan, 2, 426.-Liv., 39, 32.) The Arnus formed the southern boundary of Liguria until the reign of Augustus. (Plin., 3, 5.) MacR1RNus, Titus Fulvius Julius, a Roman, who, from a private soldier, rose to the highest command in the army, and proclaimed himself emperor when Walerian had been made prisoner by the Persians, A.D. 260. He is one of the so-called “thirty tyrants” of later Roman history, but appears to have been, as far as we can judge from his brief period of authority, an able prince. Macrianus was proclaimed emperor along with his two sons Macrianus (Junior) and Quietus. When he had supported his dignity for a year in the eastern parts of the world, Macrianus marched towards Rome to crush Gallienus, who had been proclaimed emperor. He was defeated in Illyricum by the lieutenant of Gallienus, and put to death with his elder son, A.D. 262. (Treb. Poll., Wit. Macrian.) Macrinus, I. M. Opilius Severus, a native of Mauritania, was praetorian prefect under Caracalla, whom he accompanied in his expedition against the Parthians, and caused to be murdered on the march. Macrinus was immediately proclaimed emperor by the army, A.D. 217, and his son Diadumenianus, who was at Åntioch, was made Caesar; both elections were confirmed by the senate. Macrinus, after a battle with the Parthians near Nisibis, concluded peace with them. On his return to Antioch he reformed many abuses introduced by Caracalla. But his excessive severity displeased the soldiers, and an insurrection, excited by Moesa, the aunt of Caracalla, broke out against Macrinus, who, being defeated near Antioch, fled as far as Chalcedon, where he was arrested and put to death, A.D. 218, after a reign of about 14 months. His son Diadumenianus shared his sate. He was succeeded by Heliogabalus. (Jul. Capitol, Wit. Macrin.

—Herodian, 4, 12, 2, seqq.)—II. A friend of the poet Persius, to whom his second satire is inscribed. They had been fellow-students under Servilius Numanus. (Lemaire, ad Pers., Sat., 2, 1.) MacRobii, a people of Æthiopia, highly celebrated in antiquity, and whom Herodotus has copiously described. An expedition was undertaken against them by Cambyses, and in this way they have obtained a name in history. A rumour of the vast quantity of gold which they possessed determined Cambyses to march against them. He sent, however, beforehand some spies into their country, from the nation of the Ichthyophagi, as they understood their language. The accounts, which the neighbouring people gave, represented the Macrobii as a tall and beautiful race, who had their own laws and institutions, and elected the tallest among them to the dignity of king. The Ichthyophagi, on asking the monarch of the Macrobians, to whom they brought presents as if ambassadors from byses, for what length of time his subjects lived, were told for the space of 120 years, and sometimes longer. Hence the name given them by the Greek writers of Macrobii (Makpótool, “long-lived”). Gold was the metal in commonest use among them, even for the setters of their prisoners. Herodotus adds, that Cambyses, on the return of his spies, immediately marched against the Macrobii, but was compelled to return, from want of provisions, before he had proceeded a fifth part of the way. (Herod., 3, 17, seqq.)—Bruce takes the Macrobii for a tribe of the Shangallas, dwelling in the lower part of the gold countries, Cuba and Nuba, on both sides of the Nile, to the north of Fazukla. (Travels, vol. 2, p. 554, seqq.) Heeren, however, more correctly thinks, that the people in question are to be sought for farther south, in another region. None of the Shangallas, that we know of, live in cities, or have reached that degree of civilization imputed to the Macrobii. He thinks it probable, therefore, that the Macrobii of Herodotus should be sought for on the coast, or in one of the ports of Adel, and in the vicinity of Cape Guardesui. This would place them in the country of the Somaulies, who are, perhaps, their descendants. (Heeren, Ideen, vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 333, seqq.) Macrobius, I. a Latin writer, who flourished in the first half of the fifth century, under Theodosius the Younger. His full name is Aurelius Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius. (FuncC., de veget. L. L. senect., 4, 27. Fabric., Bib. Lat., vol. 3, p. 180.) As he was not a Roman by birth, and seeks in this an excuse for his Latin style (Sat., 1, 1), he has been regarded by some critics as a native of Greece. (Fabric., l.c., in notis.) In the manuscripts he bears the title of Vir Consularis et illustris; and from this some have concluded, that he is the same with the Macrobius mentioned in a law of the Theodosian code (lib. 6, tit. 8) as Praefectus sacri cubiculi, or chamberlain of the royal bedchamber. Other critics have remarked, however, that this office was commonly given to eunuchs, and that Macrobius the writer had a son. It is also uncertain whether Macrobius was a Christian or not. The supposition that he held the office of chamberlain under a Christian emperor has been the chief, or, perhaps, the only ground for imagining him to have been a Christian, since the language of his writings and the interlocutors in the dialogues are entirely heathen. (Consult Mahul, Dissertation sur la Vie, &c., de Macrobe. Class. Journ., vol. 20, p. 110.)—The works of Macrobius are three in number: 1. Commentariorum in Somnium Scipionis libri duo. This work is addressed to his son Eustathius. Besides an explanatory view of the Somnium Scipionis of Cicero, it contains much information respecting the opinions of the later Platonists on the laws which govern the earth and the other parts of the universe. There is a Greek version by Maxumus Planudes, which was first published, from the MS in the King's

Library at Paris, by Hess, Hal., 1833, 8vo. Some critics have thought that the commentary we have just been considering ought to be regarded as a part of the second work of this writer, of which we are going to speak, and from which it has been detached through the carelessness of the early editors. There seems no good reason for this opinion.—2. Saturnalium conviviorum libri septem. Likewise addressed to his son. This is a compilation after the manner of the Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius: it has, however the dialogue form, and is supposed to be the transcript of a conversation which took place at table during the celebration of the Saturnalia. The principal interlocutors are a certain Vectius Praetextatus, Q. Aurelius Symmachus and his brother Flavianus, Caecinna Decius Albinus, Avienus, a physician, a grammarian, &c. It contains discussions of a great variety of historical and mythological topics, explanations of many passages of ancient authors, remarks on the manners and customs of the Romans, &c. An idea of the general nature of the work may be formed from the titles of some of the chapters: Of the origin of some Roman words.—Of the origin of the Saturnalia.-Of the Roman year and its divisions.—Proof that all the gods of fable were originally symbols of the sun.—Of Cicero's bons mots.-Of Augustus.-Of Julia.-Details on the luxury of the Romans.—Observations on the AEneid, and a comparison between Virgil and Homer. Why those who turn round are attacked with vertigoes.—Why women have softer voices than men.— Why shame makes one blush.-Why bodies plunged in water appear larger than they really are, &c. Many things in Macrobius are drawn from Aulus Gellius, and some from Plutarch.-3. The third work of Macrobius treated of the difference between the Greek and Latin languages, and also of their analogy : De differentiis et societatibus Graci Latinique Verbi. We have only an extract from this, made by one Joannes, supposed to be the same with the celebrated Joannes Scotus, who lived in the time of Charles the Bald. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 3, p. 322, seqq.--Bühr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., p. 724, seqq.) The best edition of Macrobius is that of Gronovius, Lugd. Bat., 1670, 8vo. The edition of Zeune, Lips., 1774, 8vo, has a very faulty text, but very useful and extensive notes. The text is a careless reprint of that of Gronovius. The Bipont edition, 1788, 2 vols. 8vo, has no notes, but a very correct text. The Notitia Literaria prefixed is also very useful.—II. An ecclesiastical writer, who lived in the sixth century. He was at first a priest of the Catholic church in Africa, but afterward made common cause with the Donatists. We have a fragment remaining of a letter of his to the people of Carthage, but nothing exists of a treatise which he wrote while yet belonging to the orthodox persuasion, entitled “Ad confessores et virgines.” MacRöNes, a nation of Asia, occupying the northern parts of Armenia, probably between the town of Arze and the coast of the Euxine. They are mentioned in the Anabasis as one of the nations through whose territories the Greeks marched. The Macrones are called Macrocephali by Scylax (p. 33), but Pliny seems to distinguish them as two different people (6, 4). Herodotus informs us that the Macrones used circumcision, having, as they themselves reported, derived the practice from the Colchians. (Herod., 2, 104.) The natural inference to be drawn from this passage is, that the Macrones were of Colchian origin. Strabo affirms, that this people were in his time no longer called by their ancient appellation, but were named Sanni (Strab., 548); and Eustathius, who confirms this statement, writes the word Tzani, according to the more modern Greek orthography (ad Dionys. Perieg., 766). Cramer thinks, that the modern name of Djanik is a corruption of Sannice. (Asia Minor, vol.

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